Numerical Ecology

Author: P. Legendre
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444538690
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The book describes and discusses the numerical methods which are successfully being used for analysing ecological data, using a clear and comprehensive approach. These methods are derived from the fields of mathematical physics, parametric and nonparametric statistics, information theory, numerical taxonomy, archaeology, psychometry, sociometry, econometry and others. An updated, 3rd English edition of the most widely cited book on quantitative analysis of multivariate ecological data Relates ecological questions to methods of statistical analysis, with a clear description of complex numerical methods All methods are illustrated by examples from the ecological literature so that ecologists clearly see how to use the methods and approaches in their own research All calculations are available in R language functions

Numerical Ecology with R

Author: Daniel Borcard
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441979766
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Numerical Ecology with R provides a long-awaited bridge between a textbook in Numerical Ecology and the implementation of this discipline in the R language. After short theoretical overviews, the authors accompany the users through the exploration of the methods by means of applied and extensively commented examples. Users are invited to use this book as a teaching companion at the computer. The travel starts with exploratory approaches, proceeds with the construction of association matrices, then addresses three families of methods: clustering, unconstrained and canonical ordination, and spatial analysis. All the necessary data files, the scripts used in the chapters, as well as the extra R functions and packages written by the authors, can be downloaded from a web page accessible through the Springer web site(http://adn.biol.umontreal.ca/~numericalecology/numecolR/). This book is aimed at professional researchers, practitioners, graduate students and teachers in ecology, environmental science and engineering, and in related fields such as oceanography, molecular ecology, agriculture and soil science, who already have a background in general and multivariate statistics and wish to apply this knowledge to their data using the R language, as well as people willing to accompany their disciplinary learning with practical applications. People from other fields (e.g. geology, geography, paleoecology, phylogenetics, anthropology, the social and education sciences, etc.) may also benefit from the materials presented in this book. The three authors teach numerical ecology, both theoretical and practical, to a wide array of audiences, in regular courses in their Universities and in short courses given around the world. Daniel Borcard is lecturer of Biostatistics and Ecology and researcher in Numerical Ecology at Université de Montréal, Québec, Canada. François Gillet is professor of Community Ecology and Ecological Modelling at Université de Franche-Comté, Besançon, France. Pierre Legendre is professor of Quantitative Biology and Ecology at Université de Montréal, Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, and ISI Highly Cited Researcher in Ecology/Environment.

A Biologist s Guide to Mathematical Modeling in Ecology and Evolution

Author: Sarah P. Otto
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400840910
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Thirty years ago, biologists could get by with a rudimentary grasp of mathematics and modeling. Not so today. In seeking to answer fundamental questions about how biological systems function and change over time, the modern biologist is as likely to rely on sophisticated mathematical and computer-based models as traditional fieldwork. In this book, Sarah Otto and Troy Day provide biology students with the tools necessary to both interpret models and to build their own. The book starts at an elementary level of mathematical modeling, assuming that the reader has had high school mathematics and first-year calculus. Otto and Day then gradually build in depth and complexity, from classic models in ecology and evolution to more intricate class-structured and probabilistic models. The authors provide primers with instructive exercises to introduce readers to the more advanced subjects of linear algebra and probability theory. Through examples, they describe how models have been used to understand such topics as the spread of HIV, chaos, the age structure of a country, speciation, and extinction. Ecologists and evolutionary biologists today need enough mathematical training to be able to assess the power and limits of biological models and to develop theories and models themselves. This innovative book will be an indispensable guide to the world of mathematical models for the next generation of biologists. A how-to guide for developing new mathematical models in biology Provides step-by-step recipes for constructing and analyzing models Interesting biological applications Explores classical models in ecology and evolution Questions at the end of every chapter Primers cover important mathematical topics Exercises with answers Appendixes summarize useful rules Labs and advanced material available

Measuring Biological Diversity

Author: Anne E. Magurran
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118687922
Format: PDF
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This accessible and timely book provides a comprehensive overview of how to measure biodiversity. The book highlights new developments, including innovative approaches to measuring taxonomic distinctness and estimating species richness, and evaluates these alongside traditional methods such as species abundance distributions, and diversity and evenness statistics. Helps the reader quantify and interpret patterns of ecological diversity, focusing on the measurement and estimation of species richness and abundance. Explores the concept of ecological diversity, bringing new perspectives to a field beset by contradictory views and advice. Discussion spans issues such as the meaning of community in the context of ecological diversity, scales of diversity and distribution of diversity among taxa Highlights advances in measurement paying particular attention to new techniques such as species richness estimation, application of measures of diversity to conservation and environmental management and addressing sampling issues Includes worked examples of key methods in helping people to understand the techniques and use available computer packages more effectively

The Unified Neutral Theory of Biodiversity and Biogeography MPB 32

Author: Stephen P. Hubbell
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400837526
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Despite its supreme importance and the threat of its global crash, biodiversity remains poorly understood both empirically and theoretically. This ambitious book presents a new, general neutral theory to explain the origin, maintenance, and loss of biodiversity in a biogeographic context. Until now biogeography (the study of the geographic distribution of species) and biodiversity (the study of species richness and relative species abundance) have had largely disjunct intellectual histories. In this book, Stephen Hubbell develops a formal mathematical theory that unifies these two fields. When a speciation process is incorporated into Robert H. MacArthur and Edward O. Wilson's now classical theory of island biogeography, the generalized theory predicts the existence of a universal, dimensionless biodiversity number. In the theory, this fundamental biodiversity number, together with the migration or dispersal rate, completely determines the steady-state distribution of species richness and relative species abundance on local to large geographic spatial scales and short-term to evolutionary time scales. Although neutral, Hubbell's theory is nevertheless able to generate many nonobvious, testable, and remarkably accurate quantitative predictions about biodiversity and biogeography. In many ways Hubbell's theory is the ecological analog to the neutral theory of genetic drift in genetics. The unified neutral theory of biogeography and biodiversity should stimulate research in new theoretical and empirical directions by ecologists, evolutionary biologists, and biogeographers.

