Notes on Forcing Axioms

Author: Stevo Todorcevic
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814571598
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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In the mathematical practice, the Baire category method is a tool for establishing the existence of a rich array of generic structures. However, in mathematics, the Baire category method is also behind a number of fundamental results such as the Open Mapping Theorem or the Banach–Steinhaus Boundedness Principle. This volume brings the Baire category method to another level of sophistication via the internal version of the set-theoretic forcing technique. It is the first systematic account of applications of the higher forcing axioms with the stress on the technique of building forcing notions rather than on the relationship between different forcing axioms or their consistency strengths. Contents:Baire Category Theorem and the Baire Category NumbersCoding Sets by the Real NumbersConsequences in Descriptive Set TheoryConsequences in Measure TheoryVariations on the Souslin HypothesisThe S-Spaces and the L-SpacesThe Side-condition MethodIdeal DichotomiesCoherent and Lipschitz TreesApplications to the S-Space Problem and the von Neumann ProblemBiorthogonal SystemsStructure of Compact SpacesRamsey Theory on OrdinalsFive Cofinal TypesFive Linear OrderingsCardinal Arithmetic and mmReflection PrinciplesAppendices:Basic NotionsPreserving Stationary SetsHistorical and Other Comments Readership: Graduate students and researchers in logic, set theory and related fields. Key Features:This is a first systematic exposition of the unified approach for building proper, semi-proper, and stationary preserving forcing notions through the method of using elementary submodels as side conditionsThe books starts from the classical applications of Martin's axioms and ends with some of the most sophisticated applications of the Proper Forcing Axioms. In this way, the reader is led into a natural process of understanding the combinatorics hidden behind the methodKeywords:Set Theory;Forcing Axioms

Combinatorial And Toric Homotopy Introductory Lectures

Author: Darby Alastair
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9813226587
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This volume consists of introductory lectures on the topics in the new and rapidly developing area of toric homotopy theory, and its applications to the current research in configuration spaces and braids, as well as to more applicable mathematics such as fr-codes and robot motion planning. The book starts intertwining homotopy theoretical and combinatorial ideas within the remits of toric topology and illustrates an attempt to classify in a combinatorial way polytopes known as fullerenes, which are important objects in quantum physics, quantum chemistry and nanotechnology. Toric homotopy theory is then introduced as a further development of toric topology, which describes properties of Davis–Januszkiewicz spaces, moment-angle complexes and their generalizations to polyhedral products. The book also displays the current research on configuration spaces, braids, the theory of limits over the category of presentations and the theory of fr-codes. As an application to robotics, the book surveys topological problems relevant to the motion planning problem of robotics and includes new results and constructions, which enrich the emerging area of topological robotics. The book is at research entry level addressing the core components in homotopy theory and their important applications in the sciences and thus suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Contents: Toric Homotopy Theory (Stephen Theriault)Fullerenes, Polytopes and Toric Topology (Victor M Buchstaber and Nikolay Yu Erokhovets)Around Braids (Vladimir Vershinin)Higher Limits, Homology Theories and fr-Codes (Sergei O Ivanov and Roman Mikhailov)Configuration Spaces and Robot Motion Planning Algorithms (Michael Farber)Cellular Stratified Spaces (Dai Tamaki) Readership: Advanced undergraduate and graduate students as well as researchers interested in homotopy theory and its applications in the sciences. Keywords: Toric Topology;Toric Homotopy;Configuration Space;Stratified Spaces;Braid Group;Fullerene;Polytope;Virtual Braid Group;Thompson Group;Robotics;Motion PlanningReview: Key Features: The first book in the area of toric homotopy theory consisting of introductory lectures on the topics and their applications to fr-codes and robot motion planning

