Neurocognitive and Physiological Factors During High Tempo Operations

Author: Rebecca Steinberg
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1317088786
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Neurocognitive and Physiological Factors During High-Tempo Operations features world-renowned scientists conducting groundbreaking research into the basic mechanisms of stress effects on the human body and psyche, as well as introducing novel pharmaceutics and equipment that can rescue or improve maximal performance during stress. Its focus is on the military model as an exemplar for high-stress environments, the best for understanding human performance under stress, both in the short-term as well as in the long-term. The unprecedented demands on the modern soldier include constantly shifting enemy threat levels and tactics, ambiguous loyalties, rapidly evolving weaponry, and the need to amass, comprehend, retain, and act upon large datasets of information. During high-tempo operations, soldiers must maintain superior cognitive and physical skill levels throughout extended periods of little to no sleep. Furthermore, although a soldier fresh from training may perform at peak skill, the effects of cognitive and physical strain and sleeplessness during deployment can impair his or her ability to transfer instructional knowledge to complex real-life situations. It is necessary to understand how intense workloads, both mental and physical, combine with total sleep deprivation to alter soldier situation awareness, decision-making, and physical abilities. The resulting knowledge can be used to design rapid, deployable fitness-for-duty measures, alter training protocols, and assess training efficacy in order to enable decision-makers to act at peak ability during high operations tempo. In addition, dual-use applications of resulting knowledge and technology extend well into the civilian sector, to law-enforcement officers, healthcare professionals, and emergency responders. The book differs from many previous human factors publications by presenting state-of-the-art neuroscience data in a format that is comprehensible and informative for readers of diverse backgrounds. It not only details human behaviors and perception, but also provides concise brain imagery and physiological findings to support its conclusions. In addition, the incorporation of the US Army soldier model of extreme stress and extreme performance demands provides a real-life theme that anchors the scientific, organizational, assessment and response aspects of each chapter. This book synthesizes hard facts with real-life accounts of performing under stress and shows how a large oversight institution like the US Army can measure and improve human factors considerations for its members.

The Handbook of Operator Fatigue

Author: Gerald Matthews
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1317029402
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Fatigue is a recognized problem in many facets of the human enterprise. It is not confined to any one area of activity but enters all situations in which humans have to perform for extended intervals of time. Most problematic are the circumstances in which obligatory action is continuous and the results of failure are evidently serious or even catastrophic. Therefore, the modern media especially highlights fatigue-related failures in industries such as transportation, materials processing and healthcare. It can be, and indeed is, no coincidence that most of the spectacular failures in process control that have resulted in the world's largest industrial accidents have occurred in the small hours of the morning when the circadian rhythm is lowest and operator fatigue itself peaks. While there have been legislative efforts made at state, federal and international levels to regulate working hours of employees, the appropriate implementation of such legislation is still a long way off. The Handbook of Operator Fatigue provides a comprehensive account of the subject to serve as the definitive reference work for researchers, students and practitioners alike. The volume features 30 chapters written by experts from around the world to address each important facet of fatigue, including: the scale of the fatigue problem (Section I), the nature of fatigue (Section II), how to assess fatigue (Section III), the impact of fatigue on health (Section IV), fatigue in the workplace (Section V), the neurological basis of fatigue (VI), sleep disorders (VII), and the design of countermeasures to fatigue (VIII).

Aviation Mental Health

Author: Todd Hubbard
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
ISBN: 1409484912
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book provides an authoritative and practical guide to the assessment, management, treatment and care of pilots and other professional groups within aviation; covering a range of relevant topics, for health and human resources practitioners working in the airline industry. Pilot mental health has, hitherto, been regarded as a specialist topic in aviation medicine. Consequently, practitioners and researchers alike have been forced to consult specialist journals or seek out a relevant chapter on this topic in a general textbook to develop or update their understanding of the relevant issues. This book seeks to remedy this situation by gathering together all of the relevant insights into a single authoritative source gathered from the leading specialists in the field. It aims to cover all of the main relevant issues including the assessment, care, management and treatment of mental health problems, as well as the prevention of mental health problems among this occupational group.

Enhancing Performance Under Stress

Author: Sean Robson
Publisher: Rand Corporation
ISBN:
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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USAF par rescue and combat controllers routinely recover downed or injured military personnel and direct military aircraft in hostile or denied regions. Consequently, to be effective in these careers requires the ability to cope with severe stress. The USAF uses many strategies to ensure that battlefield airmen perform well under stress but one strategy, termed stress inoculation training, has not been fully incorporated as a training element.

Human Mental Workload Models and Applications

Author: Luca Longo
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319610619
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the First International Symposium on Human Mental Workload: Models and Applications, H-WORKLOAD 2017, held in Dublin, Ireland, in June 2017. The 15 revised full papers presented together with two keynotes were carefully reviewed and selected from 35 submissions. The papers are organized in two topical sections on models and applications.

