Pavlov s Physiology Factory

Author: Daniel Philip Todes
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 9780801866906
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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"In Lectures on the Work of the Main Digestive Glands, for which Pavlov won the Nobel Prize in 1904, the scientist frequently referred to the experiments of his coworkers and stated that his conclusions reflected "the deed of the entire laboratory." This novel claim caused the prize committee some consternation. Was he alone deserving of the prize? Examining the fascinating content of Pavlov's scientific notes and correspondence, unpublished memoirs, and laboratory publications, Todes explores the importance of Pavlov's directorship of what the author calls a "physiology factory" and illuminates its relationship to Pavlov's Nobel Prize-winning work and the research on conditional reflexes that followed it."--BOOK JACKET.

Triumph und Trag die

Author: Simon Ings
Publisher: Hoffmann und Campe
ISBN: 3455003028
Format: PDF, ePub
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»Sozialismus ist Wissenschaft«, proklamierte Joseph Stalin, der sich selbst zum ersten Wissenschaftler des Landes stilisierte. Unter seiner Herrschaft entstand der weltweit am besten finanzierte Forschungsapparat, gleichzeitig mussten Wissenschaftler um ihr Leben fürchten. Gestützt auf zahlreiche Dokumente zeichnet Simon Ings die Vereinnahmung der Wissenschaft durch den Sowjetstaat nach. Er erzählt von brillanten Forschern und ruchlosen Scharlatanen, von Visionären und Karrieristen, von großem Mut und ebenso großer Feigheit.

Der Geist bei der Arbeit

Author: Michael Hagner
Publisher: Wallstein Verlag
ISBN: 3835306677
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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"Geist und Bewußtsein sind nicht vom Himmel gefallen, sondern haben sich in der Evolution der Nervensysteme allmählich herausgebildet" - dies manifestierten Hirnforscher im Jahr 2004. Auch diese Erkenntnis ist nicht vom Himmel gefallen, sondern das Ergebnis einer 200-jährigen Geschichte. Dabei waren die Theorien der Hirnforscher, mit denen sie versuchten, Sprache, Denken, Einbildungskraft, Moral und Gefühle im Gehirn zu lokalisieren, zu keinem Zeitpunkt unabhängig von den kulturellen, sozialen und politischen Umständen, unter denen sie ihre Forschungen betrieben. Die Cerebralisierung des Menschen ist ein unvollendetes und möglicherweise unvollendbares Projekt der Moderne. Neben faszinierenden Einsichten birgt es stets auch die Gefahr in sich, "Gehirn" mit Symbolen, Deutungen und Werten zu überfrachten und dadurch überzogene Erwartungen zu wecken, die nicht zu erfüllen sind oder zu heiklen biopolitischen Forderungen führen. Anthropologische Ansprüche an die Hirnforschung bewegen sich eher an der Grenze zwischen Science und Fiction. Vor dem Hintergrund dieser Debatten plädiert Michael Hagner für einen gelassenen und (selbst-)kritischen Umgang mit ihren Ergebnissen.

The Ten Most Beautiful Experiments

Author: George Johnson
Publisher: Random House
ISBN: 1409088235
Format: PDF, Kindle
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George Johnson tells the stories of ten beautiful experiments which changed the world. From Galileo singing to mark time as he measured the pull of gravity and Newton carefully inserting a needle behind his own eye, to Joule packing a thermometer on his honeymoon to take the temperature of waterfalls and Michelson recovering from a dark depression to discover that light moves at the same speed in every direction - these ten dedicated men employed diamonds, dogs, frogs and even their own bodies as they worked to discover the laws of nature and of the universe.

Reworking the Bench

Author: F.L. Holmes
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402010397
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Research records composed of notes and protocols have long played a role in the efforts to understand the origins of what have come to be seen as the established milestones in the development of modern science. The use of research records to probe the nature of scientific investigation itself however is a recent development in the history of science. With Eduard Dijksterhuis, we could address them as a veritable "epistemologiCal laboratory". The purpose of a workshop entitled "Reworking the Bench: Laboratory Notebooks in the History of Science", held at the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science in Berlin was to bring together historians who have been exploiting such resources, to compare the similarities and differences in the materials they had used and and to measure the potential and scope for future explorations of "science in the making" based on such forms of documentation. The contributions which form this volume are based on papers presented at this workshop or written afterward by participants in the discussions. This is the first book that addresses the issue of research notes for writing history of science in a comprehensive manner. Its case studies range from the early modern period to present and cover a broad range of different disciplines.

Ivan Pavlov

Author: Daniel P. Todes
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019939444X
Format: PDF, Docs
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Winner of the Pfizer Award from the History of Science Society "Contrary to legend, Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) never trained a dog to salivate to the sound of a bell." So begins this definitive, deeply researched biography of Ivan Pavlov. Daniel P. Todes fundamentally reinterprets the Russian physiologist's famous research on conditional reflexes and weaves his life, values, and science into the tumultuous century of Russian history-particularly that of its intelligentsia-from the reign of tsar Nicholas I to Stalin's time. Ivan Pavlov was born to a family of priests in provincial Riazan before the serfs were emancipated, and made his home and professional success in the booming capital of St. Petersburg in late imperial Russia. He suffered the cataclysmic destruction of his world during the Bolshevik seizure of power and civil war of 1917-21, rebuilt his life in his seventies as a "prosperous dissident" during the Leninist 1920s, and flourished professionally as never before in the 1930s industrialization, revolution, and terror of Stalin times. Using a wide variety of previously unavailable archival materials, Todes tells a vivid story of that life and redefines Pavlov's legacy. Pavlov was not, in fact, a behaviorist who believed that psychology should address only external behaviors; rather, he sought to explain the emotional and intellectual life of animals and humans, "the torments of our consciousness." This iconic "objectivist" was actually a profoundly anthropomorphic thinker whose science was suffused with his own experiences, values, and subjective interpretations. Todes's story of this powerful personality and extraordinary man is based upon interviews with surviving coworkers and family members (along with never-before-analyzed taped interviews from the 1960s and 1970s), examination of hundreds of scientific works by Pavlov and his coworkers, and close analysis of materials from some twenty-five archives. The materials range from the records of his student years at Riazan Seminary to the transcripts of the Communist Party cells in his labs, and from his scientific manuscripts and notebooks to his political speeches; they include revealing love letters to his future wife and correspondence with hundreds of scholars, artists, and Communist Party leaders; and memoirs by many coworkers, his daughter, his wife, and his lover. The product of more than twenty years of research, this is the first scholarly biography of the physiologist to be published in any language.