Non State Actor Dynamics in International Law

Author: Cedric Ryngaert
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317086929
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Non-state actors have always been treated with ambivalence in the works of international law. While their empirical existence is widely acknowledged and their impact and influence uncontested, non-state actors are still not in the centre of international legal research. The idea that non-state actors are not law-makers, however, stands in sharp contrast with the growing notion of non-state actors as law-takers. This book examines the position of non-state actors in international law as law-makers and law-takers and questions whether these different positions can or should be separated from each other. Each contribution reveals both the political and normative aspects of the question as well as the positivistic possibilities and constraints to accommodate non-state actors as law-takers and law-makers in the contemporary international legal system. Altogether, each expert reveals that the position of non-state actors in international law is not a fixed one but changes with the functional and theoretical perspectives of the observer. Non-State Actor Dynamics in International Law is a welcomed addition to an under researched field of legal study. An indispensable read to scholars and policy makers wishing to gain new insights into general discourse on non-state actors in international law and the process of norm formation in the international realm.

Non State Actors and International Law

Author: Andrea Bianchi
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351914383
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The expression 'non-state actors' has become part and parcel of the common parlance of international lawyers. Together with the traditional subjects of international law, such as states and international organizations, non-state actors play an important role in international law-making, law-adjudication and law-enforcement processes. Although the subjects/actors discourse takes place in a variety of contexts, most of the time the relevant narrative merely describes how different actors participate in the legal process in any given area. Little attention has been drawn to the theoretical discourse about non-state actors and its relation to the doctrine of the subjects of international law. Whether the solution lies in 'relativizing' the subjects or rather in 'subjectivizing' the actors remains open to doubt. The constant swing of the pendulum from the normative to the descriptive mesmerizes the observer but hardly hides the struggle for determining who may legitimately and authoritatively perform legally relevant acts on the international scene.

Participants in the International Legal System

Author: Jean d'Aspremont
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1136724931
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The book features contributions by renowned scholars each of whom looks at a region, theory or tradition of international law, and considers how that approach to international law has determined the understanding of the role and status of non-State actors within that particular school of thought. The book takes a critical approach as it seeks to gauge the extent to which each conception and understanding of international law is instrumental to that perception of non-State actors. In undertaking this study the book necessarily assess the current position of the State in the international legal order and examine the contemporary changes that have affected the State itself.

Extracting Accountability from Non State Actors in International Law

Author: Lee James McConnell
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317220560
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The human rights of communities in many resource-rich, weak governance States are adversely affected, not only by the acts of States and their agents, but also by powerful non-State actors. Contemporary phenomena such as globalisation, privatisation and the proliferation of internal armed conflict have all contributed to the increasing public influence of these entities and the correlative decline in State power. This book responds to the persistent challenges stemming from non-State actors linked to extractive industries. In light of the intersecting roles of multinational enterprises and non-State armed groups in this context, these actors are adopted as the primary analytical vehicles. The operations of these entities highlight the practical flaws of existing accountability regimes and permit an exploration of the theoretical challenges that preclude their direct legal regulation at the international level. Drawing insights from discursive democracy, compliance theories and the Pure Theory of Law, the book establishes a conceptual foundation for the creation of binding international obligations addressing non-State actors. Responding to the recent calls for a binding business and human rights treaty at the UN Human Rights Council, and the growing influence of armed non-State actors, the book makes a timely contribution to debates surrounding the direction of future developments in the field of international human rights law.

Non State Actors in International Law

Author: Math Noortmann
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 150990185X
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The role and position of non-state actors in international law is the subject of a long-standing and intensive scholarly debate. This book explores the participation of this new category of actors in an international legal system that has historically been dominated by states. It explores the most important issues, actors and theoretical approaches with respect to these new participants in international law. It provides the reader with a comprehensive and state-of-the-art overview of the most important legal and political developments and perspectives. Relevant non-state actors discussed in this volume include, in particular, international governmental organisations, international non-governmental organisations, multinational companies, investors and armed opposition groups. Their legal position is considered in relation to specific issue-areas, such as humanitarian law, human rights, the use of force and international responsibility. The main legal theories on non-state actors' position in international law ? neo-positivism, the policy-oriented approach and transnational law ? are covered at the beginning of the book, and the essential political science perspectives ? on non-state actors' role in international politics and globalisation, as well as their soft power ? are presented at the end.

