Nondestructive Characterization and Imaging of Wood

Author: Voichita Bucur
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3662089866
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book on the Nondestructive Characterization and Imaging of Wood by Professor Voichita Bucur is truly the most outstanding reference on the subject ever written. Since the origins of mankind, wood has played a key role in the history of humans and other living creatures, ranging from provision of life from trees giving air, heat, light, and food to nourish their bodies to structures to protect them from the elements. Wood has also played a key role in one of the world's primary religions. Nondestructive diagnostics methods have long found application in medi cal practice for examination of the human body in order to detect life threatening abnormalities and permit diagnosis to extend life. Nondestructive testing has been used for many years to insure the safety of machinery, air craft, railroads, tunnels, buildings and many other structures. Therefore, it is timely for a treatise, like the present one, to be written describing how wood can be characterized without employing destructive test methods. Since wood is so valuable to mankind, it is important to know the latest methods to nondestructively characterize wood for all practical applications.

Delamination in Wood Wood Products and Wood Based Composites

Author: Voichita Bucur
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789048195503
Format: PDF, ePub
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In the last quarter century, delamination has come to mean more than just a failure in adhesion between layers of bonded composite plies that might affect their load-bearing capacity. Ever-increasing computer power has meant that we can now detect and analyze delamination between, for example, cell walls in solid wood. This fast-moving and critically important field of study is covered in a book that provides everyone from manufacturers to research scientists the state of the art in wood delamination studies. Divided into three sections, the book first details the general aspects of the subject, from basic information including terminology, to the theoretical basis for the evaluation of delamination. A settled terminology in this subject area is a first key goal of the book, as the terms which describe delamination in wood and wood-based composites are numerous and often confusing. The second section examines different and highly specialized methods for delamination detection such as confocal laser scanning microscopy, light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and ultrasonics. Ways in which NDE (non-destructive evaluation) can be employed to detect and locate defects are also covered. The book’s final section focuses on the practical aspects of this defect in a wide range of wood products covering the spectrum from trees, logs, laminated panels and glued laminated timbers to parquet floors. Intended as a primary reference, this book covers everything from the microscopic, anatomical level of delamination within solid wood sections to an examination of the interface of wood and its surface coatings. It provides readers with the perspective of industry as well as laboratory and is thus a highly practical sourcebook for wood engineers working in manufacturing as well as a comprehensively referenced text for materials scientists wrestling with the theory underlying the subject.

Ultrasonics

Author: Dale Ensminger
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0824758897
Format: PDF
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Recent advances in power electronics greatly benefit the multidisciplinary field of modern ultrasonics. More powerful, compact, and versatile electronic chips and software enable new computer-based devices for real-time data capture, storage, analysis, and display and advance the science and technology employed in commercial systems and applications of ultrasound. Reviewing the scientific basis behind these improvements, Ultrasonics: Fundamentals, Technologies, and Applications, Third Edition discusses them in detail, with new and additional figures and references, offering a completely revised and expanded examination of the state of modern ultrasonics. This new edition of a bestselling industry reference discusses the full breadth of ultrasonics applications for industrial and medical use and provides the fundamentals and insights gathered over the authors’ collective 80 years in the field. It provides a unique and comprehensive treatment of the science and technology behind the latest advancements and applications in both low and high power implementations. Coverage combines fundamental physics, a review and analysis of sensors and transducers, and the systems required for the full spectrum of industrial, nondestructive testing and medical and biomedical uses. It includes citations of numerous references and covers both main stream and the more unusual and obscure applications of ultrasound. Ultrasonics is ubiquitous in its industrial applications for sensing, NDT, and process measurements, in high power forms for processing and sonochemistry, as well as in medical procedures where it is used for diagnosis, therapy and surgery. This book provides a complete overview of the field, presenting numerous applications, cutting-edge advancements and improvements, additional figures and references, and a look at future directions.

In Situ Assessment of Structural Timber

Author: Bohumil Kasal
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400705609
Format: PDF
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Wood is one of the most intriguing structural materials and the only one that is truly renewable. Along with stone, wood is the oldest structural material on the planet and has been extensively used throughout human history. Due to its aesthetical value and positive environmental impact, wood has experienced a renaissance in construction. As a biodegradable, hygroscopic, non-isotropic material, wood presents special challenges for a professional and requires through knowledge ranging from biology to continuum mechanics. This state-of-the-art report reflects the current knowledge in the area of in situ assessment of the physical and mechanical properties of wood structures. Nondestructive, semi-destructive and destructive methods are described in a systematic manner where technology, equipment and limitations are discussed. Some of the discussed methods are used in other materials such as masonry and concrete. Most of the methods, however, are specific to wood and special qualifications are required to understand and apply these methods effectively. Existing methods are constantly improved and new methods are being developed. This report includes methods that are used in practice or have shown significant promise and have a body of knowledge that supports statements made in this report. This is a useable tool for professionals, researchers, educators and students

Wood is Good

Author: Krishna K. Pandey
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811031150
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book is a compilation of selected papers presented in the International Conference on the theme ‘Wood is Good: Current Trends and Future Prospects in Wood’. The contents of the book deal with recent innovations, trends and challenges in wood science and are grouped in five distinct sections. They cover a wide range of topics like wood variability, processing and utilization, wood protection, wood-based composites, wood energy and the role of wood in mitigating climate change. With the ever increasing human population and growing demand for wood, this book offers valuable insights for better understanding and efficient utilization of this wonderful gift of nature. This book will be useful to researchers, professionals, and policy makers involved in forestry and wood related areas.

