Neighborhoods and Health

Author: Ichiro Kawachi
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199747924
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Do places make a difference to people's health and well-being? The authors of this groundbreaking textbook demonstrate convincingly how the physical and social characteristics of a neighborhood can shape the health of its residents. Drawing on the expertise of a renowned cast of researchers, this book presents a state-of-the art account of the theories, methods, and empirical evidence linking neighborhood conditions to population health. Represented in the volume are contributions from the world's leading investigators in the field, including social epidemiologists, demographers, medical geographers, sociologists, and medical practitioners. This comprehensive textbook lays out for the first time the methodological approaches to conducting neighborhood research, including multi-level and contextual analysis, geocoding and the use of small area-based measures of deprivation, as well as the evolving science of "ecometrics." Substantive chapters present the case for the relevance of neighborhood effects on health outcomes throughout the life cycle, from infant mortality and low birthweight, to childhood asthma, adult infectious diseases, and disability in old age. The approaches covered in the book range from testing the linkages between community-level variables, such as social capital and residential segregation, and population health to designing and implementing community interventions and policies to improve the health of the public. The book is a timely companion volume to Social Epidemiology (Oxford University Press, 2000), edited by the same authors, and an indispensable manual on neighborhood research for students, researchers, and practitioners.

Neighborhoods and Health

Author: Dustin T. Duncan
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190843519
Format: PDF, Docs
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THE GROUNDBREAKING, FORMATIVE WORK IN SPATIAL EPIDEMIOLOGY -- NOW UPDATED FOR A NEW GENERATION OF RESEARCH AND PRACTICE IN PUBLIC HEALTH In 2003, Neighborhoods and Health codified the idea that a neighborhood's social and physical makeup can influence the health of people who live in it. More than a decade later, with the relationship between place and health firmly entrenched at the center of how we understand public health (and as its own scientific discipline, spatial epidemiology), this second edition of the landmark text offers another giant leap forward for the field. Offering both a synthesis of the essential research and a practical overview of the methods used to garner it, the second edition of Neighborhoods and Health is the essential guide to understanding this core component of contemporary population health -- both the journey to date and what's next.

Communities Neighborhoods and Health

Author: Linda M. Burton
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441974822
Format: PDF, Docs
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Place is an important element in understanding health and health care disparities. More that merely a geographic location, place is a socio-ecological force with detectable effects on social life, independent well-being, and health. Despite the general enthusiasm for the study of place and the potential it could have for a better understanding of the distribution of health in different communities, research is at a difficult crossroads because of disagreements in how the construct should be conceptualized and measured. This edited volume incorporates an cross-disciplinary approach to the study of place, in order to come up with a comprehensive and useful definition of place. Topics covered include: Social Inequalities, Historical Definitions of Place, Biology and Place, Rural vs. Urban Places, Racialization of a Place, Migration, Sacred Places, Technological Innovations An understanding of place is essential for health care professionals, as interventions often do not have the same effects in the clinic as they do in varied, naturalistic social settings.

Neighborhoods and Health

Author: Jennifer Williams Robinette
Publisher:
ISBN: 9781321964899
Format: PDF
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Sociologists have documented associations between objective, socioeconomic characteristics of neighborhoods and residents's health. Recently, psychologists have been interested in how environmental perceptions are similarly related to health. In this dissertation, objective socioeconomic status (SES) and subjective perceptions of neighborhood safety and perceptions of cohesion among neighbors were assessed for both their relations with daily aspects of well-being, and with indicators of cumulative physiological risk for later morbidity and mortality. In Study 1, relations between these neighborhood features and daily aspects of affective and physical well-being, as well as affective and physical reactivity to daily stressors, were examined. In Study 2, allostatic load, a composite measure of an individual's physiological functioning, was assessed in relation to these neighborhood features. Lastly in Study 3, trait levels of emotionality's traits describing people's general responses to social tension's were examined as a possible source of variability, or risk and resiliency factors, in the context of these neighborhood features. Results indicated that poor neighborhood social climates (low SES, perceptions of low safety and perceptions of low cohesion) were related to poorer affective and physiological outcomes. Moreover, higher levels of positive emotionality buffered, and higher levels of negative emotionality exacerbated poor neighborhood social climates for physiological functioning. Although researchers have documented associations between neighborhood features and chronic health conditions, these results suggest that examining daily and physiological profiles of health in relation to neighborhood contexts may assist in identifying individuals "at risk" for later health problems.

Handbook of Urban Health

Author: Sandro Galea
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387258221
Format: PDF, ePub
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The editors are two of the most prominent researchers in this area. Both are at the Center for Urban Epidemiologic Studies. David Vlahov is particularly visible and known as the editor of the Journal of Urban Health. Sandro Galea is very prominent for his research on urban health; in particularly, research done on PTSD and children post-9/11. Thorough analysis of different populations in urban settings and specific health considerations Useful section on methods for the research audience. Applied in nature with section on prevention and interventions There are over 100 urban health centers in North America and there are no thorough, up-to-date ressources.