Slicing the Truth

Author: Denis Roman Hirschfeldt
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company Incorporated
ISBN: 9789814612616
Format: PDF
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1. Setting off: An introduction. 1.1. A measure of motivation. 1.2. Computable mathematics. 1.3. Reverse mathematics. 1.4. An overview. 1.5. Further reading -- 2. Gathering our tools: Basic concepts and notation. 2.1. Computability theory. 2.2. Computability theoretic reductions. 2.3. Forcing -- 3. Finding our path: Konig's lemma and computability. 3.1. II[symbol] classes, basis theorems, and PA degrees. 3.2. Versions of Konig's lemma -- 4. Gauging our strength: Reverse mathematics. 4.1. RCA[symbol]. 4.2. Working in RCA[symbol]. 4.3. ACA[symbol]. 4.4. WKL[symbol]. 4.5. [symbol]-models. 4.6. First order axioms. 4.7. Further remarks -- 5. In defense of disarray -- 6. Achieving consensus: Ramsey's theorem. 6.1. Three proofs of Ramsey's theorem. 6.2. Ramsey's theorem and the arithmetic hierarchy. 6.3. RT, ACA[symbol], and the Paris-Harrington theorem. 6.4. Stability and cohesiveness. 6.5. Mathias forcing and cohesive sets. 6.6. Mathias forcing and stable colorings. 6.7. Seetapun's theorem and its extensions. 6.8. Ramsey's theorem and first order axioms. 6.9. Uniformity -- 7. Preserving our power: Conservativity. 7.1. Conservativity over first order systems. 7.2. WKL[symbol] and II[symbol]-conservativity. 7.3. COH and r-II[symbol]-conservativity -- 8. Drawing a map: Five diagrams -- 9. Exploring our surroundings: The world below RT[symbol]. 9.1. Ascending and descending sequences. 9.2. Other combinatorial principles provable from RT[symbol]. 9.3. Atomic models and omitting types -- 10. Charging ahead: Further topics. 10.1. The Dushnik-Miller theorem. 10.2. Linearizing well-founded partial orders. 10.3. The world above ACA[symbol]. 10.4. Still further topics, and a final exercise

E Recursion Forcing and C Algebras

Author: Chitat Chong
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814602655
Format: PDF, ePub
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This volume presents the lecture notes of short courses given by three leading experts in mathematical logic at the 2012 Asian Initiative for Infinity Logic Summer School. The major topics cover set-theoretic forcing, higher recursion theory, and applications of set theory to C*-algebra. This volume offers a wide spectrum of ideas and techniques introduced in contemporary research in the field of mathematical logic to students, researchers and mathematicians. Contents:Selected Applications of Logic to Classification Problem for C*-Algebras (Ilijas Farah)Subcomplete Forcing and L-Forcing (Ronald Jensen)E-Recursion (Gerald E Sacks) Readership: Mathematics graduate students, researchers in logic, set theory and related areas. Key Features:These are notes based on short courses given by three leading experts in set theory, recursion theory and their applicationsKeywords:Logic;Set Theory;Forcing;E-recursion;C*-Algebra;Recursion Theory;Computability Theory

Forcing Iterated Ultrapowers and Turing Degrees

Author: Chitat Chong
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814699969
Format: PDF, ePub
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This volume presents the lecture notes of short courses given by three leading experts in mathematical logic at the 2010 and 2011 Asian Initiative for Infinity Logic Summer Schools. The major topics covered set theory and recursion theory, with particular emphasis on forcing, inner model theory and Turing degrees, offering a wide overview of ideas and techniques introduced in contemporary research in the field of mathematical logic. Contents:Prikry-Type Forcings and a Forcing with Short Extenders (Moti Gitik)The Turing Degrees: An Introduction (Richard A Shore)An Introduction to Iterated Ultrapowers (John Steel) Readership: Graduate students in mathematics, and researchers in logic, set theory and computability theory. Key Features:These are notes based on short courses given by three leading experts in set theory, recursion theory and their applicationsKeywords:Logic;Set Theory;Forcing;Recursion Theory;Computability Theory;Turing Degrees;C*-algebra

Mathemusical Conversations

Author: Jordan B L Smith
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9813140119
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Mathemusical Conversations celebrates the understanding of music through mathematics, and the appreciation of mathematics through music. This volume is a compilation of the invited talks given at the Mathemusical Conversations workshop that took place in Singapore from 13–15 February 2015, organized by Elaine Chew in partnership with Gérard Assayag for the scientific program and with Bernard Lanskey for the artistic program. The contributors are world experts and leading scholars, writing on the intersection of music and mathematics. They also focus on performance and composition, two topics which are foundational both to the understanding of human creativity and to the creation of tomorrow's music technologies. This book is essential reading for researchers in both music and mathematics. It will also appeal more broadly to scholars, students, musicians, and anyone interested in new perspectives on the intimate relationship between these two universal human activities. Contents:Foreword by Series EditorsForeword by Workshop OrganizersMathemusical Engagement:Without Our Consent (Paul Schoenfield)Approaches to Musical Expression in Harmonix Video Games (Eran Egozy)Motion and Gravitation in the Musical Spheres (Elaine Chew)Mathemusical Creativity:Improvising in Creative Symbolic Interaction (Gérard Assayag)Music, Creativity, and Computers (Margaret A Boden)Tiling Canons as a Key to Approaching Open Mathematical Conjectures? (Moreno Andreatta)Shaping Performance:Musical Motives in Performance: A Study of Absolute Timing Patterns (Neta Spiro, Nicolas Gold and John Rink)Playing with Variables: Anticipating One Particular Performance of Bach's Goldberg Variations (Bernard Lanskey and Stephen Emmerson)The Informatics Philharmonic in the Indiana University Summer String Academy (Christopher Raphael)Educating the Mathemusical:Mathematical Thought and Empirical Approaches in Higher Education in Music (Jian Yang)Action and Symbol: An Essential Tension (Jeanne Bamberger)Educating the Mathemusical: Balancing the Equation (Don McLean)Geometries:Graph-theoretic and Geometric Models of Music (Richard Cohn)In Quest of Musical Vectors (Dmitri Tymoczko)A Topological Approach of Musical Relationships (Jean-Louis Giavitto and Antoine Spicher)List of Contributors Readership: Advanced secondary school students; post-secondary school students; and scientists, mathematicians, musicians and members of the public interested in the mathematical music sciences.