Models of the Ecological Hierarchy

Author: Ferenc Jordán
Publisher: Newnes
ISBN: 0444593969
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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"Based on selected papers covering the presentations at the 7th European Conference on Ecological Modelling, organized by ISEM and hosted by The Microsoft Research--University of Trento Center for Computational and Systems Biology from 30 May to 2 June, 2011 in Riva del Garde, Italy"--P. xi.

Ecological Statistics

Author: Gordon A. Fox
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191652881
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The application and interpretation of statistics are central to ecological study and practice. Ecologists are now asking more sophisticated questions than in the past. These new questions, together with the continued growth of computing power and the availability of new software, have created a new generation of statistical techniques. These have resulted in major recent developments in both our understanding and practice of ecological statistics. This novel book synthesizes a number of these changes, addressing key approaches and issues that tend to be overlooked in other books such as missing/censored data, correlation structure of data, heterogeneous data, and complex causal relationships. These issues characterize a large proportion of ecological data, but most ecologists' training in traditional statistics simply does not provide them with adequate preparation to handle the associated challenges. Uniquely, Ecological Statistics highlights the underlying links among many statistical approaches that attempt to tackle these issues. In particular, it gives readers an introduction to approaches to inference, likelihoods, generalized linear (mixed) models, spatially or phylogenetically-structured data, and data synthesis, with a strong emphasis on conceptual understanding and subsequent application to data analysis. Written by a team of practicing ecologists, mathematical explanations have been kept to the minimum necessary. This user-friendly textbook will be suitable for graduate students, researchers, and practitioners in the fields of ecology, evolution, environmental studies, and computational biology who are interested in updating their statistical tool kits. A companion web site provides example data sets and commented code in the R language.

Theoretical Ecology

Author: Robert May
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 0199209995
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Robert May's seminal book has played a central role in the development of ecological science. Originally published in 1976, this influential text has overseen the transition of ecology from an observational and descriptive subject to one with a solid conceptual core. Indeed, it is a testament to its influence that a great deal of the novel material presented in the earlier editions has now been incorporated into standard undergraduate textbooks. It is now a quarter of a century since the publication of the second edition, and a thorough revision is timely. Theoretical Ecology provides a succinct, up-to-date overview of the field set in the context of applications, thereby bridging the traditional division of theory and practice. It describes the recent advances in our understanding of how interacting populations of plants and animals change over time and space, in response to natural or human-created disturbance. In an integrated way, initial chapters give an account of the basic principles governing the structure, function, and temporal and spatial dynamics of populations and communities of plants and animals. Later chapters outline applications of these ideas to practical issues including fisheries, infectious diseases, tomorrow's food supplies, climate change, and conservation biology. Throughout the book, emphasis is placed on questions which as yet remain unanswered. The editors have invited the top scientists in the field to collaborate with the next generation of theoretical ecologists. The result is an accessible, advanced textbook suitable for senior undergraduate and graduate level students as well as researchers in the fields of ecology, mathematical biology, environment and resources management. It will also be of interest to the general reader seeking a better understanding of a range of global environmental problems.

The Theory of Ecology

Author: Samuel M. Scheiner
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226736865
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Despite claims to the contrary, the science of ecology has a long history of building theories. Many ecological theories are mathematical, computational, or statistical, though, and rarely have attempts been made to organize or extrapolate these models into broader theories. The Theory of Ecology brings together some of the most respected and creative theoretical ecologists of this era to advance a comprehensive, conceptual articulation of ecological theories. The contributors cover a wide range of topics, from ecological niche theory to population dynamic theory to island biogeography theory. Collectively, the chapters ably demonstrate how theory in ecology accounts for observations about the natural world and how models provide predictive understandings. It organizes these models into constitutive domains that highlight the strengths and weaknesses of ecological understanding. This book is a milestone in ecological theory and is certain to motivate future empirical and theoretical work in one of the most exciting and active domains of the life sciences.

Manual of Environmental Microbiology

Author: Christon J. Hurst
Publisher: American Society for Microbiology Press
ISBN: 1555813798
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The most definitive manual of microbes in air, water, and soil and their impact on human health and welfare. • Incorporates a summary of the latest methodology used to study the activity and fate of microorganisms in various environments. • Synthesizes the latest information on the assessment of microbial presence and microbial activity in natural and artificial environments. • Features a section on biotransformation and biodegradation. • Serves as an indispensable reference for environmental microbiologists, microbial ecologists, and environmental engineers, as well as those interested in human diseases, water and wastewater treatment, and biotechnology.