New Frontiers in Mirror Neurons Research

Author: Pier Francesco Ferrari
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019150968X
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The discovery of mirror neurons caused a revolution in neuroscience and psychology. Nevertheless, because of their profound impact within life sciences, mirror neuron are still the subject of numerous debates concerning their origins and their functions. With more than 20 years of research in this area, it is timely to synthesise the expanding literature on this topic. 'New frontiers in Mirror Neurons' provides a comprehensive overview of the latest advances in mirror neurons research - accessible both to experts and to non-experts. In the book, leading scholars draw on the latest research to examine methodological approaches, theoretical implications, and the latest findings on mirror neurons research. A broad range of topics are covered within the book: basic findings and new concepts in action-perception theory, functional properties and evolution, development, and clinical implications. In particular, the last two sections of the book outline the importance of the plasticity and development of the mirror neuron system. This knowledge will be key in future research for helping us understand possible disorders associated with impairments in the mirror neurons system, as well as in helping us design new therapeutic tools for interventions within the field of neurodevelopmental disorders and in neurorehabilitation. 'New Frontiers in Mirror Neurons' is an exciting new work for neuroscientists, psychologists, and philosophers of mind.

The Myth of Mirror Neurons The Real Neuroscience of Communication and Cognition

Author: Gregory Hickok
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
ISBN: 0393244164
Format: PDF
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An essential reconsideration of one of the most far-reaching theories in modern neuroscience and psychology. In 1992, a group of neuroscientists from Parma, Italy, reported a new class of brain cells discovered in the motor cortex of the macaque monkey. These cells, later dubbed mirror neurons, responded equally well during the monkey’s own motor actions, such as grabbing an object, and while the monkey watched someone else perform similar motor actions. Researchers speculated that the neurons allowed the monkey to understand others by simulating their actions in its own brain. Mirror neurons soon jumped species and took human neuroscience and psychology by storm. In the late 1990s theorists showed how the cells provided an elegantly simple new way to explain the evolution of language, the development of human empathy, and the neural foundation of autism. In the years that followed, a stream of scientific studies implicated mirror neurons in everything from schizophrenia and drug abuse to sexual orientation and contagious yawning. In The Myth of Mirror Neurons, neuroscientist Gregory Hickok reexamines the mirror neuron story and finds that it is built on a tenuous foundation—a pair of codependent assumptions about mirror neuron activity and human understanding. Drawing on a broad range of observations from work on animal behavior, modern neuroimaging, neurological disorders, and more, Hickok argues that the foundational assumptions fall flat in light of the facts. He then explores alternative explanations of mirror neuron function while illuminating crucial questions about human cognition and brain function: Why do humans imitate so prodigiously? How different are the left and right hemispheres of the brain? Why do we have two visual systems? Do we need to be able to talk to understand speech? What’s going wrong in autism? Can humans read minds? The Myth of Mirror Neurons not only delivers an instructive tale about the course of scientific progress—from discovery to theory to revision—but also provides deep insights into the organization and function of the human brain and the nature of communication and cognition.

Neuro Education and Neuro Rehabilitation

Author: Eduardo Martínez-Montes
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889450066
Format: PDF, Docs
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In the last decade, important discoveries have been made in cognitive neuroscience regarding brain plasticity and learning such as the mirror neurons system and the anatomo-functional organization of perceptual, cognitive and motor abilities.... Time has come to consider the societal impact of these findings. The aim of this Research Topic of Frontiers in Psychology is to concentrate on two domains: neuro-education and neuro-rehabilitation. At the interface between neuroscience, psychology and education, neuro-education is a new inter-disciplinary emerging field that aims at developing new education programs based on results from cognitive neuroscience and psychology. For instance, brain-based learning methods are flourishing but few have been rigorously tested using well-controlled procedures. Authors of this Research Topic will present their latest findings in this domain using rigorously controlled experiments. Neuro-rehabilitation aims at developing new rehabilitation methods for children and adults with learning disorders. Neuro-rehabilitation programs can be based upon a relatively low number of patients and controls or on large clinical trials to test for the efficiency of new treatments. These projects may also aim at testing the efficiency of video-games and of new methods such as Trans Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) for therapeutic interventions in children or adolescents with learning disabilities. This Research Topic will bring together neuroscientists interested in brain plasticity and the effects of training, psychologists working with adults as well as with normally developing children and children with learning disabilities as well as education researchers directly confronted with the efficiency of education programs. The goal for each author is to describe the state of the art in his/her specific research domain and to illustrate how her/his research findings can impact education in the classroom or rehabilitation of children and adolescents with learning disorders.

