Neurocognitive and Physiological Factors During High Tempo Operations

Author: Rebecca Steinberg
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1317088786
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Neurocognitive and Physiological Factors During High-Tempo Operations features world-renowned scientists conducting groundbreaking research into the basic mechanisms of stress effects on the human body and psyche, as well as introducing novel pharmaceutics and equipment that can rescue or improve maximal performance during stress. Its focus is on the military model as an exemplar for high-stress environments, the best for understanding human performance under stress, both in the short-term as well as in the long-term. The unprecedented demands on the modern soldier include constantly shifting enemy threat levels and tactics, ambiguous loyalties, rapidly evolving weaponry, and the need to amass, comprehend, retain, and act upon large datasets of information. During high-tempo operations, soldiers must maintain superior cognitive and physical skill levels throughout extended periods of little to no sleep. Furthermore, although a soldier fresh from training may perform at peak skill, the effects of cognitive and physical strain and sleeplessness during deployment can impair his or her ability to transfer instructional knowledge to complex real-life situations. It is necessary to understand how intense workloads, both mental and physical, combine with total sleep deprivation to alter soldier situation awareness, decision-making, and physical abilities. The resulting knowledge can be used to design rapid, deployable fitness-for-duty measures, alter training protocols, and assess training efficacy in order to enable decision-makers to act at peak ability during high operations tempo. In addition, dual-use applications of resulting knowledge and technology extend well into the civilian sector, to law-enforcement officers, healthcare professionals, and emergency responders. The book differs from many previous human factors publications by presenting state-of-the-art neuroscience data in a format that is comprehensible and informative for readers of diverse backgrounds. It not only details human behaviors and perception, but also provides concise brain imagery and physiological findings to support its conclusions. In addition, the incorporation of the US Army soldier model of extreme stress and extreme performance demands provides a real-life theme that anchors the scientific, organizational, assessment and response aspects of each chapter. This book synthesizes hard facts with real-life accounts of performing under stress and shows how a large oversight institution like the US Army can measure and improve human factors considerations for its members.

The Handbook of Operator Fatigue

Author: Gerald Matthews
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1317029402
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Fatigue is a recognized problem in many facets of the human enterprise. It is not confined to any one area of activity but enters all situations in which humans have to perform for extended intervals of time. Most problematic are the circumstances in which obligatory action is continuous and the results of failure are evidently serious or even catastrophic. Therefore, the modern media especially highlights fatigue-related failures in industries such as transportation, materials processing and healthcare. It can be, and indeed is, no coincidence that most of the spectacular failures in process control that have resulted in the world's largest industrial accidents have occurred in the small hours of the morning when the circadian rhythm is lowest and operator fatigue itself peaks. While there have been legislative efforts made at state, federal and international levels to regulate working hours of employees, the appropriate implementation of such legislation is still a long way off. The Handbook of Operator Fatigue provides a comprehensive account of the subject to serve as the definitive reference work for researchers, students and practitioners alike. The volume features 30 chapters written by experts from around the world to address each important facet of fatigue, including: the scale of the fatigue problem (Section I), the nature of fatigue (Section II), how to assess fatigue (Section III), the impact of fatigue on health (Section IV), fatigue in the workplace (Section V), the neurological basis of fatigue (VI), sleep disorders (VII), and the design of countermeasures to fatigue (VIII).

The 71F Advantage

Author: National Defense University Press
Publisher: NDU Press
ISBN: 1907521658
Format: PDF, ePub
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Includes a foreword by Major General David A. Rubenstein. From the editor: "71F, or "71 Foxtrot," is the AOC (area of concentration) code assigned by the U.S. Army to the specialty of Research Psychology. Qualifying as an Army research psychologist requires, first of all, a Ph.D. from a research (not clinical) intensive graduate psychology program. Due to their advanced education, research psychologists receive a direct commission as Army officers in the Medical Service Corps at the rank of captain. In terms of numbers, the 71F AOC is a small one, with only 25 to 30 officers serving in any given year. However, the 71F impact is much bigger than this small cadre suggests. Army research psychologists apply their extensive training and expertise in the science of psychology and social behavior toward understanding, preserving, and enhancing the health, well being, morale, and performance of Soldiers and military families. As is clear throughout the pages of this book, they do this in many ways and in many areas, but always with a scientific approach. This is the 71F advantage: applying the science of psychology to understand the human dimension, and developing programs, policies, and products to benefit the person in military operations. This book grew out of the April 2008 biennial conference of U.S. Army Research Psychologists, held in Bethesda, Maryland. This meeting was to be my last as Consultant to the Surgeon General for Research Psychology, and I thought it would be a good idea to publish proceedings, which had not been done before. As Consultant, I'd often wished for such a document to help explain to people what it is that Army Research Psychologists "do for a living." In addition to our core group of 71Fs, at the Bethesda 2008 meeting we had several brand-new members, and a number of distinguished retirees, the "grey-beards" of the 71F clan. Together with longtime 71F colleagues Ross Pastel and Mark Vaitkus, I also saw an unusual opportunity to capture some of the history of the Army Research Psychology specialty while providing a representative sample of current 71F research and activities. It seemed to us especially important to do this at a time when the operational demands on the Army and the total force were reaching unprecedented levels, with no sign of easing, and with the Army in turn relying more heavily on research psychology to inform its programs for protecting the health, well being, and performance of Soldiers and their families."

