No Higher Law

Author: Brian Loveman
Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press
ISBN: 9780807895986
Format: PDF
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Dismantling the myths of United States isolationism and exceptionalism, No Higher Law is a sweeping history and analysis of American policy toward the Western Hemisphere and Latin America from independence to the present. From the nation's earliest days, argues Brian Loveman, U.S. leaders viewed and treated Latin America as a crucible in which to test foreign policy and from which to expand American global influence. Loveman demonstrates how the main doctrines and policies adopted for the Western Hemisphere were exported, with modifications, to other world regions as the United States pursued its self-defined global mission. No Higher Law reveals the interplay of domestic politics and international circumstances that shaped key American foreign policies from U.S. independence to the first decade of the twenty-first century. This revisionist view considers the impact of slavery, racism, ethnic cleansing against Native Americans, debates on immigration, trade and tariffs, the historical growth of the military-industrial complex, and political corruption as critical dimensions of American politics and foreign policy. Concluding with an epilogue on the Obama administration, Loveman weaves together the complex history of U.S. domestic politics and foreign policy to achieve a broader historical understanding of American expansionism, militarism, imperialism, and global ambitions as well as novel insights into the challenges facing American policymakers at the beginning of the twenty-first century.

Democracy Promotion as US Foreign Policy

Author: Nicolas Bouchet
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135011168
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The role of democracy promotion in US foreign policy has increased considerably in the last three decades, booming especially in the immediate years after the end of the Cold War. The rise of democracy promotion originated in a long historical tradition that saw exporting American political values as instrumental in securing US security and economic interests, an idea which was expressed freely once Cold War strategic constraints disappeared. Under Bill Clinton, there was an explicit attempt to do so by reframing American strategy in terms of ‘democratic enlargement’ and this book assesses the strategic use of democracy promotion in US foreign policy and its different outcomes during his presidency. Offering a comprehensive, global review of American democracy engagement with different regions of the world and key countries during a whole presidency, this book assesses how far the US has benefited from democracy promotion. It evaluates the instrumental value of democracy promotion for America by seeing whether the Clinton administration’s efforts in this field, and their varying impacts to democratization abroad, were matched by progress in securing US strategic goals defined under enlargement, in particular reducing international conflicts and spreading economic liberalization around the world. The book explores how democracy became central to US post-Cold War strategy, how the Clinton administration developed the concept of democratic enlargement and tried to implement it, and why it remained influential on foreign policy throughout Clinton’s presidency. With an analysis of the legacy of Clinton’s democracy promotion and its relevance to the subsequent policies of George W. Bush and Barack Obama, this book is essential reading for students and scholars interested in Foreign Policy, American History and Security Studies.

The Imperial Mantle

Author: David D. Newsom
Publisher: Indiana University Press
ISBN: 9780253108494
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The Imperial Mantle The United States, Decolonization, and the Third World David D. Newsom A probing analysis of relations between the United States and the Third World in the post--World War II era. "To understand why some people in the Third World like to throw rocks at us, read this book." -- Richard B. Parker Many Americans are bewildered by the hostilities and even hatred toward the United States on the part of newly independent Third World nations. Experienced diplomat and scholar David D. Newsom seeks to understand these animosities in this thoughtful review of U.S. relations with the Third World since World War II. The Imperial Mantle traces the upheavals in the postwar era as the peoples of British, Dutch, Belgian, and Portuguese empires demanded and gained independence. As the most powerful leader of the free world, despite its anti-colonial heritage, the United States tended to inherit the imperial mantle in this period, becoming the focus of both expectations and demands from the new nations. How the United States lived up to these expectations, and how it responded to the challenge of leadership and the burdens of being the dominant world power are the central issues in this book. It is must reading for anyone who wants to understand the foreign policy challenges that America will face in the 21st century. David D. Newsom, a former Under Secretary and Assistant Secretary of State, served as U.S. Ambassador to Libya, Indonesia, and the Philippines. After retiring from the Foreign Service, he became Director of the Institute for the Study of Diplomacy and Professor and Dean at the Georgetown University School of Foreign Service and Professor in the Department of Government and Foreign Affairs at the University of Virginia, where he is a senior fellow at the Miller Center. He is author of The Soviet Brigade in Cuba, Diplomacy and the American Democracy and The Public Dimension of Foreign Policy. March 2001 256 pages, 4 maps, 6 1/8 x 9 1/4, bibl., index, append. cloth 0-253-33844-4 $29.95 s / £22.95

The Economics of Contemporary Latin America

Author: Beatriz Armendáriz
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262337878
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Latin America is richly endowed with natural resources, fertile land, and vibrant cultures. Yet the region remains much poorer than its neighbors to the north. Most Latin American countries have not achieved standards of living and stable institutions comparable to those found in developed countries, have experienced repeated boom-bust cycles, and remain heavily reliant on primary commodities. This book studies the historical roots of Latin America's contemporary economic and social development, focusing on poverty and income inequality dating back to colonial times. It addresses today's legacies of the market-friendly reforms that took hold in the 1980s and 1990s by examining successful stabilizations and homemade monetary and fiscal institutional reforms. It offers a detailed analysis of trade and financial liberalization, twenty--first century-growth, and the decline in poverty and income inequality. Finally, the book offers an overall analysis of inclusive growth policies for development -- including gender issues and the informal sector -- and the challenges that lie ahead for the region, with special attention to pressing demands by the vibrant and vocal middle class, youth unemployment, and indigenous populations.

