New Approaches in Reasoning Research

Author: Wim De Neys
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1134751753
Format: PDF, Kindle
Download Now
Reasoning research has long been associated with paper and pencil tasks in which peoples’ reasoning skills are judged against established normative conventions. However, there has been a recent revolution in the range of techniques, empirical methods and paradigms used to examine reasoning behaviour. New Approaches in Reasoning Research brings to the fore these new pioneering research methods and empirical findings. Each chapter is written by a world-leading expert in the field and covers a variety of broad empirical techniques and new approaches to reasoning research. Maintaining a high level of integrity and rigor throughout, Editors De Neys and Osman have allowed the experts included here the space to think big about the general issues concerning their work, to point out potential implications and speculate on further developments. Such freedom can only help to stimulate discussion and spark creative thinking. The use of these new methods and paradigms are already generating a new understanding of how we reason, as such this book should appeal to researchers and students of Cognitive Psychology, Social Psychology, and Neuroscience along with Cognitive Scientists, and anyone interested in the latest developments in reasoning, rationality, bias, and thinking.

Working Memory and Thinking

Author: Kenneth Gilhooly
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1135471886
Format: PDF, ePub
Download Now
Thinking and memory are inextricably linked. However, a "divide and rule" approach has led cognitive psychologists to study these two areas in relative isolation. With contributions from some of the leading international researchers on working memory and thinking, the present volume aims to break down the scientific divisions and foster scientific integration in the connections between these two core functions of cognition. Broadly defined, thinking comprises mentally driven change in current representations. The processes involved in such change include application of logical rules, heuristics, problem solving strategies, decision making, planning and comprehension of complex material. Memory involves the encoding, retention and retrieval of information, and the retention may be temporary or in a long-term knowledge base.; Thinking cannot occur in a vacuum; it relies on the long-term memory base and a temporary mental workspace. Despite the apparent limitations on mental workspace, humans can drive a car and hold a conversation, or store partial solutions while tackling other aspects of a problem. So too, some aspects of thinking are relatively resilient in the face of quite extensive brain damage, yet other aspects are remarkably vulnerable to neuroanatomical insults. Humans can solve complex problems with many alternative choice points and yet seem to be able to consider only a few hypotheses at any one time. These apparent paradoxes present significant scientific challenges as to how humans can be such successful thinkers despite their very limited working memory. The chapters herein represent a diversity of views as regards the nature or working memory and forms of human thinking. The links between working memory and thinking are directly addressed and made explicit, and in so doing this volume offers an increasingly integrated understanding of human thinking and memory.

Moral Inferences

Author: Jean-Francois Bonnefon
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1317383842
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Download Now
Moral Inferences is the first volume to thoroughly explore the relationship between morality and reasoning. Drawing on the expertise of world-leading researchers, this text provides ground-breaking insight into the importance of studying these distinct fields together. The volume integrates the latest research into morality with current theories in reasoning to consider the prominent role reasoning plays in everyday moral judgements. Featuring contributions on topics such as moral arguments, causal models, and dual process theory, this text provides a new perspectives on previous studies, encouraging researchers to adopt a more integrated approach in the future. Moral Inferences will be essential reading for students and researchers of moral psychology, specifically those interested in reasoning, rationality and decision-making.

Methods of Thought

Author: Elizabeth Newton
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1135424071
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download Now
How do people make inferences? How do their reasoning processes differ and why? Methods of Thought attempts to answer these questions by looking in detail at the different reasoning strategies people apply, how these are acquired, how they are selected and how use of these strategies is influenced by individual and task properties. Focusing on empirical data and research into deductive reasoning tasks, this book summarizes current trends in the field and helps us to understand how individual differences in reasoning impact on other studies of higher cognitive abilities in humans. Contributors include researchers who have shown that people make deductions by using a variety of strategies, and others who have found that deductive reasoning problems provide a useful test-bed for investigating general theories of strategy development. Together, it is shown that these general theories derived from other domains have important implications for deductive reasoning, and also that findings by reasoning researchers have wider consequences for general theories of strategy development. This book will be of interest to anyone studying or working in the fields of reasoning, problem solving, and cognitive development, as well as cognitive science in general.

Reasoning as Memory

Author: Aidan Feeney
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1317820126
Format: PDF, Mobi
Download Now
There is a growing acknowledgement of the importance of integrating the study of reasoning with other areas of cognitive psychology. The purpose of this volume is to examine the extent to which we can further our understanding of reasoning by integrating findings, theories and paradigms in the field of memory. Reasoning as Memory consists of nine chapters that make explicit links between basic memory process, and reasoning and decision-making. The contributors address a number of key topics including: the relationship between semantic memory and reasoning the role of expert memory in reasoning recognition memory and induction working memory and reasoning metamemory in reasoning. In addition, the chapters provide broad coverage of the field of thinking, and invite the intriguing question of how much there is left to explain in the field of reasoning when one has extracted the variance due to memory. This book will be of great interest to advanced undergraduates, postgraduates and researchers interested in reasoning or decision making, and to researchers interested in the role played in cognition by a variety of memory processes.

