Perspectives On Thinking And Reasoning

Author: Stephen Newstead; Jonathan St.B.T. Evans both of the University of Plymouth.,
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1134834330
Format: PDF, Docs
Download Now
This collection of essays focuses on three reasoning problems devised by Peter Wason - the selection task, the 2-4-6 task, and the THOG problem - which have had a considerable influence since their invention.; The reasons why people make so many errors in these seemingly simple tasks are still not fully understood. A variety of different theoretical perspectives have been used in trying to explain performance. These include the mental models approach, the pragmatic reasoning approach, and the mental logic approach. This book contains chapters which discuss all these theories. Other chapters review the literature or offer alternative theoretical perspectives. A final chapter by Peter Wason describes how he came to create the tasks discussed.

Reasoning and Thinking

Author: K. I. Manktelow
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 0863777090
Format: PDF, Docs
Download Now
This undergraduate textbook reviews psychological research in the major areas of reasoning and thinking: deduction, induction, hypothesis testing, probability judgement, and decision making. It also covers the major theoretical debates in each area, and devotes a chapter to one of the liveliest issues in the field: the question of human rationality. Central themes that recur throughout the book include not only rationality, but also the relation between normative theories such as logic, probability theory, and decision theory, and human performance, both in experiments and in the world outside the laboratory. No prior acquaintance with formal systems is assumed, and everyday examples are used throughout to illustrate technical and theoretical points. The book differs from others in the market firstly in the range of material covered: other tend to focus primarily on on either reasoning or thinking. It is also the first student-level text to survey an imporatant new theoretical perspective, the information-gain or rational analysis approach, and to review the rationality debate from the standpoint of psuchological research in a wide range of areas.

Why Religion is Natural and Science is Not

Author: Robert N. McCauley
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199912300
Format: PDF, ePub
Download Now
The battle between religion and science, competing methods of knowing ourselves and our world, has been raging for many centuries. Now scientists themselves are looking at cognitive foundations of religion--and arriving at some surprising conclusions. Over the course of the past two decades, scholars have employed insights gleaned from cognitive science, evolutionary biology, and related disciplines to illuminate the study of religion. In Why Religion is Natural and Science Is Not, Robert N. McCauley, one of the founding fathers of the cognitive science of religion, argues that our minds are better suited to religious belief than to scientific inquiry. Drawing on the latest research and illustrating his argument with commonsense examples, McCauley argues that religion has existed for many thousands of years in every society because the kinds of explanations it provides are precisely the kinds that come naturally to human minds. Science, on the other hand, is a much more recent and rare development because it reaches radical conclusions and requires a kind of abstract thinking that only arises consistently under very specific social conditions. Religion makes intuitive sense to us, while science requires a lot of work. McCauley then draws out the larger implications of these findings. The naturalness of religion, he suggests, means that science poses no real threat to it, while the unnaturalness of science puts it in a surprisingly precarious position. Rigorously argued and elegantly written, this provocative book will appeal to anyone interested in the ongoing debate between religion and science, and in the nature and workings of the human mind.

Critical Thinking and Learning

Author: Mark Mason
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
ISBN: 9781405181075
Format: PDF, ePub
Download Now
By introducing current debates in the field of critical thinking and posing new questions from contributing scholars, Critical Thinking and Learning examines the received wisdom in the field of critical thinking and learning. Examines the different perspectives in the field of critical thinking and learning Provides insights into critical thinking by posing new questions from contributing authors Introduces cross-cultural viewpoints into the dominant 'western'-based educational viewpoint Highlights differences among a variety of thinkers in the field

CogLab Reader

Author:
Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing Company
ISBN: 9780534641207
Format: PDF, Docs
Download Now
This COGLAB READER includes 32 articles, each of which corresponds to a demonstration or set of demonstrations in the CogLab Cognitive Psycholgy Laboratory. Available online or on CD-ROM, CogLab provides an invaluable laboratory component for cognitive psychology classes. This virtual laboratory gives the students a sense of how experiments are conducted and how individual and group data look. The reader complements that goal in providing a historical and theoretical context for the experiments. Each reading is accompanied by an introduction and questions for discussion that draw both on the reading and on the associated CogLab demonstration.

Cognition

Author: Daniel B. Willingham
Publisher:
ISBN:
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download Now
textformat=02>totheminute coverage of controversies in the field in an interesting, lively manner that assumes no prior knowledge of cognitive psychology. The Approach of Cognitive