Addicted to Failure

Author: Brian Loveman
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 9780742540989
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This perceptive book critically explores why the United States continues to pursue failed policies in Latin America. Leading scholars explain how policies intended to promote the rule of law instead generate corruption and institutional crisis, why policies seeking to promote democratization and stabilization instead generate populist authoritarianism and destabilization, and why the war on drugs and the war on terror have neither reduced narcotics trafficking nor increased citizen security in the region. Reviewing official policy and its defenders and critics alike, this indispensable book focuses on the reasons for the failure of U.S. policies and their disastrous significance for both Latin America and the United States.

The Politics of Antipolitics

Author: Brian Loveman
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 9780842026116
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Latin America is moving toward democracy. The region's countries hold elections, choose leaders, and form new governments. But is the civilian government firmly in power? Or is the military still influencing policy and holding the elected politicians in check under the guise of guarding against corruption, instability, economic uncertainty, and other excesses of democracy? The editors of this work, Brian Loveman and Thomas M. Davies, Jr., argue that with or without direct military rule, antipolitics persists as a foundation of Latin American politics. This study examines the origins of antipolitics, traces its nineteenth- and twentieth-century history, and focuses on the years from 1965 to 1995 to emphasize the somewhat illusory transitions to democracy. This third edition of The Politics of Antipolitics has been revised and updated to focus on the post-Cold War era. With the demise of the Soviet state and international Marxism, the Latin American military has appropriated new threats including narcoterrorism, environmental exploitation, technology transfer, and even AIDS to redefine and relegitimate its role in social, economic, and political policy. The editors also address why and how the military rulers acceded to the return of civilian-elected governments and the military's defense against accusations of human rights abuses.

Borders Fences and Walls

Author: Elisabeth Vallet
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317173074
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Twenty years after the fall of the Berlin Wall, the question remains ’Do good fences still make good neighbours’? Since the Great Wall of China, the Antonine Wall, built in Scotland to support Hadrian's Wall, the Roman ’Limes’ or the Danevirk fence, the ’wall’ has been a constant in the protection of defined entities claiming sovereignty, East and West. But is the wall more than an historical relict for the management of borders? In recent years, the wall has been given renewed vigour in North America, particularly along the U.S.-Mexico border, and in Israel-Palestine. But the success of these new walls in the development of friendly and orderly relations between nations (or indeed, within nations) remains unclear. What role does the wall play in the development of security and insecurity? Do walls contribute to a sense of insecurity as much as they assuage fears and create a sense of security for those 'behind the line'? Exactly what kind of security is associated with border walls? This book explores the issue of how the return of the border fences and walls as a political tool may be symptomatic of a new era in border studies and international relations. Taking a multidisciplinary approach, this volume examines problems that include security issues ; the recurrence and/or decline of the wall; wall discourses ; legal approaches to the wall; the ’wall industry’ and border technology, as well as their symbolism, role, objectives and efficiency.

Promised Land Crusader State

Author: Walter A. McDougall
Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
ISBN: 9780395901328
Format: PDF, Mobi
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A look at America's foreign policy over the past two hundred years posits the theory that America is struggling with two visions of itself as reflected in its foreign policy

Special Providence

Author: Walter Russell Mead
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136758674
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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"God has a special providence for fools, drunks and the United States of America."--Otto von Bismarck America's response to the September 11 attacks spotlighted many of the country's longstanding goals on the world stage: to protect liberty at home, to secure America's economic interests, to spread democracy in totalitarian regimes and to vanquish the enemy utterly. One of America's leading foreign policy thinkers, Walter Russell Mead, argues that these diverse, conflicting impulses have in fact been the key to the U.S.'s success in the world. In a sweeping new synthesis, Mead uncovers four distinct historical patterns in foreign policy, each exemplified by a towering figure from our past. Wilsonians are moral missionaries, making the world safe for democracy by creating international watchdogs like the U.N. Hamiltonians likewise support international engagement, but their goal is to open foreign markets and expand the economy. Populist Jacksonians support a strong military, one that should be used rarely, but then with overwhelming force to bring the enemy to its knees. Jeffersonians, concerned primarily with liberty at home, are suspicious of both big military and large-scale international projects. A striking new vision of America's place in the world, Special Providence transcends stale debates about realists vs. idealists and hawks vs. doves to provide a revolutionary, nuanced, historically-grounded view of American foreign policy.