Organizing Bronze Age Societies

Author: Timothy Earle
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521748353
Format: PDF, ePub
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The Bronze Age was a formative period in European history when the organization of landscapes, settlements, and economy reached a new level of complexity. This book presents the first in-depth, comparative study of household, economy, and settlement in three micro-regions: the Mediterranean (Sicily), Central Europe (Hungary), and Northern Europe (South Scandinavia). The results are based on ten years of fieldwork in a similar method of documentation, and scientific analyses were used in each of the regional studies, making controlled comparisons possible. The new evidence demonstrates how differences in settlement organization and household economies were counterbalanced by similarities in the organized use of the landscape in an economy dominated by the herding of large flocks of sheep and cattle. The eight chapters in this book provide a new, contextualized understanding of the social and economic complexity of the Bronze Age. Its innovative theoretical and methodological approaches will be of relevance to all researchers of landscape and settlement history.

Warfare in Bronze Age Society

Author: Christian Horn
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107185564
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The Bronze Age represents the global emergence of a militarized society with a martial culture that constructed the warrior as a 'Hero' and warfare as 'Heroic'. The book takes a fresh look at warfare and its role in reshaping Bronze Age society from the Mediterranean to northern Europe.

The Archaeology of Bronze Age Iberia

Author: Gonzalo Aranda Jimenez
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317588908
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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After more than a century of research, an enormous body of scientific literature in the field of El Argar studies has been generated, comprising some 700 bibliographic items. No fully-updated synthesis of the literature is available at the moment; recent works deal only with specific characteristics of Argaric societies or some of the regions where their influence spread. The Archaeology of Bronze Age Iberia offers a much-needed, comprehensive overview of Argaric Bronze Age societies, based on state-of-the-art research. In addition to expounding on recent insights in such areas as Argaric origin and expansion, social practices, and socio-politics, the book offers reflections on current issues in the field, from questions concerning the genealogy of discourses on the subject, to matters related to professional practices. The book discusses the values and interests guiding the evolution of El Argar studies, while critically reexamining its history. Scholars and researchers in the fields of Prehistory and Archaeology will find this volume highly useful.

The Rise of Bronze Age Society

Author: Kristian Kristiansen
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521843638
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This 2005 book presents a significant interpretation of the social transformation in Bronze Age Europe.

Der Hortfund von Frankleben

Author: Marco Chiriaco
Publisher: GRIN Verlag
ISBN: 3640271122
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Studienarbeit aus dem Jahr 2008 im Fachbereich Archäologie, Note: 1,7, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg (Institut für Kunstgeschichte und Archäologien Europas), Veranstaltung: Die Bronzezeit in Mitteldeutschland 1500-720 v. Chr., 19 Quellen im Literaturverzeichnis, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: Der Sichelmassenhort von Frankleben zählt, in Bezug auf seine Masse, mit einem Gewicht von etwa 45 Kilogramm zu den größten Hortfunden Mitteleuropas. Seine Entdeckung und Bergung im Sommer 1946 machte Frankleben zum eponymen Fundort für einen Typus von Sicheln, der sich durch seine Sichelmarken auszeichnet und seine Verbreitung in mehreren Sichelmassenhorten und in Horten allgemein im mittleren Saalegebiet hat. Das Gebiet im Bereich der Saale ist reich an Hortfunden, die sich chronologisch über die gesamte Bandbreite der Bronzezeit erstrecken. In dieser Arbeit soll der Fund von Frankleben vorgestellt werden und auf die Bedeutung des Sicheltypus Frankleben eingegangen werden. Dabei werden die Sichelmarken und ihre potentielle Bedeutung besonders zu betrachten sein. Ferner werden weitere Sichelhorte aus dem Bereich der mittleren Saale vorgestellt, die ein Gesamtbild erschließen sollen. Daran soll gezeigt werden, dass der Sichelhort von Frankleben nicht für sich alleine steht, sondern sich in eine einzigartige Fundlandschaft integrieren lässt, deren aufgeworfene Fragen noch immer nicht in ihrer Gesamtheit beantwortet werden können. Ferner soll auf die Frage der Deponierungsgründe eingegangen und rituelle sowie profane Optionen in Augenschein genommen werden. Dabei soll die Bedeutung der Sichel an sich ebenfalls betrachtet werden, insbesondere unter den Aspekten der Sichel als Mondsymbol aufgrund ihrer Form und der daraus resultierenden Annahme einer Symbiose zwischen Arbeitsgerät und Symbol für Fruchtbarkeit sowie einer möglichen Funktion als Wertmesser – als „Gerätegeld Sichel“, wie Christoph Sommerfeld schon als Titel seiner umfangreichen Arbeit gewählt hat.

Complex Communities

Author: Benjamin W. Porter
Publisher: University of Arizona Press
ISBN: 0816599149
Format: PDF, ePub
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Complex Communities explores how sedentary settlements developed and flourished in the Middle East during the Early Iron Age nearly four thousand years ago. Using archaeological evidence, Benjamin Porter reconstructs how residents maintained their communities despite environmental uncertainties. Living in a semi-arid area in the present-day country of Jordan, villagers faced a harsh and unpredictable ecosystem. Communities fostered resilience by creating flexible production routines and leadership strategies. Settlements developed what archaeologists call “communal complexity,” a condition through which small-scale societies shift between egalitarian and hierarchical arrangements. Complex Communities provides detailed, scientifically grounded reconstructions of how this communal complexity functioned in the region. These settlements emerged during a period of recovery following the political and economic collapse of Bronze Age Mediterranean societies. Scholars have characterized west-central Jordan’s political organization during this time as an incipient Moabite state. Complex Communities argues instead that the settlements were a collection of independent, self-organizing entities. Each community constructed substantial villages with fortifications, practiced both agriculture and pastoralism, and built and stocked storage facilities. From these efforts to produce and store resources, especially food, wealth was generated and wealthier households gained power over their neighbors. However, power was limited by the fact that residents could—and did—leave communities and establish new ones. Complex Communities reveals that these settlements moved through adaptive cycles as they adjusted to a changing socionatural system. These sustainability-seeking communities have lessons to offer not only the archaeologists studying similar struggles in other locales, but also to contemporary communities facing negative climate change. Readers interested in resilience studies, Near Eastern archaeology, historical ecology, and the archaeology of communities will welcome this volume.

The Ancient Greeks

Author: Stephanie Lynn Budin
Publisher: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 1576078140
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The ancient Greeks established the very blueprint of Western civilization—our societies, institutions, art, and culture—and thanks to remarkable new findings, we know more about them than ever, and it's all here in this up-to-date introductory volume. * Includes excerpts from a full range of primary sources, including the Linear B tablets of Mycenae, included to show readers how to understand the process of studying historical documents * Provides a rich collection of illustrations, drawings, maps, and photographs, including detailed renderings of the Acropolis, Knossos, Akritiri, and other major archaeological sites then and now