Sets And Computations

Author: Raghavan Dilip
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9813223537
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The contents in this volume are based on the program Sets and Computations that was held at the Institute for Mathematical Sciences, National University of Singapore from 30 March until 30 April 2015. This special collection reports on important and recent interactions between the fields of Set Theory and Computation Theory. This includes the new research areas of computational complexity in set theory, randomness beyond the hyperarithmetic, powerful extensions of Goodstein's theorem and the capturing of large fragments of set theory via elementary-recursive structures. Further chapters are concerned with central topics within Set Theory, including cardinal characteristics, Fraïssé limits, the set-generic multiverse and the study of ideals. Also Computation Theory, which includes computable group theory and measure-theoretic aspects of Hilbert's Tenth Problem. A volume of this broad scope will appeal to a wide spectrum of researchers in mathematical logic.

Mathematics and Computation in Imaging Science and Information Processing

Author: Say Song Goh
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9812709053
Format: PDF, Kindle
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"The explosion of data arising from rapid advances in communication, sensing and computational power has concentrated research effort on more advanced techniques for the representation, processing, analysis and interpretation of data sets. - "This compiled volume contains survey articles by tutorial speakers, all specialists in their respective areas. - They collectively provide graduate students and researchers new to the field a unique and valuable introduction to a range of important topics at the frontiers of current research."--BOOK JACKET.

Infinity and Truth

Author: Chitat Chong
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814571059
Format: PDF, Docs
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This volume is based on the talks given at the Workshop on Infinity and Truth held at the Institute for Mathematical Sciences, National University of Singapore, from 25 to 29 July 2011. The chapters cover topics in mathematical and philosophical logic that examine various aspects of the foundations of mathematics. The theme of the volume focuses on two basic foundational questions: (i) What is the nature of mathematical truth and how does one resolve questions that are formally unsolvable within the Zermelo–Fraenkel Set Theory with the Axiom of Choice, and (ii) Do the discoveries in mathematics provide evidence favoring one philosophical view over others? These issues are discussed from the vantage point of recent progress in foundational studies. The final chapter features questions proposed by the participants of the Workshop that will drive foundational research. The wide range of topics covered here will be of interest to students, researchers and mathematicians concerned with issues in the foundations of mathematics. Contents:Invited Lectures:Absoluteness, Truth, and Quotients (Ilijas Farah)A Multiverse Perspective on the Axiom of Constructiblity (Joel David Hamkins)Hilbert, Bourbaki and the Scorning of Logic (A R D Mathias)Toward Objectivity in Mathematics (Stephen G Simpson)Sort Logic and Foundations of Mathematics (Jouko Väänänen)Reasoning about Constructive Concepts (Nik Weaver)Perfect Infinites and Finite Approximation (Boris Zilber)Special Session:An Objective Justification for Actual Infinity? (Stephen G Simpson)Oracle Questions (Theodore A Slaman and W Hugh Woodin) Readership: Mathematicians, philosophers, scientists, graduate students, academic institutions, and research organizations interested in logic and the philosophy of mathematics. Keywords:Mathematical Logic;Foundations of Mathematics;Philosophy of Mathematics;Mathematical Truth;Infinity;Set Theory;Proof Theory;MultiverseKey Features:All the contributors are world-renownedThe final chapter is written by Theodore A Slaman and W Hugh Woodin, who are two of the leading logicians in the world. They are also the volume editors

Computational Prospects of Infinity Presented talks

Author: Chi-Tat Chong
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9812796541
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This volume is a collection of written versions of the talks given at the Workshop on Computational Prospects of Infinity, held at the Institute for Mathematical Sciences from 18 June to 15 August 2005. It consists of contributions from many of the leading experts in recursion theory (computability theory) and set theory. Topics covered include the structure theory of various notions of degrees of unsolvability, algorithmic randomness, reverse mathematics, forcing, large cardinals and inner model theory, and many others.