Medical Geography

Author: Melinda S. Meade
Publisher: Guilford Press
ISBN: 1606230166
Format: PDF, Docs
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The leading text in the field, this book provides a comprehensive introduction to geographic approaches to studying disease and promoting health. It presents cutting-edge techniques of spatial and social analysis and explores their relevance for understanding cultural and political ecology, disease systems, and public health issues across the globe. Essential topics include how new diseases emerge and epidemics develop in particular places; the intersecting influences on health of biological processes, culture, environment, and behavior; and the changing landscape of health care planning and service delivery. The text is richly illustrated with tables, figures, and maps, including 16 color plates. New to This Edition: thoroughly updated in response to the challenges of globalization, development, and demographic changes incorporates the latest data and conceptual frameworks chapters on neighborhood analysis and the use of GIS in modeling health and disease GIS applications and examples are integrated throughout. This book will be important reading for students and instructors in geography, public health, epidemiology, international health policy and planning, medical sociology, and related fields. It will also serve as a primary text in advanced undergraduate- and graduate-level courses such as Medical Geography and Health Geography.

Geographies of Health

Author: Anthony C. Gatrell
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118274857
Format: PDF, Docs
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Setting out the debates and reviewing the evidence that links health outcomes with social and physical environments, this new edition of the well-established text offers an accessible overview of the theoretical perspectives, methodologies, and research in the field of health geography Includes international examples, drawn from a broad range of countries, and extensive illustrations Unique in its approach to health geography, as opposed to medical geography New chapters focus on contemporary concerns including neighborhoods and health, ageing, and emerging infectious disease Offers five new case studies and an fresh emphasis on qualitative research approaches Written by two of the leading health geographers in the world, each with extensive experience in research and policy

The Safety Net Health Care System

Author: Gunnar Almgren, MSW, PhD
Publisher: Springer Publishing Company
ISBN: 0826105726
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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"This is the only book currently available that fully addresses all aspects of the safety net for healthcare." Score: 96, 4 Stars--Doody's Medical Reviews "[T]his complex treatment of a complex topic represents a valuable contribution to the health services literature."--INQUIRY "The Safety-Net Health Care System offers a road map to help safety-net providers overcome personal prejudices, understand why certain patients become ìdifficultî or fail to adhere to treatment, and deal with the stress of working in safety-net environments."--Health Affairs A unique and authoritative guide to the US safety-net health care system, this book addresses how various populations and their difficult health and socio-economic issues are dealt with and impacted by the system. Drs. Gunnar Almgren and Taryn Lindhorst, experts in the fields of social work and public health, provide critical, much-needed insight into the safety-net system and how the recession, unemployment, and reform have accelerated its growth. Ideal for graduate students and early professionals in the health professions, this textbook: Includes narratives from patients and caregivers that help readers understand and empathize with the poor, homeless, and other vulnerable populations affected by the safety-net system Discusses various health issues, including: violence, chronic diseases, mental illness, victimization, and substance abuse/addiction Examines overlaps in US public health, social work, nursing, and medical education Analyzes the differences between the populations that depend on safety-net system providers and more advantaged populations that have access to the mainstream health care system

A Life Course Approach to Healthy Ageing

Author: Diana Kuh
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191008184
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Healthy ageing has long been a neglected area of epidemiological research as the traditional focus has been on specific chronic diseases of older life. There is a growing consensus from scientists, research funders and policy makers that ageing itself needs to be studied from an interdisciplinary and life course perspective, to inform strategies for reducing the societal and individual costs of an ageing population. A Life Course Approach to Healthy Ageing is a synthesis of life course perspectives in epidemiology and interdisciplinary perspectives in ageing research. It brings together expert investigators of maturing birth cohort and ageing studies, cross-cutting methodologists, and authorities in ageing research and knowledge transfer from across the world in one wide-ranging volume. Contributors discuss how aspects of healthy ageing are conceptualised, defined and measured; relate to each other; change across life; and are influenced by biological, psychological and social factors operating from early life onwards. They identify research gaps, and suggest how evidence from observational studies can be strengthened through improved study design and longitudinal analysis, thereby increasing the research contribution to practice or policy change. The book considers how we might delay or slow down the progressive, generalised impairment of function that occurs at the individual, body system and cellular levels, as people grow older. It also considers the determinants of wellbeing in older people, including personal fulfilment, positive emotions and social relationships. Broad in scope, discussing topics from genetics to psychological and social wellbeing, A Life Course Approach to Healthy Ageing is a key resource for epidemiologists, social scientists, clinicians, public health physicians, policy makers and practitioners with a research interest in healthy ageing.