Cultural Patterns And Neurocognitive Circuits Ii East west Connections

Author: Gulyas Balazs
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9813230495
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The contents of this book continues the theme as in the previous volume on cultural patterns and cognitive patterns in the East and West, with special regard to those patterns which are determined by our natural-genetic endownments in contrast to those patterns which are influenced by our cultural ("East-West") influences, and within this context a unique flavour is given to the "good life" aspects of adapting to this global community. The chapters written by leading neuroscientists, give an overarching picture from the elementary organisational principles of the human brain through the basic perceptual and motor functions of the brain to the highest levels of cognition, including aesthetical or moral judgments, with an eye on what can be called "good life" in both Eastern and Western cultures. A unique compilation of state-of-the-art overviews of how the human brain is organised and functions in order to achieve high level of social, moral or aesthetic thoughts across cultures. Contents: Preface (J Vasbinder and B Gulyás)Introduction (Sydney Brenner)Neuronal Circuits: Action Observation as a Visual Process: Different Classes of Actions Engage Distinct Regions of Human PPC (Guy A Orban)The Power of Single Cases: Examples from the Early Visual Pathway and from Visual Art (Ernst Pöppel and Yan Bao)Emergence of Higher Cognitive Functions: Imitation: Mechanisms and Importance for Human Culture (Giacomo Rizzolatti)Brain Mechanisms of Tool-Use that Advance Our Knowledge Beyond the Border Neural Correlates of "Proto-Language" in the Monkey Brain (Atsushi Iriki and Kevin W McCairn)Conscious Processing: Unity in Time Rather Than in Space (Wolf Singer)Highest Cognitive Functions: Overcoming "Monocausalitis" by Complementarity as a Generative Principle and a Thought Pattern Exemplified with Aesthetic Appreciations and the Arts (Yan Bao and Ernst Pöppel)Modelling Levels of Consciousness for Language Development in Infants: A Feature-based Approach (Helena Hong Gao)Individual Differences in Math Achievement: Finland and Singapore (Kerry Lee and Pirjo Aunio)Moral Progress Requires a Coupling Between Empathy and Reason — A Social Neuroscience Perspective (Jean Decety)Appendix: The Video and Presentation Links Readership: Students and researchers interested in following cultural and behavioral patterns, with respect to their neurobiological foundations. Keywords: Cultures;Cognitive Patterns;Cultural Patterns;Behavioral PatternsReview: Key Features: Contributions from world renowned neuroscientistsFocus on highest level neurocognitive functions, including perception, action, learningJudgements on aesthetics, morals and good life

What can we make of theories of embodiment and the role of the human mirror neuron system

Author: Analia Arevalo
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889197611
Format: PDF, Kindle
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In recent years, work surrounding theories of embodiment and the role of the putative mirror neuron system (MNS) in humans has gained considerable attention. If humans have developed a network of neurons that fire in response to other beings’ actions, as has been shown in macaques, this system could have vast implications for all kinds of cognitive processes unique to humans, such as language, learning, empathy and communication in general. The goal of tapping into and understanding such a system is a fascinating yet challenging one. One form of embodiment -- embodied linguistics -- suggests that the way we process linguistic information is linked to our physical experience of the concept conveyed by each word. The interaction between these cognitive systems (i.e., language and motor processing) may occur thanks to the firing of neurons making up the MNS. The possible interdependence between different cognitive systems has implications for healthy as well as pathological profiles, and in fact, work in recent years has also explored the role of ‘embodiment’ and/or the MNS in clinical populations such as stroke, Parkinson’s Disease, Alzheimer’s Disease, and Autism, among others. Research on embodiment and/or the MNS has been approached with a number of different methodologies, but the results obtained with these different methodologies have not been entirely consistent, generating doubts regarding the theories. The question has been raised as to what this line of inquiry can gain from the types of evidence contributed by functional neuroimaging methods carried out with healthy volunteers versus behavioral or lesion-symptom mapping methods employed with neurologically-compromised individuals. Of particular interest are the clinical applications of this line of research. If indeed a system exists which reflects a tight link between, for example, the human language and motor systems, then the obvious challenge is to tap into this system to create useful therapies that can provide rehabilitation where damage has occurred. This Research Topic brought together work conducted with healthy and patient populations using several behavioral and imaging techniques, as well as insightful commentaries and opinion pieces. We believe the combined work of the participating authors is an important contribution to this intriguing line of research and an excellent point of reference for future work.