Extraterritorial Use of Force Against Non State Actors

Author: Noam Lubell
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199584842
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book examines the legality of the use of force by states against individuals and non-state groups located beyond its borders, in light of applicable international law. The issues discussed include force used in the 'war on terror', pre-emptive self defence, and targeted killings of individuals.

Armed Non State Actors in International Humanitarian and Human Rights Law

Author: Konstantinos Mastorodimos
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134800614
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The accountability of armed non-state actors is a neglected field of international law, overtaken by the regimes of state responsibility and individual criminal accountability as well as fears of legitimacy. Yet armed non-state actors are important players in the international arena and their activities have significant repercussions. This book focuses on their obligations and accountability when they do not function as state agents, regardless of the existence or extent of accountability of their individual members. The author claims that their distinct features lead to their classification into three different types: de facto entities, armed non-state actors in control of territory, and common article 3 armed non-state actors. The mechanisms that trigger the applicability of humanitarian and human rights law regimes are examined in detail as well as the framework of obligations. In both cases, the author argues that armed non-state actors should not be treated as entering international law and process exclusively through the state. The study concludes by focussing on their accountability in international humanitarian and human rights law and, more specifically, to the rules of attribution, remedies and reparations for violations of their primary obligations.

Human Rights Obligations of Non State Armed Groups

Author: Daragh Murray
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1509901655
Format: PDF
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This book is concerned with the international regulation of non-state armed groups. Specifically, it examines the possibility of subjecting armed groups to international human rights law obligations. First addressed is the means by which armed groups may be bound by international law. Of particular interest is the de facto control theory and the possibility that international law may be applied in the absence of direct treaty regulation. Application of this theory is dependent upon an armed group's establishment of an independent existence, as demonstrated by the displacement of state authority. This means that armed groups are treated as a vertical authority, thereby maintaining the established hierarchy of international regulation. At issue therefore is not a radical approach to the regulation of non-state actors, but rather a modification of the traditional means of application in response to the reality of the situation. The attribution of international human rights law obligations to armed groups is then addressed in light of potential ratione personae restrictions. International human rights law treaties are interpreted in light of the contemporary international context, on the basis that an international instrument has to be applied within the framework of the entire legal system prevailing at the time of interpretation. Armed groups' status as vertical authorities facilitates the vertical application of international human rights law in a manner consistent with both the object and purpose of the law and its foundation in human dignity. Finally, if international human rights law is to be applied to armed groups, its application must be effective in practice. A context-dependent division of responsibility between the territorial state and the armed group is proposed. The respect, protect, fulfil framework is adapted to facilitate the application of human rights obligations in a manner consistent with the control exerted by both the state and the armed group. ''Daragh Murray's book analyses the practical and theoretical difficulties associated with the topic of the international human rights obligations of non-state armed groups by considering the latest developments in this field and suggesting ways forward. His proposals are realistic and carefully argued; this book should be essential reading for anyone grappling with this subject.'' Andrew Clapham, Professor of International Law at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies.

Non state Actors and Human Rights

Author: Philip Alston
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN:
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Can transnational corporations ignore human rights as long as governments don't hold them accountable? If the UN is put in charge of a territory, is it bound by human rights law? Does that body of law apply to private security contractors who use torture to achieve their goals? Does the right to freedom of speech apply in a private shopping mall which has become the modern-day town centre? Under traditional approaches to human rights, non-State actors are beyond the direct reach of international human rights law. They cannot be parties to the relevant treaties and so they are only bound to the extent that obligations accepted by States can be applied to them by governments. The result is that entities including Non-Governmental Organizations, international organizations such as the UN and the IMF, private security contractors, and transnational corporations, along with many others, are generally considered not to be bound directly by human rights law. This situation threatens to make a mockery of much of the international system of accountability for human rights violations. As privatization, outsourcing, and downsizing place ever more public or governmental functions into the hands of private actors, the human rights regime must adapt if it is to maintain its relevance. The contributors to this volume examine the different approaches that might be taken in order to ensure some degree of accountability. Making space in the legal regime to take account of the role of non-State actors is one of the biggest and most critical challenges facing international law today.

Non Governmental Organisations in International Law

Author: Anna-Karin Lindblom
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521850889
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Even when governments have no democratic basis, they are regarded as the sole representatives of their populations on the international plane and take important decisions on their behalf. It is therefore important that other voices can be heard in international fora alongside governments. NGOs have an increasingly important legal and political role and use several different avenues for their work, such as lodging cases before international courts and other bodies and participating in international meetings and conferences. This book explores these possibilities for the participation of NGOs in international law.