Particle Physics beyond the Standard Model

Author:
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080463148
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The Standard Model of elementary particles and interactions is one of the best tested theories in physics. It has been found to be in remarkable agreement with experiment, and its validity at the quantum level has been successfully probed in the electroweak sector. In spite of its experimental successes, though, the Standard Model suffers from a number of limitations, and is likely to be an incomplete theory. It contains many arbitrary parameters; it does not include gravity, the fourth elementary interaction; it does not provide an explanation for the hierarchy between the scale of electroweak interactions and the Planck scale, characteristic of gravitational interactions; and finally, it fails to account for the dark matter and the baryon asymmetry of the universe. This led particle theorists to develop and study various extensions of the Standard Model, such as supersymmetric theories, Grand Unified Theories or theories with extra space-time dimensions - most of which have been proposed well before the experimental verification of the Standard Model. The coming generation of experimental facilities (such as high-energy colliders, B-physics experiments, neutrino superbeams, as well as astrophysical and cosmological observational facilities) will allow us to test the predictions of these theories and to deepen our understanding of the fundamental laws of nature. This book is a collection of lectures given in August 2005 at the Les Houches Summer School on Particle Physics beyond the Standard Model. It provides a pedagogical introduction to the various aspects of particle physics beyond the Standard Model, covering each topic from the basics to the most recent developments: supersymmetric theories, Grand Unified Theories, theories with extra dimensions, flavour physics and CP violation, neutrino physics, astroparticle physics and cosmology. · Provides a pedagogical introduction to particle physics beyond the Standard Model · Covers the various aspects of particle physics beyond the Standard Model · Addresses each topic from the basics to the most recent developments · Addresses both the theoretical and phenomenological aspects of the subject · Written in a pedagogical style by leading experts in the field

Ein Universum aus Nichts

Author: Lawrence M. Krauss
Publisher: Albrecht Knaus Verlag
ISBN: 3641091144
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Eine Reise zu den Ursprüngen unseres Universums Warum gibt es alles und nicht nichts? Worüber sich Philosophen seit Jahrhunderten den Kopf zerbrechen, darauf weiß die Physik Antwort: Nach den neuesten Erkenntnissen kann durchaus alles aus dem Nichts entstanden sein. Und mit Lawrence Krauss ist das gar nicht so schwer zu verstehen. Ironisch, böse und zugleich mit einem Augenzwinkern weiß Krauss selbst die Erkenntnis, dass wir aller Wahrscheinlichkeit nach auch im Nichts verschwinden werden, höchst amüsant zu präsentieren, und schont dabei niemanden: weder Philosophen noch Theologen noch sich selbst. Die Frage nach der Entstehung unseres Universums ist eine der bemerkenswertesten Erkundungsreisen, die die Menschheit je unternommen hat. Einstein, Hubble, Relativitätstheorie, Inflation und Quantenmechanik – kein Bereich der Kosmologie, über den Lawrence Krauss nicht verständlich und vor allem spannend zu erzählen weiß. Dabei fragt er immer auch nach den Quellen unseres Wissens: Wie hat sich unsere Vorstellung vom Ursprung aller Dinge entwickelt? Weshalb wissen wir, was wir heute wissen? Und warum können wir davon ausgehen, dass das auch stimmt? Mit Ein Universum aus Nichts hat er ein Buch geschrieben, das schlau macht – voller Seitenhiebe gegen die theologische Zunft und alle anderen esoterischen Welterklärungen. Ganz ohne Berechnungen.

Physics Beyond the Standard Models of Particles Cosmology and Astrophysics

Author: Hans Volker Klapdor-Kleingrothaus
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814340855
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book contains the proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Physics Beyond the Standard Models of Particle Physics, Cosmology and Astrophysics. It presents a brilliant overview of the status and future potential and trends in experimental and theoretical particle physics, cosmology and astrophysics, in the complimentary sectors of accelerator, non-accelerator and space physics.

Beyond the Desert 2003

Author: Hans-Volker Klapdor-Kleingrothaus
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642185347
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book contains the Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Particle Physics Beyond the Standard Model - BEYOND THE DESERT 2003. Emphasis at BEYOND03 was put on supergravity, which had its twentieth birthday that year, on neutrino physics and dark matter search, and on gravitation and cosmology, and some other very important fields. The book resents a timely and valuable overview of the status and future potential and trends in theoretical and experimental particle physics, in the complementary sectors of accelerator, non-accelerator and space physics.

Beyond the Standard Model of Elementary Particle Physics

Author: Yorikiyo Nagashima
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527665048
Format: PDF, Mobi
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A unique and comprehensive presentation on modern particle physics which stores the background knowledge on the big open questions beyond the standard model, as the existence of the Higgs-boson, or the nature of Dark Matter and Dark Energy.