Promoting Psychological Resilience in the U S Military

Author: Lisa S Meredith
Publisher: Rand Corporation
ISBN: 0833058169
Format: PDF, ePub
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As U.S. service members deploy for extended periods on a repeated basis, their ability to cope with the stress of deployment may be challenged. Many programs are available to encourage and support psychological resilience among service members and families. However, little is known about these programs' effectiveness. This report reviews resilience literature and programs to identify evidence-informed factors for promoting resilience.

Human Factors of Visual and Cognitive Performance in Driving

Author: Candida Castro
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420055337
Format: PDF, ePub
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Human error is involved in more than 90 percent of traffic accidents, and of those accidents, most are associated with visual distractions, or looking-but-failing-to-see errors. Human Factors of Visual and Cognitive Performance in Driving gathers knowledge from a human factors psychology standpoint and provides deeper insight into traffic -user behavior and the ways drivers acquire information from the road. Emphasizes Drivers as Visual Information Processors Because driving is an eyes-wide-open task, drivers are exposed to a multitude of visual stimuli along their journey. This information must be correctly processed in order to make the right decisions and perform precise safety maneuvers. With contributions from more than 20 leading experts, this detailed resource discusses road and markings design, new technologies, signage, distraction, safety, situation awareness, workload, driving experience, fatigue, and driving interventions with the goal of improving driving behavior and preventing accidents. Addresses These Key Areas: Visual attention and in-vehicle technologies Interventions to reduce road trauma Avoiding collisions and the failures involved in that endeavor Using jargon-free language that is easily understood, this book compresses research from the past few decades into one accessible resource. It clearly and cohesively provides ergonomics and human factor engineers, industrial designers, and highway and roadway engineers with an overarching understanding of the incessant visual demands drivers face.

Enhancing Performance Under Stress

Author: Sean Robson
Publisher: Rand Corporation
ISBN:
Format: PDF, Docs
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USAF par rescue and combat controllers routinely recover downed or injured military personnel and direct military aircraft in hostile or denied regions. Consequently, to be effective in these careers requires the ability to cope with severe stress. The USAF uses many strategies to ensure that battlefield airmen perform well under stress but one strategy, termed stress inoculation training, has not been fully incorporated as a training element.

Night Noise Guidelines for Europe

Author: Who Regional Office for Europe
Publisher: WHO Regional Office Europe
ISBN: 9289041730
Format: PDF, ePub
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Environmental noise is a threat to public health, having negative impacts on human health and wellbeing. This book reviews the health effects of night time noise exposure, examines dose-effects relations, and presents interim and ultimate guideline values of night noise exposure. It offers guidance to the policy-makers in reducing the health impacts of night noise, based on expert evaluation of scientific evidence in Europe.The review of scientific evidence and the derivation of guideline values were conducted by outstanding scientists. The contents of the document were peer-reviewed and discussed for a consensus among the experts and the stakeholders. We are thankful for those who contributed to the development and presentation of this guidelines and believe that this work will contribute to improving the health of the people in the Region.

Promoting Successful Integration

Author: Rory A. Cooper
Publisher: Government Printing Office
ISBN: 0160939836
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This handbook is intended to be a source of information for the broad military community, including uniformed military personnel, family members, civilian personnel of federal agencies, veterans, and all people who contribute to the success of wounded, injured, and ill service members. When service members return from a deployment with visible or hidden impairments or challenges, it is important for the entire community to provide support to ameliorate the long-term impact of wounds, injuries, and illnesses that can manifest into permanent disabilities. The information contained in this book should help the reader understand and implement the steps necessary for helping wounded, injured, or ill service members and their families to successfully continue their military careers or to become successful as veterans within civilian communities. A multifaceted approach will be presented, and there is no one single solution that will work for all service members. However, the information contained within this handbook should provide insight into the options available and the many pathways that lead to success.

Translational Research in Environmental and Occupational Stress

Author: Shashi Bala Singh
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 8132219287
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Cutting edge technologies can propel a simple finding in basic science to a concept that can be of immense value to the society. While applying novel techniques to unravel the mysteries of biological processes, an offshoot of applied branch emerged. This field, which is now widely referred to as Translational Research utilizes basic science findings and translates these findings into innovative concepts for the benefit of mankind. This branch of science has evolved into a multidisciplinary juggernaut encompassing all known fields of science as varied as biomedicine, environment, law, economics, sociology, etc. With the ever increasing interest in this branch and the dreams and aspirations that this field can bring, basic science researchers are now taking a bold step into this new realm, merging different fields of knowledge to come up with novel inventions. This book "Translational research in environmental and occupational stress" provides and insight into the research that led to discoveries, inventions and development of novel technologies which will have a tremendous impact on the future of mankind.

Returning Home from Iraq and Afghanistan

Author: Institute of Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309152853
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Nearly 1.9 million U.S. troops have been deployed to Afghanistan and Iraq since October 2001. Many service members and veterans face serious challenges in readjusting to normal life after returning home. This initial book presents findings on the most critical challenges, and lays out the blueprint for the second phase of the study to determine how best to meet the needs of returning troops and their families.