Nordische Mythen und Sagen

Author: Neil Gaiman
Publisher: BASTEI LÜBBE
ISBN: 3732539962
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Warum bebt die Erde? Wie entstanden Ebbe und Flut? Wie kam die Poesie in unsere Welt? Neil Gaiman erzählt die nordischen Sagen und Mythen neu, mit Witz und Sinnlichkeit, voller Zuneigung und Neugierde. Wir machen Bekanntschaft mit dem mächtigen Odin, reisen mit Thor und seinem Hammer durch die neun nordischen Welten, sind bezaubert von den Göttern und entsetzt von mancher Skrupellosigkeit. Machen Sie sich die Sagen zu eigen, erzählen Sie sie weiter, an den langen kalten Winterabenden, in den lauen Sommernächten. Nach der Lektüre werden Sie selbst die Wolken mit anderen Augen betrachten.

Norse Mythology A to Z

Author: Facts On File, Incorporated
Publisher: Infobase Publishing
ISBN: 1438128010
Format: PDF
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Alphabetically listed entries identify and explain the characters, events, important places, and other aspects of Norse mythology.

Norse Mythology

Author: John Lindow
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199839698
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Norse Mythology explores the magical myths and legends of Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Iceland and Viking-Age Greenland and outlines the way the prehistoric tales and beliefs from these regions that have remained embedded in the imagination of the world. The book begins with an Introduction that helps put Scandinavian mythology in place in history, followed by a chapter that explains the meaning of mythic time, and a third section that presents in-depth explanations of each mythological term. These fascinating entries identify particular deities and giants, as well as the places where they dwell and the varied and wily means by which they forge their existence and battle one another. We meet Thor, one of the most powerful gods, who specializes in killing giants using a hammer made for him by dwarfs, not to mention myriad trolls, ogres, humans and strange animals. We learn of the ongoing struggle between the gods, who create the cosmos, and the jötnar, or giants, who aim to destroy it. In the enchanted world where this mythology takes place, we encounter turbulent rivers, majestic mountains, dense forests, storms, fierce winters, eagles, ravens, salmon and snakes in a landscape closely resembling Scandinavia. Beings travel on ships and on horseback; they eat slaughtered meat and drink mead. Spanning from the inception of the universe and the birth of human beings to the universe's destruction and the mythic future, these sparkling tales of creation and destruction, death and rebirth, gods and heroes will entertain readers and offer insight into the relationship between Scandinavian myth, history, and culture.

Storytelling

Author: Josepha Sherman
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317459385
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Storytelling is an ancient practice known in all civilizations throughout history. Characters, tales, techniques, oral traditions, motifs, and tale types transcend individual cultures - elements and names change, but the stories are remarkably similar with each rendition, highlighting the values and concerns of the host culture. Examining the stories and the oral traditions associated with different cultures offers a unique view of practices and traditions."Storytelling: An Encyclopedia of Mythology and Folklore" brings past and present cultures of the world to life through their stories, oral traditions, and performance styles. It combines folklore and mythology, traditional arts, history, literature, and festivals to present an overview of world cultures through their liveliest and most fascinating mode of expression. This appealing resource includes specific storytelling techniques as well as retellings of stories from various cultures and traditions.

