Neuroanatomy of Language Regions of the Human Brain

Author: Michael Petrides
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0124059317
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Many studies of the neural bases of language processes are now conducted with functional and structural neuroimaging. Research is often compromised because of difficulties in identifying the core structures in the face of the complex morphology of these regions of the brain. Although there are many books on the cognitive aspects of language and also on neurolinguistics and aphasiology, Neuroanatomy of Language Regions of the Human Brain is the first anatomical atlas that focuses on the core regions of the cerebral cortex involved in language processing. This atlas is a richly illustrated guide for scientists interested in the gross morphology of the sulci and gyri of the core language regions, in the cytoarchitecture of the relevant cortical areas, and in the connectivity of these areas. Data from diffusion MRI and resting-state connectivity are integrated iwth critical experimental anatomical data about homologous areas in the macaque monkey to provide the latest information on the connectivity of the language-relevant cortical areas of the brain. Although the anatomical connectivity data from studies on the macaque monkey provide the most detailed information, they are often neglected because of difficulties in interpreting the terminology used and in making the monkey-to-human comparison. This atlas helps investigators interpret this important source of information. Neuroanatomy of Language Regions of the Human Brain will assist investigators of the neural bases of language in increasing the anatomical sophistication of their research adn in evaluating studies of language and the brain. Abundantly illustrated with photographs, 3-D MRI reconstructions, and sections to represent the morphology of the sulci and gyri in the frontal, temporal, and parietal regions involved in language processing Photomicrographs showing the cytoarchitecture of cortical areas involved in language processing Series of coronal, sagittal, and horizontal sections identifying the sulci and gyri to assist language investigators using structural and functional neuroimaging techniques All images accompanied by brief commentaries to help users navigate the complexities of the anatomy Integration of data from diffusion MRI and resting-state connectivity with critical experimental anatomical data on the connectivity of homologous areas in the macaque monkey

Evolutionary Anatomy of the Primate Cerebral Cortex

Author: Dean Falk
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 131658271X
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Studies of brain evolution have moved rapidly in recent years, building on the pioneering research of Harry J. Jerison. This book provides reviews of primate (including human) brain evolution. The book is divided into two sections, the first gives new perspectives on the developmental, physiological, dietary and behavioural correlates of brain enlargement. It has long been recognized, however, that brains do not merely enlarge globally as they evolve, but that their cortical and internal organization also changes in a process known as reorganization. Species-specific adaptations therefore have neurological substrates that depend on more than just overall brain size. The second section explores these neurological underpinnings for the senses, adaptations and cognitive abilities that are important for primates. With a prologue by Stephen J. Gould and an epilogue by Harry J. Jerison, this is an important reference work for all those working on brain evolution in primates.

Broca s Region

Author: Yosef Grodzinsky
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0195177649
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Paul Broca, the discoverer of Broca's region, was one of the first scientists to equate a significant piece of behaviour - articulated language - with a piece of neural tissue. This text creates a coherent, novel picture of the state of contemporary knowledge on the structure and function of the region.

Handbook of the Neuroscience of Language

Author: Brigitte Stemmer
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0080564917
Format: PDF, Kindle
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In the last ten years the neuroscience of language has matured as a field. Ten years ago, neuroimaging was just being explored for neurolinguistic questions, whereas today it constitutes a routine component. At the same time there have been significant developments in linguistic and psychological theory that speak to the neuroscience of language. This book consolidates those advances into a single reference. The Handbook of the Neuroscience of Language provides a comprehensive overview of this field. Divided into five sections, section one discusses methods and techniques including clinical assessment approaches, methods of mapping the human brain, and a theoretical framework for interpreting the multiple levels of neural organization that contribute to language comprehension. Section two discusses the impact imaging techniques (PET, fMRI, ERPs, electrical stimulation of language cortex, TMS) have made to language research. Section three discusses experimental approaches to the field, including disorders at different language levels in reading as well as writing and number processing. Additionally, chapters here present computational models, discuss the role of mirror systems for language, and cover brain lateralization with respect to language. Part four focuses on language in special populations, in various disease processes, and in developmental disorders. The book ends with a listing of resources in the neuroscience of language and a glossary of items and concepts to help the novice become acquainted with the field. Editors Stemmer & Whitaker prepared this book to reflect recent developments in neurolinguistics, moving the book squarely into the cognitive neuroscience of language and capturing the developments in the field over the past 7 years. History section focuses on topics that play a current role in neurolinguistics research, aphasia syndromes, and lesion analysis Includes section on neuroimaging to reflect the dramatic changes in methodology over the past decade Experimental and clinical section reflects recent developments in the field

