Non Equilibrium Nano Physics

Author: Jonas Fransson
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9048192102
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The aim of this book is to present a formulation of the non-equilibrium physics in nanoscale systems in terms of many-body states and operators and, in addition, discuss a diagrammatic approach to Green functions expressed by many-body states. The intention is not to give an account of strongly correlated systems as such. Thus, the focus of this book ensues from the typical questions that arise when addressing nanoscale systems from a practical point of view, e.g. current-voltage asymmetries, negative differential conductance, spin-dependent tunneling. The focus is on nanoscale systems constituted of complexes of subsystems interacting with one another, under non-equilibrium conditions, in which the local properties of the subsystems are preferably being described in terms of its (many-body) eigenstates.

Atomistic Spin Dynamics

Author: Olle Eriksson
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191092908
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The purpose of this book is to provide a theoretical foundation and an understanding of atomistic spin-dynamics (ASD), and to give examples of where the atomistic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation can and should be used. As argued in the text, a description of magnetism in an atomistic way is very natural and allows for an interpretation of experimental results in a clear and deep way. This description also allows for calculations, from first principles, of all parameters needed to perform the spin-dynamics simulations, without using experimental results as input to the simulations. As shown in the book, we are now at a very exciting situation, where it is possible to perform accurate and efficient atomistic simulations on a length- and time-scale which is balancing on the edge of what is experimentally possible. In this way, ASD simulations can both validate and be validated by state-of-the art experiments, and ASD simulations also have the possibility to act as a predictive tool that is able to explain the magnetization dynamics in experimentally inaccessible situations. The purpose of this book has been to communicate technically relevant concepts. An even larger motivation is to communicate an inspiration to magnetism and magnetization dynamics, and the emerging technological fields that one may foresee, e.g. in magnonics, solitonics and skyrmionics.

Nonequilibrium Green s Functions Approach to Inhomogeneous Systems

Author: Karsten Balzer
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3642350828
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book offers a self-contained introduction to non-equilibrium quantum particle dynamics for inhomogeneous systems, including a survey of recent breakthroughs pioneered by the authors and others. The approach is based on real-time Green’s functions.

Nanophysics Coherence and Transport

Author:
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080461243
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The developments of nanofabrication in the past years have enabled the design of electronic systems that exhibit spectacular signatures of quantum coherence. Nanofabricated quantum wires and dots containing a small number of electrons are ideal experimental playgrounds for probing electron-electron interactions and their interplay with disorder. Going down to even smaller scales, molecules such as carbon nanotubes, fullerenes or hydrogen molecules can now be inserted in nanocircuits. Measurements of transport through a single chain of atoms have been performed as well. Much progress has also been made in the design and fabrication of superconducting and hybrid nanostructures, be they normal/superconductor or ferromagnetic/superconductor. Quantum coherence is then no longer that of individual electronic states, but rather that of a superconducting wavefunction of a macroscopic number of Cooper pairs condensed in the same quantum mechanical state. Beyond the study of linear response regime, the physics of non-equilibrium transport (including non-linear transport, rectification of a high frequency electric field as well as shot noise) has received much attention, with significant experimental and theoretical insights. All these quantities exhibit very specific signatures of the quantum nature of transport, which cannot be obtained from basic conductance measurements. Basic concepts and analytical tools needed to understand this new physics are presented in a series of theoretical fundamental courses, in parallel with more phenomenological ones where physics is discussed in a less formal way and illustrated by many experiments. · Electron-electron interactions in one-dimensional quantum transport · Coulomb Blockade and Kondo physics in quantum dots · Out of equilibrium noise and quantum transport · Andreev reflection and subgap nonlinear transport in hybrid N/S nanosructures. · Transport through atomic contacts · Solid state Q-bits · Written by leading experts in the field, both theorists and experimentalists