UXL Encyclopedia of World Mythology set 5 Volumes Cengage Learning 2009

Author: Cengage Learning
Publisher: Bukupedia
ISBN: 1414430302
Format: PDF, Docs
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Types of Entries Found in This Book Character entries generally focus on a single mythical character, such as a hero. In some cases, character entries deal with groups of similar or related beings—for example, Trolls or Valkyries. Deities (gods) are found in their own unique type of entry. Deity entries contain information about a god or goddess. An example would be Zeus (pronounced ZOOS), the leader of the ancient The UXL Encyclopedia of World Mythology examines the major characters, stories, and themes of mythologies from cultures around the globe, from African to Zoroastrian. Arranged alphabetically in an A– Z format, each entry provides the reader with an overview of the topic as well as contextual analysis to explain the topic's importance to the culture from which it came. In addition, each entry explains the topic's influence on modern life, and prompts the reader with a discussion question or reading/writing suggestion to inspire further analysis. There are five different types of entries: Character, Deity, Myth, Theme, and Culture. The entry types are designated by icons that are shown in a legend that appears on each page starting a new letter grouping so that you can easily tell which type of entry you are reading. Greek gods. Deities are very similar to other mythical characters, except that they often appear in many different myths; each Deity entry provides a summary of the most important myths related to that deity. Myth entries focus on a specific story as opposed to a certain character. One example is the entry on the Holy Grail, which tells the legend of the vessel’s origins as well as the many people who sought to xix locate it. In some cases, the myth is primarily concerned with a single character; the entry on the Golden Fleece, for example, features Jason as the main character. Like the Holy Grail entry, however, this entry focuses on the legends surrounding the object in question rather than the character involved. Theme entries examine how one single theme, idea, or motif is addressed in the mythologies of different cultures. An example would be the Reincarnation entry that examines different cultural depictions of this eternal cycle of death and rebirth. Culture entries contain a survey of the myths and beliefs of a particular culture. Each entry also provides historical and cultural context for understanding how the culture helped to shape, or was shaped by, the beliefs of other cultures. Types of Rubrics Found in This Book Each entry type is organized in specific rubrics to allow for ease of comparison across entries. The rubrics that appear in these entries are: Character/Myth/Theme Overview; Core Deities and Characters; Major Myths; [Subject] in Context; Key Themes and Symbols; [Subject] in Art, Literature, and Everyday Life; and Read, Write, Think, Discuss. In addition, the character, deity, and myth entries all have key facts sections in the margins that provide basic information about the entry, including the country or culture of origin, a pronunciation guide where necessary, alternate names for the character (when applicable), written or other sources in which the subject appears, and information on the character’s family (when applicable). Character Overview offers detailed information about the character’s place within the mythology of its given culture. This may include information about the character’s personality, summaries of notable feats, and relationships with other mythological characters. Myth Overview includes a summary of the myth being discussed. Theme Overview provides a brief description of the theme being discussed, as well as a rundown of the major points common when examining that theme in different mythologies. Core Deities and Characters includes brief descriptions of the main deities and other characters that figure prominently in the given culture’s mythology. This is not a comprehensive list of all the gods or characters mentioned in a particular culture. READER’S GUIDE xx UXL Encyclopedia of World Mythology Major Myths features a brief summary of all the most important or best-known myths related to the subject of the entry. For example, the entry on Odin (pronounced OH-din), chief god of Norse mythology, includes the tale describing how he gave up one of his eyes in order to be able to see the future. [Subject] in Context provides additional cultural and historical information that helps you understand the subject by seeing through the eyes of the people who made it part of their culture. The entry on the weaver Arachne (pronounced uh-RAK-nee), for instance, includes information on the importance of weaving as a domestic duty in ancient Greece. Key Themes and Symbols outlines the most important themes in the tales related to the subject. This section also includes explanations of symbols associated with the subject of the entry, or which appear in myths related to the subject. For example, this section may explain the meaning of certain objects a god is usually shown carrying. [Subject] in Art, Literature, and Everyday Life includes references to the subject in well-known works of art, literature, film, and other media. This section may also mention other ways in which the subject appears in popular culture. For example, the fact that a leprechaun (pronounced LEP-ruh-kawn) appears as the mascot for Lucky Charms cereal is mentioned in this section of the Leprechauns entry. Read, Write, Think, Discuss uses the material in the entry as a springboard for further discussion and learning. This section may include suggestions for further reading that are related to the subject of the entry, discussion questions regarding topics touched upon in the entry, writing prompts that explore related issues and themes, or research prompts that encourage you to delve deeper into the topics presented. Most of the entries end with cross-references that point you to related entries in the encyclopedia. In addition, words that appear in bold within the entry are also related entries, making it easy to find additional information that will enhance your understanding of the topic. Other Sections in This Book This encyclopedia also contains other sections that you may find useful when studying world mythology. One of these is a “Timeline of World Mythology,” which provides important dates from many cultures that xxi READER’S GUIDE UXL Encyclopedia of World Mythology are important to the development of their respective mythologies. A glossary in the front matter supplements the definitions that are included within the entries. Teachers will find the section on “Research and Activity Ideas” helpful in coming up with classroom activities related to the topic of mythology to engage students further in the subject. A section titled “Where to Learn More” provides you with other sources to learn more about the topic of mythology, organized by culture. You will also encounter sidebars in many of the entries; these sections offer interesting information that is related to, but not essential to, your understanding of the subject of the entry. Comments and Suggestions We welcome your comments on the UXL Encyclopedia of World Mythology and suggestions for other topics to consider. Please write to Editors, UXL Encyclopedia of World Mythology, Gale, 27500 Drake Rd., Farmington Hills, Michigan, 48331-3535. READER’S GUIDE xxii UXL Encyclopedia of World Mythology Introduction On the surface, myths are stories of gods, heroes, and monsters that can include fanciful tales about the creation and destruction of worlds, or awe-inspiring adventures of brave explorers in exotic or supernatural places. However, myths are not just random imaginings; they are cultivated and shaped by the cultures in which they arise. For this reason, a myth can function as a mirror for the culture that created it, reflecting the values, geographic location, natural resources, technological state, and social organization