Animal Models of Speech and Language Disorders

Author: Santosh A. Helekar
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461484006
Format: PDF
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Basic research over the last decade or two has uncovered similarities between speech, especially its sensori-motor aspects, and vocal communication in several non-human species. The most comprehensive studies so far have been conducted in songbirds. Songbirds offer us a model system to study the interactions between developmental or genetic predispositions and tutor-dependent influences, on the learning of vocal communication. Songbird research has elucidated cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying learning and production of vocal patterns, perception of vocal sounds, vocal motor control and vocal neuromotor plasticity. More recently, the entire genome of the songbird zebra finch has been sequenced. These discoveries, along with the identification of several genes implicated in familial human speech and language disorders, have made it possible to look for analogues of speech and language dysfunction in zebra finches, at least at the perceptual and sensori-motor levels. Two approaches in particular have led us closer to the development of animal models of human speech conditions, namely developmental stuttering and a familial verbal dyspraxia associated with a mutation in the gene for the transcription factor FoxP2. Work on other animals that show developmental sensori-motor learning of vocal sounds used for communication have also shown significant progress, leading to the possibility of development of models of speech and language dysfunction in them. Among mammals, the principal ones include dolphins and whales. In non-human primates, while vocal learning per se is not very prominent, investigations on their communicative abilities have thrown some light on the rudiments of language. These considerations make the publication of a book focused on animal models of speech and language disorders, detailing the overall investigative approach of neurobehavioral studies in animals capable of vocal communication and learned vocalizations, a much-needed and worthwhile project. It would serve as a unifying review of research in this new multidisciplinary frontier, spanning the molecular to the behavioral, for clinicians and researchers, as well as a teaching resource for advanced speech pathology and neuroscience students. This book will also be the first of its kind.

Anatomy Physiology for Speech Language and Hearing

Author: J. Anthony Seikel
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 130568799X
Format: PDF, Mobi
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ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY FOR SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING, Fifth Edition, provides a solid foundation in anatomical and physiological principles relevant to communication sciences and disorders. Ideal for speech-language pathology and audiology students, as well as practicing clinicians, the text integrates clinical information with everyday experiences to reveal how anatomy and physiology relate to the speech, language, and hearing systems. Combining comprehensive coverage with abundant, full-color illustrations and a strong practical focus, the text makes complex material approachable even for students with little or no background in anatomy and physiology. Thoroughly updated to reflect current trends, techniques, and best practices, the Fifth Edition of this acclaimed text is supported by innovative Anatesse learning software—now accessible online via PC, Mac, and tablet devices—featuring tutorials, interactive quizzes, and other resources to help students of all learning styles master the material and prepare for professional licensing exams. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Human Neuropsychology

Author: G. Neil Martin
Publisher: Pearson Education
ISBN: 9780131974524
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Human Neuropsychologycovers every major topic in the field, providing the perfect balance between theory and application, simultaneously introducing students to significant new developments in the area.

Atlas of Regional Anatomy of the Brain Using MRI

Author: Jean C. Tamraz
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540306722
Format: PDF, Mobi
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A unique review of the essential topographical anatomy of the brain from an MRI perspective, correlating high-quality anatomical plates with high-resolution MRI images. The book includes a historical review of brain mapping and an analysis of the essential reference planes used. It provides a detailed review of the sulcal and the gyral anatomy of the human cortex, guiding readers through an interpretation of the individual brain atlas provided by high-resolution MRI. The relationship between brain structure and function is approached in a topographical fashion with an analysis of the necessary imaging methodology and displayed anatomy. An extensive coronal atlas rounds off the book.

How the Brain Got Language

Author: Michael A. Arbib
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199896690
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Unlike any other species, humans can learn and use language. This book explains how the brain evolved to make language possible, through what Michael Arbib calls the Mirror System Hypothesis. Because of mirror neurons, monkeys, chimps, and humans can learn by imitation, but only "complex imitation," which humans exhibit, is powerful enough to support the breakthrough to language. This theory provides a path from the openness of manual gesture, which we share with nonhuman primates, through the complex imitation of manual skills, pantomime, protosign (communication based on conventionalized manual gestures), and finally to protospeech. The theory explains why we humans are as capable of learning sign languages as we are of learning to speak. This fascinating book shows how cultural evolution took over from biological evolution for the transition from protolanguage to fully fledged languages. The author explains how the brain mechanisms that made the original emergence of languages possible, perhaps 100,000 years ago, are still operative today in the way children acquire language, in the way that new sign languages have emerged in recent decades, and in the historical processes of language change on a time scale from decades to centuries. Though the subject is complex, this book is highly readable, providing all the necessary background in primatology, neuroscience, and linguistics to make the book accessible to a general audience.

The Handbook of Language Emergence

Author: Brian MacWhinney
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118346092
Format: PDF
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This authoritative handbook explores the latest integrated theory for understanding human language, offering the most inclusive text yet published on the rapidly evolving emergentist paradigm. Brings together an international team of contributors, including the most prominent advocates of linguistic emergentism Focuses on the ways in which the learning, processing, and structure of language emerge from a competing set of cognitive, communicative, and biological constraints Examines forces on widely divergent timescales, from instantaneous neurolinguistic processing to historical changes and language evolution Addresses key theoretical, empirical, and methodological issues, making this handbook the most rigorous examination of emergentist linguistic theory ever