Frontiers and Challenges in Warm Dense Matter

Author: Frank Graziani
Publisher: Springer Science & Business
ISBN: 3319049127
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Warm Dense Matter (WDM) occupies a loosely defined region of phase space intermediate between solid, liquid, gas, and plasma, and typically shares characteristics of two or more of these phases. WDM is generally associated with the combination of strongly coupled ions and moderately degenerate electrons, and careful attention to quantum physics and electronic structure is essential. The lack of a small perturbation parameter greatly limits approximate attempts at its accurate description. Since WDM resides at the intersection of solid state and high energy density physics, many high energy density physics (HEDP) experiments pass through this difficult region of phase space. Thus, understanding and modeling WDM is key to the success of experiments on diverse facilities. These include the National Ignition Campaign centered on the National Ignition Facility (NIF), pulsed-power driven experiments on the Z machine, ion-beam-driven WDM experiments on the NDCX-II, and fundamental WDM research at the Linear Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Warm Dense Matter is also ubiquitous in planetary science and astrophysics, particularly with respect to unresolved questions concerning the structure and age of the gas giants, the nature of exosolar planets, and the cosmochronology of white dwarf stars. In this book we explore established and promising approaches to the modeling of WDM, foundational issues concerning the correct theoretical description of WDM, and the challenging practical issues of numerically modeling strongly coupled systems with many degrees of freedom.

NIC Symposium 2010

Author: John-von-Neumann-Institut für Computing (Jülich)
Publisher: Forschungszentrum Jülich
ISBN: 3893366067
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Quantum and Semi classical Percolation and Breakdown in Disordered Solids

Author: Asok K. Sen
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3540854282
Format: PDF
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This lecture notes in physics volume mainly focuses on the semi classical and qu- tum aspects of percolation and breakdown in disordered, composite or granular s- tems. The main reason for this undertaking has been the fact that, of late, there have been a lot of (theoretical) work on quantum percolation, but there is not even a (single) published review on the topic (and, of course, no book). Also, there are many theoretical and experimental studies on the nonlinear current-voltage characteristics both away from, as well as one approaches, an electrical breakdown in composite materials. Some of the results are quite intriguing and may broadly be explained utilising a semi classical (if not, fully quantum mechanical) tunnelling between - cron or nano-sized metallic islands dispersed separated by thin insulating layers, or in other words, between the dangling ends of small percolation clusters. There have also been several (theoretical) studies of Zener breakdown in Mott or Anderson in- lators. Again, there is no review available, connecting them in any coherent fashion. A compendium volume connecting these experimental and theoretical studies should be unique and very timely, and hence this volume. The book is organised as follows. For completeness, we have started with a short and concise introduction on classical percolation. In the ?rst chapter, D. Stauffer reviews the scaling theory of classical percolation emphasizing (biased) diffusion, without any quantum effects. The next chapter by A. K.

Casimir Physics

Author: Diego Dalvit
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 364220287X
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Casimir effects serve as primary examples of directly observable manifestations of the nontrivial properties of quantum fields, and as such are attracting increasing interest from quantum field theorists, particle physicists, and cosmologists. Furthermore, though very weak except at short distances, Casimir forces are universal in the sense that all material objects are subject to them. They are thus also an increasingly important part of the physics of atom-surface interactions, while in nanotechnology they are being investigated not only as contributors to ‘stiction’ but also as potential mechanisms for actuating micro-electromechanical devices. While the field of Casimir physics is expanding rapidly, it has reached a level of maturity in some important respects: on the experimental side, where most sources of imprecision in force measurements have been identified as well as on the theoretical side, where, for example, semi-analytical and numerical methods for the computation of Casimir forces between bodies of arbitrary shape have been successfully developed. This book is, then, a timely and comprehensive guide to the essence of Casimir (and Casimir-Polder) physics that will have lasting value, serving the dual purpose of an introduction and reference to the field. While this volume is not intended to be a unified textbook, but rather a collection of largely independent chapters written by prominent experts in the field, the detailed and carefully written articles adopt a style that should appeal to non-specialist researchers in the field as well as to a broader audience of graduate students.