Materials and Joints in Timber Structures

Author: Simon Aicher
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400778112
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book contains the contributions from the RILEM International Symposium on Materials and Joints in Timber Structures that was held in Stuttgart, Germany from October 8 to 10, 2013. It covers recent developments in the materials and the joints used in modern timber structures. Regarding basic wooden materials, the contributions highlight the widened spectrum of products comprising cross-laminated timber, glulam and LVL from hardwoods and block glued elements. Timber concrete compounds, cement bonded wood composites and innovative light-weight constructions represent increasingly employed alternatives for floors, bridges and facades. With regard to jointing technologies, considerable advances in both mechanical connections and glued joints are presented. Self-tapping screws have created unprecedented options for reliable, strong as well as ductile joints and reinforcement technologies. Regarding adhesives, which constitute the basis of the jointing/laminating technology of modern timber products, extended options for tailor-made bonding solutions have to be stated. Apart from melamine-urea and phenolic-resorcinol adhesives, one-component-polyurethanes, emulsion isocyanate polymers and epoxies offer a wide range of possibilities. The contributions dealing with experimental and numerical investigations on static, cyclic and seismic behavior of structures clearly reveal the enhanced potential of modern timber construction for reliable and sustainable buildings and bridges of the new millennium. The book is structured in nine thematic areas, being I) Structures II) Mechanical Connections III) Glued Joints and Adhesives IV) Timber and Concrete/Cement/Polymer Composites V) Cyclic, Seismic Behavior VI) Hardwood, Modified Wood and Bamboo VII) Cross-Laminated Timber VIII) Properties and Testing of Wood IX) Glulam

Nondestructive Testing of Materials and Structures

Author: Oral Büyüköztürk
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400707231
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Condition assessment and characterization of materials and structures by means of nondestructive testing (NDT) methods is a priority need around the world to meet the challenges associated with the durability, maintenance, rehabilitation, retrofitting, renewal and health monitoring of new and existing infrastructures including historic monuments. Numerous NDT methods that make use of certain components of the electromagnetic and acoustic spectrum are currently in use to this effect with various levels of success and there is an intensive worldwide research effort aimed at improving the existing methods and developing new ones. The knowledge and information compiled in this book captures the current state of the art in NDT methods and their application to civil and other engineering materials and structures. Critical reviews and advanced interdisciplinary discussions by world-renowned researchers point to the capabilities and limitations of the currently used NDT methods and shed light on current and future research directions to overcome the challenges in their development and practical use. In this respect, the contents of this book will equally benefit practicing engineers and researchers who take part in characterization, assessment and health monitoring of materials and structures.

Nondestructive Characterization of Materials IV

Author: J.F. Bussière
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780306440472
Format: PDF
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There is a great deal of interest in extending nondestructive technologies beyond the location and identification of cracks and voids. Specifically there is growing interest in the application of nondestructive evaluation (NOEl to the measurement of physical and mechanical properties of materials. The measurement of materials properties is often referred to as materials characterization; thus nondestructive techniques applied to characterization become nondestructive characterization (NDCl. There are a number of meetings, proceedings and journals focused upon nondestructive technologies and the detection and identification of cracks and voids. However, the series of symposia, of which these proceedings represent the fourth, are the only meetings uniquely focused upon nondestructive characterization. Moreover, these symposia are especially concerned with stimulating communication between the materials, mechanical and manufacturing engineer and the NDE technology oriented engineer and scientist. These symposia recognize that it is the welding of these areas of expertise that is necessary for practical development and application of NDC technology to measurements of components for in service life time and sensor technology for intelligent processing of materials. These proceedings are from the fourth international symposia and are edited by c.o. Ruud, J. F. Bussiere and R.E. Green, Jr. . The dates, places, etc of the symposia held to date area as follows: Symposia on Nondestructive Methods for TITLE: Material Property Determination DATES: April 6-8, 1983 PLACE: Hershey, PA, USA CHAIRPERSONS: C.O. Ruud and R.E. Green, Jr.

Neutron Methods for Archaeology and Cultural Heritage

Author: Nikolay Kardjilov
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319331639
Format: PDF, Docs
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This book provides an extensive overview of the application of neutron characterization techniques in cultural heritage to a broad audience and will be of interest to both scientists and non-scientists in the field. Archaeologists, paleontologists, restaurateurs and conservators, historians and collectors will be fascinated by the wealth of information that can be obtained using neutron techniques, while material scientists and engineers will find details of the experimental techniques and materials properties that can be determined. Neutrons, due to their weak interactions with materials, provide a penetrating, but non-invasive probe of bulk properties. They allow the characterization of the composition and mechanical properties of materials, helping to answer questions related to the dating, the manufacturing process or the state of degradation of artefacts. They allow detailed interrogation of the internal structures of objects that may be otherwise hidden from view. The first section of the book is dedicated to stories describing spectacular discoveries brought about by the use of neutron techniques in a range of applications. The second section covers the experimental techniques in appropriate detail: basic principles, limitations and fields of application.