Once Before Time

Author: Martin Bojowald
Publisher: Vintage
ISBN: 0307594254
Format: PDF, ePub
Download Now
In 2000, Martin Bojowald, then a twenty-seven-year-old post-doc at Pennsylvania State University, used a relatively new theory called loop quantum gravity—a cunning combination of Einstein’s theory of gravity with quantum mechanics—to create a simple model of the universe. Loop quantum cosmology was born, and with it, a theory that managed to do something even Einstein’s general theory of relativity had failed to do—illuminate the very birth of the universe. Ever since, loop quantum cosmology, or LQC, has been tantalizing physicists with the idea that our universe could conceivably have emerged from the collapse of a previous one. Now the theory is poised to formulate hypotheses we can actually test. If they are verified, the big bang will give way to the big bounce. Instead of a universe that emerged from a point of infinite density, we will have one that recycles, possibly through an eternal series of expansions and contractions, with no beginning and no end. Bojowald’s major realization was that unlike general relativity, the physics of LQC do not break down at the big bang. The greatest mystery surrounding the origin of the universe is what cosmologists call the big bang “singularity”—the point at the beginning of the universe, prior to the existence of space and time, when gravity, along with the temperature and density of the universe, becomes infinite. The equations of general relativity can’t cope with such infinities, and as a result big bang theory has never been able to give any explanation for the initial condition of our universe, succeeding only in describing and explaining the evolution of the universe from that instant onward. Bojowald’s theory takes us right up to the first moment of the universe—and then back, even before the big bang itself. From the Hardcover edition.

Gravity

Author: Brian Clegg
Publisher: Gerald Duckworth & Co
ISBN: 0715644459
Format: PDF, Kindle
Download Now
Physicists will tell you that four forces control the universe. Of these, gravity may the most obvious, but it is also the most mysterious. Newton managed to predict the force of gravity but couldn't explain how it worked at a distance. Then Einstein picked up on the simple premise that gravity and acceleration are interchangeable to devise his mind-bending general relativity, showing how matter warps space and time. Not only did this explain how gravity worked — and how apparently simple gravitation has four separate components — but it predicted everything from black holes to gravity's effect on time. Whether it's the reality of anti-gravity or the unexpected discovery that a ball and a laser beam drop at the same rate, gravity is the force that fascinates.

Worlds Without End

Author: Mary-Jane Rubenstein
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231156626
Format: PDF
Download Now
“Multiverse” cosmologies imagine our universe as just one of a vast number of others. While this idea has captivated philosophy, religion, and literature for millennia, it is now being considered as a scientific hypothesis—with different models emerging from cosmology, quantum mechanics, and string theory. Beginning with ancient Atomist and Stoic philosophies, Mary-Jane Rubenstein links contemporary models of the multiverse to their forerunners and explores their current emergence. One reason is the so-called fine-tuning of the universe: nature’s constants are so delicately calibrated, it seems they have been set just right to allow life to emerge. For some theologians, these “fine-tunings” are proof of God; for others, “God” is an insufficient explanation. One compelling solution: if all possible worlds exist somewhere, then it is no surprise one of them happens to be suitable for life. Yet this hypothesis replaces God with an equally baffling article of faith: the existence of universes beyond, before, or after our own, eternally generated yet forever inaccessible. In sidestepping metaphysics, multiverse scenarios collide with it, producing their own counter-theological narratives. Rubenstein argues, however, that this interdisciplinary collision provides the condition of its scientific viability, reconfiguring the boundaries among physics, philosophy, and religion.

Before Time Began

Author: Helmut Satz
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0192510878
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Download Now
What is the origin of the universe? What was there before the universe appeared? We are currently witnessing a second Copernican revolution: neither our Earth and Sun, nor our galaxy, nor even our universe, are the end of all things. Beyond our world, in an endless multiverse, are innumerable other universes, coming and going, like ours or different. Fourteen billion years ago, one of the many bubbles constantly appearing and vanishing in the multiverse exploded to form our universe. The energy liberated in the explosion provided the basis for all the matter our universe now contains. But how could this hot, primordial plasma eventually produce the complex structure of our present world? Does not order eventually always lead to disorder, to an increase of entropy? Modern cosmology is beginning to find out how it all came about and where it all might lead. Before Time Began tells that story.