Aspects of Particle Physics Beyond the Standard Model

Author: Xiaochuan Lu
Publisher:
ISBN:
Format: PDF, Docs
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This dissertation describes a few aspects of particles beyond the Standard Model, with a focus on the remaining questions after the discovery of a Standard Model-like Higgs boson. In specific, three topics are discussed in sequence: neutrino mass and baryon asymmetry, naturalness problem of Higgs mass, and placing constraints on theoretical models from precision measurements.\\ First, the consequence of the neutrino mass anarchy on cosmology is studied. Attentions are paid in particular to the total mass of neutrinos and baryon asymmetry through leptogenesis. With the assumption of independence among mass matrix entries in addition to the basis independence, Gaussian measure is the only choice. On top of Gaussian measure, a simple approximate $U(1)$ flavor symmetry makes leptogenesis highly successful. Correlations between the baryon asymmetry and the light-neutrino quantities are investigated. Also discussed are possible implications of recently suggested large total mass of neutrinos by the SDSS/BOSS data.\\ Second, the Higgs mass implies fine-tuning for minimal theories of weak-scale supersymmetry (SUSY). Non-decoupling effects can boost the Higgs mass when new states interact with the Higgs, but new sources of SUSY breaking that accompany such extensions threaten naturalness. I will show that two singlets with a Dirac mass can increase the Higgs mass while maintaining naturalness in the presence of large SUSY breaking in the singlet sector. The modified Higgs phenomenology of this scenario, termed ``Dirac NMSSM'', is also studied.\\ Finally, the sensitivities of future precision measurements in probing physics beyond the Standard Model are studied. A practical three-step procedure is presented for using the Standard Model effective field theory (SM EFT) to connect ultraviolet (UV) models of new physics with weak scale precision observables. With this procedure, one can interpret precision measurements as constraints on the UV model concerned. A detailed explanation is given for calculating the effective action up to one-loop order in a manifestly gauge covariant fashion. This covariant derivative expansion method dramatically simplifies the process of matching a UV model with the SM EFT, and also makes available a universal formalism that is easy to use for a variety of UV models. A few general aspects of RG running effects and choosing operator bases are discussed. Mapping results are provided between the bosonic sector of the SM EFT and a complete set of precision electroweak and Higgs observables to which present and near future experiments are sensitive. Many results and tools which should prove useful to those wishing to use the SM EFT are detailed in several appendices.

Particle Physics and Cosmology

Author: Howard E. Haber
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9812562125
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book contains the lecture courses conducted at the School of the Theoretical Advanced Study Institute (TASI, Colorado, USA) on Elementary Particle Physics in 2002. In this School, three series of lectures are presented in parallel in the area of phenomenology, TeV-scale physics, and astroparticles physics. The phenomenology lecture series covered a broad spectrum of standard research techniques used to interpret present day and future collider data. The TeV-scale physics lecture series focused on modern speculations about physics beyond the Standard Model, with an emphasis on supersymmetry and extra-dimensional theories. The lecture series on astroparticle physics treated recent developments in theories of dark matter and dark energy, the cosmic microwave background, and prospects for the upcoming era of gravitational wave astronomy. Contents: Phenomenology Lecture Series: Neutrinos (Y Grossman); Precision Electroweak Physics (K Matchev); Effective Field Theories (I Z Rothstein); Bottom Quark Physics and the Heavy Quark Expansion (M Luke); The Top Quark, QCD and New Physics (S Dawson); Tevatron Physics (J Womersley); TeV-Scale Physics Lecture Series: Non-Perturbative Sypersymmetry (J Terning); New Directions for New Dimensions: KaluzaOCoKlein Theory, Large Extra Dimensions and the Brane World (K R Dienes); New Ideas in Symmetry Breaking (M Quiros); Extra Dimensions and Branes (C Csaki); Astroparticle Physics Lecture Series: Introduction to Cosmology (M Trodden & S M Carroll); Dark Matter (K A Olive); Gravitational Waves from the Early Universe (A Buonanno). Readership: Researchers, academics and graduate students in high energy physics, mathematical physics and astrophysics."

The Physics of the Standard Model and Beyond

Author: T. Morii
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9789812795601
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book provides a unified description of elementary particle interactions and the underlying theories, namely the Standard Model and beyond. The authors have aimed at a concise presentation but have taken care that all the basic concepts are clearly described. Written primarily for graduate students in theoretical and experimental particle physics, The Physics of the Standard Model and Beyond conveys the excitement of particle physics, centering upon experimental observations (new and old) and a variety of ideas for their interpretation. Contents: Weak Interaction; Symmetries and the Gauge Theories; The Standard Model of Electroweak Interactions; Quantum Chromodynamics; Neutrino Masses and Neutrino Oscillations; Supersymmetry; Precision Test of Electroweak Radiative Corrections and New Physics; Flavor Physics and CP Violation; Appendices: Notation and Useful Relations; Cross Sections and Feynman Rule; Basics of the Group Theory; C, P and T Transformation; The Quark Model. Readership: Graduate students, experimentalists and theorists in high energy physics.

Colliders and Neutrinos

Author: Rabindra Nath Mohapatra
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9812819258
Format: PDF, ePub
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Every night, William thinks up reasons why he shouldn't go to bed. One evening there is a very BIG reason -- someone has come to visit William. Will his parents believe him? Does William ever get to sleep? This delightful story about that tricky time at the end of every young family's day is guaranteed to make both child and parent smile!