of the people who believe in it. Values The values of a culture are often revealed through that culture’s myths and legends. For example, a myth common in Micronesian culture tells of a porpoise girl who married a human and had children; after living many years as a human, she decided to return to the sea. Before she left, she warned her children against eating porpoise, since they might unknowingly eat some of their own family members by doing so. Myths such as these are often used to provide colorful reasons for taboos, or rules against certain behaviors. In this case, the myth explains a taboo among the Micronesian peoples against hunting and eating porpoises. Geography Myths often reflect a culture’s geographic circumstances. For example, the people of the Norse culture live in a region that has harsh, icy winters. It is no coincidence that, according to their myths, the being whose death led to the creation of the world was a giant made of frost. By contrast, the people of ancient Egypt lived in an dry, sunny land; their xxiii most important gods, such as Ra, were closely associated with the sun. Geographic features are also often part of a culture’s myths, or used as inspiration for mythological tales. Spider Rock, a tall peak located at Canyon de Chelly National Monument in Arizona, is said by the Hopi people to be the home of the creation goddess Spider Woman. The Atlas mountains in northern Africa took their name from the myth that the Titan Atlas (pronounced AT-luhs) had once stood there holding up the heavens, but had been transformed to stone in order to make his task easier. Natural Resources Myths can also reflect the natural resources available to a culture, or the resources most prized by a certain group. In Mesoamerican and American Indian myths, maize (commonly referred to as corn) often appears as a food offered directly from gods or goddesses, or grown from the body of a deity. This reflects not only the importance of maize in the diets of early North and Central American cultures, but also the ready availability of maize, which does not appear as a native plant anywhere else in the world. Similarly, the olive tree, which is native to the coastal areas along the Mediterranean Sea, is one of the most important trees in ancient Greek myth. The city of Athens, it is said, was named for the goddess Athena (pronounced uh-THEE-nuh) after she gave its citizens the very first domesticated olive tree. Sometimes, myths can reflect the importance of natural resources to an outside culture. For example, the Muisca people of what is now Colombia engaged in a ceremony in which their king covered himself in gold dust and took a raft out to the middle of a local lake; there he threw gold trinkets into the water as offerings to the gods. Gold was not commonly available, and was prized for its ceremonial significance; however, when Spanish explorers arrived in the New World and heard of this practice, they interpreted this to mean that gold must be commonplace in the area. This led to the myth of El Dorado, an entire city made of gold that many Spanish explorers believed to exist and spent decades trying to locate. Technology A culture’s state of technological development can also be reflected in its myths. The earliest ancient Greek myths of Uranus (pronounced INTRODUCTION xxiv UXL Encyclopedia of World Mythology YOOR-uh-nuhs) state that his son Cronus (pronounced KROH-nuhs) attacked him with a sickle made of obsidian. Obsidian is a stone that can be chipped to create a sharp edge, and was used by cultures older than the ancient Greeks, who relied on metals such as bronze and steel for their weapons. This might suggest that the myth arose from an earlier age; at the very least, it reflects the idea that, from the perspective of the Greeks, the myth took place in the distant past. Social Order Myths can also offer a snapshot of a culture’s social organization. The Old Testament tale of the Tower of Babel offers an explanation for the many tribes found in the ancient Near East: they had once been united, and sought to build a tower that would reach all the way to heaven. In order to stop this act of self-importance, God caused the people to speak in different languages. Unable to understand each other, they abandoned the ambitious project and scattered into groups across the region. Besides offering social order, myths can reinforce cultural views on the roles different types of individuals should assume in a society. The myth of Arachne (pronounced uh-RAK-nee) illustrates a fact known from other historical sources: weaving and fabric-making was the domestic duty of wives and daughters, and it was a skill highly prized in the homes of ancient Greece. Tales of characters such as Danaë (pronounced DAN-uh-ee), who was imprisoned in a tower by her father in order to prevent her from having a child, indicate the relative powerlessness of many women in ancient Greek society. Different Cultures, Different Perspectives To see how cultures reflect their own unique characteristics through myth, one can examine how a single theme—such as fertility—is treated in a variety of different cultures. Fertility is the ability to produce life, growth, or offspring, and is therefore common in most, if not all, mythologies. For many cultures, fertility is a key element in the creation of the world. The egg, one of the most common symbols of fertility, appears in Chinese mythology as the first object to form from the disorder that previously existed in place of the world. In many cultures, including ancient Greece, the main gods are born from a single mother; xxv INTRODUCTION UXL Encyclopedia of World Mythology in the case of the Greeks, the mother is Gaia (pronounced GAY-uh), also known as Earth. For cultures that relied upon agriculture, fertility was an important element of the changing seasons and the growth of crops. In these cases, fertility was seen as a gift from nature that could be revoked by cruel weather or the actions of the gods. Such is the case in the ancient Greek myth of Persephone (pronounced per-SEF-uh-nee); when the goddess is taken to the underworld by Hades (pronounced HAY-deez), her mother—the fertility goddess Demeter (pronounced di-MEE-ter)— became sad, which caused all vegetation to wither and die. For the ancient Egyptians, fertility represented not just crop growth and human birth, but also rebirth into the afterlife through death. This explains why Hathor (pronounced HATH-or), the mother goddess of fertility who supported all life, was also the maintainer of the dead. It was believed that Hathor provided food for the dead to help them make the long journey to the realm of the afterlife. For early Semitic cultures, the notion of fertility was not always positive. In the story of Lilith, the little-known first wife of Adam (the first man), the independent-minded woman left her husband and went to live by the Red Sea, where she gave birth to many demons each day. The myth seems to suggest that fertility is a power that can be used for good or evil, and that the key to using this power positively is for wives to dutifully respect the wishes of their husbands. This same theme is found in the earlier Babylonian myth of Tiamat (pronounced TYAH-maht), who gave birth to not only the gods but also to an army of monsters that fought to defend her from her son, the hero Marduk (pronounced MAHR-dook). These are just a few of the many ways in which different cultures can take a single idea and interpret it through their own tales. Rest assured that the myths discussed in this book are wondrous legends that capture the imagination of the reader. They are also mirrors in which we can see not only ourselves, but the reflections of cultures old and new, far and near—allowing us to celebrate their unique differences, and at the same time recognize those common elements that make these enchanting stories universally beloved and appreciated by readers and students around the world. INTRODUCTION xxvi UXL Encyclopedia of World Mythology Timeline of World Mythology c. 3400 BCE Early Sumerian writing is first developed.