Dark Energy

Author: Philip J. Skerry
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA
ISBN: 1623564212
Format: PDF, ePub
Download Now
Alfred Hitchcock and the cinema grew up together. Born in 1899, four years after the first 'official' film showing in Paris, Hitchcock demonstrated an early fascination with the new art of the cinema. He entered the film industry in 1920, and by 1925, he had directed his first feature-length film, The Pleasure Garden. His subsequent film career paralleled the phenomenal growth of the film industry during the years 1925-1976, the year of his last film. In the same way, Hitchcock's films are consonant with the revolutionary theories in the fields of physics and cosmology that were transforming the twentieth century, personified by the genius of Albert Einstein. Philip Skerry's book applies the theories of dark energy, entropy, black holes, and quantum mechanics to Hitchcock's technological genius and camera aesthetics, helping to explain the concept of 'pure cinema' and providing verification for its remarkable power. Including interviews with influential physicists, this study opens up new ways of analyzing Hitchcock's art.

A Companion to the Philosophy of Time

Author: Adrian Bardon
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118522052
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download Now
A Companion to the Philosophy of Time presents thebroadest treatment of this subject yet; 32 specially commissionedarticles - written by an international line-up of experts –provide an unparalleled reference work for students and specialistsalike in this exciting field. The most comprehensive reference work on the philosophy of timecurrently available The first collection to tackle the historical development ofthe philosophy of time in addition to covering contemporarywork Provides a tripartite approach in its organization, coveringhistory of the philosophy of time, time as a feature of thephysical world, and time as a feature of experience Includes contributions from both distinguished,well-established scholars and rising stars in the field

Eine kurze Geschichte der Zeit

Author: Stephen Hawking
Publisher: Rowohlt Verlag GmbH
ISBN: 3644008612
Format: PDF
Download Now
Ist das Universum unendlich oder begrenzt? Hat die Raumzeit einen Anfang, den Urknall? Dehnt sie sich aus? Wird sie wieder in sich zusammenstürzen? Liefe die Zeit dann rückwärts? Welchen Platz im Universum nehmen wir ein? Und ist in den atemberaubenden Modellen der Kosmologen noch Platz für einen Gott? – Es sind existenzielle Fragen, mit denen sich Stephen Hawking befasst, Fragen, die Forschung und Lehre in den Zentren der modernen Physik ebenso bestimmen wie die Diskussion von Geisteswissenschaftlern. Dieses Meisterwerk eines Jahrhundert-Genies hat unsere Weltsicht verändert. Zugleich hat Stephen Hawking damit neue Maßstäbe für die Erklärung komplexer physikalischer Zusammenhänge gesetzt. In diesem Buch, weltweit inzwischen über zehn Millionen Mal verkauft, ist das Credo des großen Physikers enthalten und lebendig. «Der Physiker Stephen Hawking ist im Begriff, die Formel zu finden, die das Universum erklärt.» ZEIT-Magazin

Genesis

Author: Hermann Gunkel
Publisher: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht
ISBN: 3525516517
Format: PDF
Download Now

Die Ordnung der Zeit

Author: Carlo Rovelli
Publisher: Rowohlt Verlag GmbH
ISBN: 3644000751
Format: PDF, Mobi
Download Now
Leben wir in der Zeit oder lebt die Zeit vielleicht nur in uns? Alle theoretischen Physiker von Weltrang, die den großen und kleinen Kräften des Universums nachspüren, beschäftigen sich immer wieder mit der entscheidenden Frage, was Zeit ist. Wenn ihre großen Modelle die Zeit zur Erklärung des Elementaren nicht mehr brauchen, wie kommt es dann, dass sie für unser Leben so wichtig ist? Geht es wirklich ohne sie? Carlo Rovelli gibt in diesem Buch überraschende Antworten. Er nimmt uns mit auf eine Reise durch unsere Vorstellungen der von der Zeit und spürt ihren Regeln und Rätseln nach. Ein großes, packend geschriebenes Lese-Abenteuer, ein würdiger Nachfolger des Welt-Bestsellers "Sieben kurze Lektionen über Physik".

The Divine Comedy

Author: Dante Alighieri
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199878390
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download Now
An invaluable source of pleasure to those English readers who wish to read this great medieval classic with true understanding, Sinclair's three-volume prose translation of Dante's Divine Comedy provides both the original Italian text and the Sinclair translation, arranged on facing pages, and commentaries, appearing after each canto, which serve as brilliant examples of genuine literary criticism. This volume contains the complete translation of Dante's Paradiso.