Aberrant Beliefs and Reasoning

Author: Niall Galbraith
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1317754816
Format: PDF
Download Now
An aberrant belief is extreme or unusual in nature. In the most serious cases these beliefs cause emotional distress in those who hold them, and typify the core symptoms of psychological disorders. Each of the chapters in this volume seeks to examine the role that biases in reasoning can play in the formation of aberrant beliefs. The chapters consider several conjectures about the role of reasoning in aberrant belief, including the role of the jumping to conclusion bias in delusional beliefs, the probabilistic bias in paranormal beliefs, the role of danger confirming reasoning in phobias, and the controversial notion that people with schizophrenia do not succumb to specific forms of reasoning bias. There are also chapters evaluating different theoretical perspectives, and suggestions for future research. Aberrant Beliefs and Reasoning is the first volume presenting an overview of contemporary research in this growing subject area. It will be essential reading for academics and students in the fields of human reasoning, cognitive psychology and philosophy, and will also be of great interest to clinicians and psychiatrists.

The Developmental Psychology of Reasoning and Decision Making

Author: Henry Markovits
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1317931076
Format: PDF, ePub
Download Now
Logical thinking is a critically important cognitive skill. It is not just essential for mathematical and scientific understanding, it is also of prime importance when trying to navigate our complex and increasingly sophisticated world. Written by world class researchers in the field, The Developmental Psychology of Reasoning and Decision-Making describes the ways that children learn to reason, and how reasoning can be used to overcome the influence of beliefs and intuitions. The chapters in this edited collection focus on the new, revolutionary paradigm in reasoning and cover the recent research on the development of reasoning in two important areas: Cognitive abilities required to reason well and how these abilities develop in children and adolescents. Recent empirical data showing the effect intuition and prior belief have on reasoning, even when the outcome is inappropriate. Different theoretical and empirical perspectives from recent Piagetian theory, mental models and gist processing are examined, along with empirical results looking at specific aspects of reasoning in children. The key theme of the book is to better understand how reasoning develops not only through examining ‘logical’ reasoning, but also the nature of the interactions between people’s intuitions and their reasoning abilities. The Developmental Psychology of Reasoning and Decision-Making provides an overview of the main theories and key empirical results related to the development of reasoning and should be of particular interest to students and researchers in developmental psychology and education, along with those in cognitive psychology.

The New Reflectionism in Cognitive Psychology

Author: Gordon Pennycook
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1315460157
Format: PDF, Kindle
Download Now
This volume presents detailed reviews and will be of use to anyone interested in the strengths and weaknesses of human reason. This volume will also be of use to both proponents and skeptics of dual-process theory as it represents a strong case for the wide theoretical significance of the distinction between intuition and reflection. The empirical evidence indicates that analytic thinking plays a significant role in everyday life. Reason does, in fact, matter.

International Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning

Author: Linden J. Ball
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317534751
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Download Now
The Routledge International Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning is an authoritative reference work providing a balanced overview of current scholarship spanning the full breadth of the rapidly developing and expanding field of thinking and reasoning. It contains 35 chapters written by leading international researchers, covering foundational issues as well as state-of-the-art developments in thinking and reasoning research. Topics covered range across all sub-areas of thinking and reasoning, including deduction, induction, abduction, judgment, decision making, argumentation, problem solving, expertise, creativity and rationality. The contributors engage with cutting-edge debates such as the status of dual-process theories of thinking, the role of unconscious, intuitive, emotional and metacognitive processes in thinking, and the importance of probabilistic conceptualisations of thinking and reasoning. Authors also examine the importance of neuroscientific findings in informing theoretical developments, and explore the situated nature of thinking and reasoning across a range of real-world contexts such as mathematics, medicine and science. The Handbook provides a clear sense of the way in which contemporary ideas are challenging traditional viewpoints as "new paradigm of the psychology of reasoning" emerges. This paradigm-shifting research is paving the way toward a richer and more inclusive understanding of thinking and reasoning, where important new questions drive a forward-looking research agenda. It is essential reading for both established researchers in the field of thinking and reasoning as well as advanced students wishing to learn more about both the historical foundations and latest developments in this rapidly growing field.

Insight

Author: Frédéric Vallée-Tourangeau
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351975099
Format: PDF, Docs
Download Now
Research on insight problem solving examines how new ideas are generated to solve problems that initially resist the application of prior knowledge or analogue solutions. In the laboratory, insight problems are designed to create an impasse; overcoming the impasse is sometimes accompanied by a distinctive phenomenological experience, the so-called Aha! moment. Insight: On the Origins of New Ideas presents research that captures these episodes of insight under laboratory conditions and informs models that account for their emergence. Descriptions and analyses of episodes of discovery both in and out of the laboratory are included to provide a general overview of insight. Featuring contributions from leading researchers, the volume debates the relative importance of intelligence and working memory, the development of an alternative interpretation of the problem based on deliberate analyses and heuristics, and unconscious inferences in the emergence of insight. These discussions generate new testable hypotheses to shed light on the cognitive processes underpinning insight, along with concrete methodological recommendations that, together, map a productive programme of future research. This book will be of interest to students and researchers of thinking and reasoning - specifically those interested in insight and creative problem solving.