English Poetry and Old Norse Myth

Author: Heather O'Donoghue
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191034363
Format: PDF, Mobi
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English Poetry and Old Norse Myth: A History traces the influence of Old Norse myth — stories and poems about the familiar gods and goddesses of the pagan North, such as Odin, Thor, Baldr and Freyja — on poetry in English from Anglo-Saxon times to the present day. Especial care is taken to determine the precise form in which these poets encountered the mythic material, so that the book traces a parallel history of the gradual dissemination of Old Norse mythic texts. Very many major poets were inspired by Old Norse myth. Some, for instance the Anglo-Saxon poet of Beowulf, or much later, Sir Walter Scott, used Old Norse mythic references to lend dramatic colour and apparent authenticity to their presentation of a distant Northern past. Others, like Thomas Gray, or Matthew Arnold, adapted Old Norse mythological poems and stories in ways which both responded to and helped to form the literary tastes of their own times. Still others, such as William Blake, or David Jones, reworked and incorporated celebrated elements of Norse myth - valkyries weaving the fates of men, or the great World Tree Yggdrasill on which Odin sacrificed himself - as personal symbols in their own poetry. This book also considers less familiar literary figures, showing how a surprisingly large number of poets in English engaged in individual ways with Old Norse myth. English Poetry and Old Norse Myth: A History demonstrates how attitudes towards the pagan mythology of the north change over time, but reveals that poets have always recognized Old Norse myth as a vital part of the literary, political and historical legacy of the English-speaking world.

Popular Tales from Norse Mythology

Author: George Webbe Dasent
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 0486119742
Format: PDF, Kindle
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42 thrilling folktales include "Dapplegrim," "Tatterhood," "The Werewolf," "Such Women Are," "The Three Dogs," "Temptations," "The Magician's Pupil," "Legend of Tannhäuser," "The Outlaw," "The Widow's Son," "The Three Sisters Trapped in a Mountain," "The Blue Belt," "The Seven Ravens," and "The Goatherd" (source of the Rip van Winkle story).

What We Get From Norse Mythology

Author: Katherine Krieg
Publisher: Cherry Lake
ISBN: 163188946X
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book introduces readers to Norse mythology, presents legendary characters and stories, and shows how Norse myths have influenced our culture. Readers are engaged with historical content while sharpening their skills at analyzing images and identifying evidence.