Human Factors of Visual and Cognitive Performance in Driving

Author: Candida Castro
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420055337
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Human error is involved in more than 90 percent of traffic accidents, and of those accidents, most are associated with visual distractions, or looking-but-failing-to-see errors. Human Factors of Visual and Cognitive Performance in Driving gathers knowledge from a human factors psychology standpoint and provides deeper insight into traffic -user behavior and the ways drivers acquire information from the road. Emphasizes Drivers as Visual Information Processors Because driving is an eyes-wide-open task, drivers are exposed to a multitude of visual stimuli along their journey. This information must be correctly processed in order to make the right decisions and perform precise safety maneuvers. With contributions from more than 20 leading experts, this detailed resource discusses road and markings design, new technologies, signage, distraction, safety, situation awareness, workload, driving experience, fatigue, and driving interventions with the goal of improving driving behavior and preventing accidents. Addresses These Key Areas: Visual attention and in-vehicle technologies Interventions to reduce road trauma Avoiding collisions and the failures involved in that endeavor Using jargon-free language that is easily understood, this book compresses research from the past few decades into one accessible resource. It clearly and cohesively provides ergonomics and human factor engineers, industrial designers, and highway and roadway engineers with an overarching understanding of the incessant visual demands drivers face.

Returning Home from Iraq and Afghanistan

Author: Institute of Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309152853
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Nearly 1.9 million U.S. troops have been deployed to Afghanistan and Iraq since October 2001. Many service members and veterans face serious challenges in readjusting to normal life after returning home. This initial book presents findings on the most critical challenges, and lays out the blueprint for the second phase of the study to determine how best to meet the needs of returning troops and their families.

Handbook of Diet and Nutrition in the Menstrual Cycle Periconception and Fertility

Author: Caroline J. Hollins-Martin
Publisher: Wageningen Academic Publishers
ISBN: 9086862128
Format: PDF
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The reproductive cycle in women is complex and can be considered to begin with epigenetic programming and ending with menopause. Intervening steps involve a variety of processes, including the cellular development of the sex organs, menarche, episodic endocrine cycles, menstruation, ovulation and conception. These processes can be influenced by diet and nutrition and vice versa. Body composition has an impact on the menstrual cycle and periconception and these factors in turn also influence body composition. Similarly, either food deprivation, dietary excess or obesity can result in marked changes in the menstrual cycle with a concomitant effect on fertility. This handbook is the first scientific source that provides a comprehensive overview of the relationship of diet and nutrition with puberty, menarche and menstrual cycle, conception and fertility and infertility. The handbook of diet and nutrition in the menstrual cycle, conception and fertility will benefit dieticians, nutritionists, gynaecologists, endocrinologists, obstetricians, paediatricians and those concerned with women's health in general.

Performance Under Stress

Author: Dr James L Szalma
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
ISBN: 1409485447
Format: PDF, Docs
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The world is a dangerous place and recent events have served to make it less safe. There are many arenas of conflict and even combat across the world. Such situations are the quintessential expression of stress; you stand in imminent danger and live with the knowledge that you may be attacked, injured or even killed at any moment. How do people perform under these conditions? How do they keep a heightened level of vigilance when nothing may happen in their immediate location for weeks or even months? What happens when the bullets actually start flying? How is it you distinguish friend from foe, and each from innocent bystanders when in immediate peril of your life? Can we design technology to help people make good decisions in these ultimately hazardous situations? To what degree does your membership in a team act to dissipate these particular effects? Can we generate sufficiently stressful field exercises to simulate these conditions and can we train and/or select those most able to withstand such adverse conditions? How will the next generation of servicemen deal with these inherent problems? These are the sorts of questions that Performance Under Stress addresses. This book is derived largely from a multiple-year, multiple university initiative (MURI) on stress and soldier performance on the modern, electronic battlefield. It involved leading researchers from many institutions who have brought their individual expertise to bear on these crucial, contemporary concerns. United by a common research framework, these groups attacked the issue from different methodological and conceptual approaches, ranging from traditional laboratory modeling and experimentation, to realistic simulations; from involved field exercises to personal experiences of actual combat conditions. The insights generated have been distilled and presented as a benchmark of current understanding and provide future directions for research in this arena. Although this work focuses on soldier stress and soldier performance, the principles that are derived extend well beyond this single application. Their findings can be applied to people facing the demands of the business world or research as much as to those who meet life or death situations, such as homeland security, first responders, and law enforcement personnel.

Enhancing Human Capacities

Author: Julian Savulescu
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781444393545
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Enhancing Human Capacities is the first to review the very latest scientific developments in human enhancement. It is unique in its examination of the ethical and policy implications of these technologies from a broad range of perspectives. Presents a rich range of perspectives on enhancement from world leading ethicists and scientists from Europe and North America The most comprehensive volume yet on the science and ethics of human enhancement Unique in providing a detailed overview of current and expected scientific advances in this area Discusses both general conceptual and ethical issues and concrete questions of policy Includes sections covering all major forms of enhancement: cognitive, affective, physical, and life extension