Perception of Faces Objects and Scenes

Author: Mary A. Peterson
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0195313658
Format: PDF
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From a barrage of photons, we readily and effortlessly recognize the faces of our friends, and the familiar objects and scenes around us. However, these tasks cannot be simple for our visual systems--faces are all extremely similar as visual patterns, and objects look quite different when viewed from different viewpoints. How do our visual systems solve these problems? The contributors to this volume seek to answer this question by exploring how analytic and holistic processes contribute to our perception of faces, objects, and scenes. The role of parts and wholes in perception has been studied for a century, beginning with the debate between Structuralists, who championed the role of elements, and Gestalt psychologists, who argued that the whole was different from the sum of its parts. This is the first volume to focus on the current state of the debate on parts versus wholes as it exists in the field of visual perception by bringing together the views of the leading researchers. Too frequently, researchers work in only one domain, so they are unaware of the ways in which holistic and analytic processing are defined in different areas. The contributors to this volume ask what analytic and holistic processes are like; whether they contribute differently to the perception of faces, objects, and scenes; whether different cognitive and neural mechanisms code holistic and analytic information; whether a single, universal system can be sufficient for visual-information processing, and whether our subjective experience of holistic perception might be nothing more than a compelling illusion. The result is a snapshot of the current thinking on how the processing of wholes and parts contributes to our remarkable ability to recognize faces, objects, and scenes, and an illustration of the diverse conceptions of analytic and holistic processing that currently coexist, and the variety of approaches that have been brought to bear on the issues.

Picture Perception in Animals

Author: Joel Fagot
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 113495137X
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Animal researchers commonly present pictures to their subjects, usually birds or monkeys, in order to infer how natural objects are perceived and conceptualised, or to discover the brain mechanisms underlying these abilities. This unique book questions the premise of this experimental approach and asks whether or not pictures can be considered as ecologically valid and realistic stimuli for animals. Leading researchers in comparative psychology and neuroscience address such questions as: "Can animals recognise objects of scenes in pictures despite variations in viewpoints?; "How do animals perceive faces?" and "Is there an equivalence, in animals' minds, between pictures and the objects they represent?". The result is an authoritative and cutting-edge survey of current knowledge in the field, which underlines the advantages, limits and risks of using pictures to infer cognitive abilities or brain mechanisms in animal studies. Picture Perception in Animals will be essential reading for comparative psychologists, anthropologists, and neuroscientists working in picture perception.

Neurobiology

Author: Georg F. Striedter
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0195396154
Format: PDF, ePub
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Focusing on the problems that brains help organisms solve, Neurobiology: A Functional Approach asks not only how the nervous system works but also why it works as it does. This text introduces readers to neurobiology through an evolutionary, organismal, and experimental perspective. With a strong emphasis on neural circuits and systems, it bridges the gap between the cellular and molecular end and the cognitive end of the neuroscience spectrum, allowing students to grasp the full breadth of the subject. Neurobiology covers not only what neuroscientists have learned about the brain in terms of facts and ideas, but also how they have learned it through key experiments.

Object Recognition in Man Monkey and Machine

Author: Michael J. Tarr
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262700702
Format: PDF, ePub
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The contributors bring a wide range of methodologies to bear on the common problem of image-based object recognition. These interconnected essays on three-dimensional visual object recognition present cutting-edge research by some of the most creative neuroscientific, cognitive, and computational scientists in the field. Cassandra Moore and Patrick Cavanagh take a classic demonstration, the perception of "two-tone" images, and turn it into a method for understanding the nature of object representations in terms of surfaces and the interaction between bottom-up and top-down processes. Michael J. Tarr and Isabel Gauthier use computer graphics to study whether viewpoint-dependent recognition mechanisms can generalize between exemplars of perceptually defined classes. Melvyn A. Goodale and G. Keith Humphrey use innovative psychophysical techniques to investigate dissociable aspects of visual and spatial processing in brain-injured subjects. D.I. Perrett, M.W. Oram, and E. Ashbridge combine neurophysiological single-cell data from monkeys with computational analyses for a new way of thinking about the mechanisms that mediate viewpoint-dependent object recognition and mental rotation. Shimon Ullman also addresses possible mechanisms to account for viewpoint-dependent behavior, but from the perspective of machine vision. Finally, Philippe G. Schyns synthesizes work from many areas, to provide a coherent account of how stimulus class and recognition task interact. The contributors bring a wide range of methodologies to bear on the common problem of image-based object recognition.

Cognitive Processes in Eye Guidance

Author: Geoffrey D. M. Underwood
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN:
Format: PDF
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Whether reading, looking at a picture, or driving, how is it that we know where to look next - how does the human visual system calculate where our gaze should be directed in order to achieve our cognitive aims? Of course, there is an interaction between the decisions about where we shouldlook and about how long we should look there. However, our eyes do not just move randomly over the visual field - whether we are reading, driving, or solving a problem. There are systematic variations not only in the duration of each eye fixation, but also in what we are looking at. It is thesevariations in eye movements that can tell us much about the cognitive processes involved in the performance of these activities. Within reading research, great progress has already been made in understanding these processes and there are now a number of competing and well-formed models. In someother areas of perception, the development of formal theories and the search for critical evidence is less advanced. This book brings together leading vision scientists studying eye movements across a range of activities, such as reading, driving, computer activities, and chess. It providesgroundbreaking new research that will help us understand how it is that we know where to move our eyes, and thereby better understand the cognitive processes underlying these activities.

Matters of Mind

Author: Scott Sturgeon
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134855028
Format: PDF, Docs
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Matters of Mind examines the mind-body problem. It offers a chapter by chapter analysis of debates surrounding the problem, including visual experience, consciousness and the problem of Zombies and Ghosts. It will prove invaluable for those interested in epistemology, philosophy of mind and cognitive science.

Cognitive Vision

Author: Brian H. Ross
Publisher: Gulf Professional Publishing
ISBN: 9780125433426
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Use of visual information is used to augment our knowledge, decide on our actions, and keep track of our environment. Even with eyes closed, people can remember visual and spatial representations, manipulate them, and make decisions about them. The chapters in Volume 42 of Psychology of Learning and Motivation discuss the ways cognition interacts with visual processes and visual representations, with coverage of figure-ground assignment, spatial and visual working memory, object identification and visual search, spatial navigation, and visual attention.

Advances in Magnetic Field Therapy Research and Application 2013 Edition

Author:
Publisher: ScholarlyEditions
ISBN: 1481670999
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Advances in Magnetic Field Therapy Research and Application: 2013 Edition is a ScholarlyBrief™ that delivers timely, authoritative, comprehensive, and specialized information about ZZZAdditional Research in a concise format. The editors have built Advances in Magnetic Field Therapy Research and Application: 2013 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about ZZZAdditional Research in this book to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Advances in Magnetic Field Therapy Research and Application: 2013 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Diagnostic Dilemmas in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

Author: Christian Perring
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191017167
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Though many of the ethical issues important in adult mental health are of relevance in the child, there are a considerable number of issues special to children. Many of the dilemmas faced pertain to diagnosis, treatment, the protection of the child, as well as the child's own developing intelligence and moral judgement. In addition, there are cases where the interests of the parents may conflict with the interests of the child. For example, the interests of a mother with schizophrenia might best be served by her continuing to look after her child, but the child's interests might require that a substitute placement be found. Diagnostic Dilemmas in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry is the first in the IPPP series to explore this highly complex topic. It brings together a collection of clinicians and philosophers who consider a range of topics central to the diagnosis and treatment of children and adolescents affected by mental disorders.