Disorders of Childhood Development and Psychopathology

Author: Robin Hornik Parritz
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 1337515116
Format: PDF
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Written with the whole child in mind, this text presents disorders in the context of typical development and developmental pathways, providing a meaningful framework to promote students' learning and a practical, true-to-life approach for organizing the course. For each disorder (across descriptions of clinical presentation, course, and treatment), Parritz and Troy emphasize the continuity between typical and atypical development; risk and resilience; complex models of psychopathology; children in relationships over time; children in larger social contexts (e.g., neighborhoods); and the holistic nature of development (e.g., thinking about the child's abilities and strengths as well as his or her disorder). Updated with more coverage of neuroscience research and greater emphasis on the multiple environments in which children are embedded, this edition continues to reflect the most up-to-date understanding of child and adolescent psychopathology and empirically supported treatment. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

New Frontiers in Social Neuroscience

Author: Jean Decety
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3319029045
Format: PDF
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Traditionally, neuroscience has considered the nervous system as an isolated entity and largely ignored influences of the social environments in which humans and many animal species live. However, there is mounting evidence that the social environment affects behavior across species, from microbes to humans. This volume brings together scholars who work with animal and human models of social behavior to discuss the challenges and opportunities in this interdisciplinary academic field.

The Brain That Changes Itself

Author: Norman Doidge
Publisher: Penguin
ISBN: 9781101147115
Format: PDF, Docs
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What is neuroplasticity? Is it possible to change your brain? Norman Doidge’s inspiring guide to the new brain science explains all of this and more An astonishing new science called neuroplasticity is overthrowing the centuries-old notion that the human brain is immutable, and proving that it is, in fact, possible to change your brain. Psychoanalyst, Norman Doidge, M.D., traveled the country to meet both the brilliant scientists championing neuroplasticity, its healing powers, and the people whose lives they’ve transformed—people whose mental limitations, brain damage or brain trauma were seen as unalterable. We see a woman born with half a brain that rewired itself to work as a whole, blind people who learn to see, learning disorders cured, IQs raised, aging brains rejuvenated, stroke patients learning to speak, children with cerebral palsy learning to move with more grace, depression and anxiety disorders successfully treated, and lifelong character traits changed. Using these marvelous stories to probe mysteries of the body, emotion, love, sex, culture, and education, Dr. Doidge has written an immensely moving, inspiring book that will permanently alter the way we look at our brains, human nature, and human potential. From the Trade Paperback edition.

Infants Understanding and Production of Goal Directed Actions in the Context of Social and Object Related Interactions

Author: Daniela Corbetta
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889452557
Format: PDF, ePub
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Since the discovery of mirror neurons, the study of human infant goal-directed actions and object manipulation has burgeoned into new and exciting research directions. A number of infant studies have begun emphasizing the social context of action to understand what infants can infer when looking at others performing goal-directed actions or manipulating objects. Others have begun addressing how looking at actions in a social context, or even simply looking at objects in the immediate environment influence the way infants learn to direct their own actions on objects. Researchers have even begun investigating what aspects of goal-directed actions and object manipulation infants imitate when such actions are being modeled by a social partner, or they have been asking which cues infants use to predict others' actions. A growing understanding of how infants learn to reach, perceive information for reaching, and attend social cues for action has become central to many recent studies. These new lines of investigation and others have benefited from the use of a broad range of new investigative techniques. Eye-tracking, brains imaging techniques and new methodologies have been used to scrutinize how infants look, process, and use information to act themselves on objects and/or the social world, and to infer, predict, and recognize goal-directed actions outcomes from others. This Frontiers Research topic brings together empirical reports, literature reviews, and theory and hypothesis papers that tap into some of these exciting developmental questions about how infants perceive, understand, and perform goal-directed actions broadly defined. The papers included either stress the neural, motor, or perceptual aspects of infants’ behavior, or any combination of those dimensions as related to the development of early cognitive understanding and performance of goal-directed actions.

Mimesis and Science

Author: Scott R. Garrels
Publisher: MSU Press
ISBN: 1609172388
Format: PDF, ePub
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This exciting compendium brings together, for the first time, some of the foremost scholars of René Girard’s mimetic theory, with leading imitation researchers from the cognitive, developmental, and neuro sciences. These chapters explore some of the major discoveries and developments concerning the foundational, yet previously overlooked, role of imitation in human life, revealing the unique theoretical links that can now be made from the neural basis of social interaction to the structure and evolution of human culture and religion. Together, mimetic scholars and imitation researchers are on the cutting edge of some of the most important breakthroughs in understanding the distinctive human capacity for both incredible acts of empathy and compassion as well as mass antipathy and violence. As a result, this interdisciplinary volume promises to help shed light on some of the most pressing and complex questions of our contemporary world.