Supercritical Fluid Science and Technology

Author: Keith P. Johnston
Publisher: Amer Chemical Society
ISBN: 9780841216785
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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New directions in supercritical fluids science and technology, fluorescence spectroscopy studies of intermolecular interactions in supercritical fluids, solvation structure in supercritical fluid mixtures based on molecular distribution functions, gibbs-ensemble Monte Carlo simulations of phase equilibria in supercritical fluid mixtures, spectroscopic determination of solvent strength and structure in supercritical fluid mixtures, partition coefficients of polyethyle glycols in super critical carbon dioxide, experimental measurement of supercritical fluid-liquid phase equilibrium, vapor-liquid equilibria of fatty acid esters in supercritical fluids, four-phase equilibrium of two ternary organic systems with carbon dioxide, direct viscosity enhancement of carbon dioxide, inverse emulsion polymerization of acrylamide, interaction of polymers with near-critical carbon dioxide, fundamental kinetics of methanol oxidation in supercritical fluids, thermodynamic analysis of corrosion of iron alloys in supercritical water, electrochemical measurements of corrosion of iron alloys in supercritical water, phase and reaction equilibria considerations in the evaluation and operation of supercritical fluid reaction processes, kinetic model for supercritical delignification of wood, gas antisolvent recrystallization solids formation after the expansion of supercritical mixtures, food, pharmaceutical, and environmental applications, design of commercial plant.

Supercritical Fluid Engineering Science

Author: Erdogan Kiran
Publisher: Amer Chemical Society
ISBN:
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Current state of supercritical fluid science and technology, high-pressure vapor-liquid equilibria in carbon dioxide and 1-alkanol mixture, phase behavior of supercritical fluid-entrainer systems, three-phase behavior in binary mixtures of near-critical propane and triglycerides multiphase equilibrium behavior of a mixture of carbon dioxide, 1-de canol, and n-tetradecane, group contribution method for estimating the solubility of selected hidrocarbon solutes in supercritical carbonequation-of-state analysis of phase behavior for water-surfactant-supercritical fluid mixture, diffusion in liquid and supercritical fluid mixtures, viscosity of polymer solutions in near-critical and supercritical fluids: polystyrene and n-butane thermophysical properties of natural gas mixtures derived from acoustic cavity measurements, competitive energetic and entropic effects describing solvation in near-critical solutions, chemical potentials in ternary supercritical fluid mixtures, aggregation of methanol in supercritical fluids, hidrogen bonding of simple alcohols in supercritical fluids, adsorption from supercritical fluids, spectroscopic investigations of reactions, fluorescence spectroscopy study of alcohol, effects of specific interactions in supercritical fluid solutions, applications of supercritical fluids of controlled release, dynamic fluorescence, light scattering, simulation and optimization, organic component kinect model, oxidation process, removal of hetero atoms, gas density.

Phase Equilibrium Engineering

Author: Esteban Alberto Brignole
Publisher: Newnes
ISBN: 044459471X
Format: PDF, ePub
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Traditionally, the teaching of phase equilibria emphasizes the relationships between the thermodynamic variables of each phase in equilibrium rather than its engineering applications. This book changes the focus from the use of thermodynamics relationships to compute phase equilibria to the design and control of the phase conditions that a process needs. Phase Equilibrium Engineering presents a systematic study and application of phase equilibrium tools to the development of chemical processes. The thermodynamic modeling of mixtures for process development, synthesis, simulation, design and optimization is analyzed. The relation between the mixture molecular properties, the selection of the thermodynamic model and the process technology that could be applied are discussed. A classification of mixtures, separation process, thermodynamic models and technologies is presented to guide the engineer in the world of separation processes. The phase condition required for a given reacting system is studied at subcritical and supercritical conditions. The four cardinal points of phase equilibrium engineering are: the chemical plant or process, the laboratory, the modeling of phase equilibria and the simulator. The harmonization of all these components to obtain a better design or operation is the ultimate goal of phase equilibrium engineering. Methodologies are discussed using relevant industrial examples The molecular nature and composition of the process mixture is given a key role in process decisions Phase equilibrium diagrams are used as a drawing board for process implementation

Introduction to Supercritical Fluids

Author: Richard Smith Jr.
Publisher: Newnes
ISBN: 0080931308
Format: PDF
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This text provides an introduction to supercritical fluids with easy-to-use Excel spreadsheets suitable for both specialized-discipline (chemistry or chemical engineering student) and mixed-discipline (engineering/economic student) classes. Each chapter contains worked examples, tip boxes and end-of-the-chapter problems and projects. Part I covers web-based chemical information resources, applications and simplified theory presented in a way that allows students of all disciplines to delve into the properties of supercritical fluids and to design energy, extraction and materials formation systems for real-world processes that use supercritical water or supercritical carbon dioxide. Part II takes a practical approach and addresses the thermodynamic framework, equations of state, fluid phase equilibria, heat and mass transfer, chemical equilibria and reaction kinetics of supercritical fluids. Spreadsheets are arranged as Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) functions and macros that are completely (source code) accessible for students who have interest in developing their own programs. Programming is not required to solve problems or to complete projects in the text. Property worksheets/spreadsheets that are easy to use in learning environments Worked examples with Excel VBA Worksheet functions allow users to design their own processes Fluid phase equilibria and chemical equilibria worksheets allow users to change conditions, study new solutes, co-solvents, chemical systems or reactions

Particle Formation with Supercritical Fluids

Author: Michael Türk
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444594434
Format: PDF
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Particle formation with supercritical fluids is a promising alternative to conventional precipitation processes as it allows the reduction of particle size and control of morphology and particle size distribution without degradation or contamination of the product. The book comprehensively examines the current status of research and development and provides perspectives and insights on promising future directions. The introduction to high pressure and high temperature phase equilibria and nucleation phenomena provides the basic principles of the underlying physical and chemical phenomena, allowing the reader an understanding of the relationship between process conditions and particle characteristics. Bridging the gap between theory and application, the book imparts the scientific and engineering fundamentals for innovative particle formation processes. The interdisciplinary "modus operandi" will encourage cooperation between scientists and researchers from different but complementary disciplines. Focuses on the general principles of particle formation in supercritical fluids Considers high pressure and high temperature phase equilibria, fluid dynamics and nucleation theory Discusses the underlying physical and chemical phenomena needed to understand the different applications, pointing out the relationship between process conditions and product properties

Supercritical Fluid Technology in Oil and Lipid Chemistry

Author: Jerry W. King
Publisher: The American Oil Chemists Society
ISBN: 9780935315714
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Thermodynamics of supercritical fluids with respect to lipid-containing systems; Solubility measurement of lipid constituents in supercritical fluids; Supercritical fluid extraction of oilseeds/lipids in natural products; Supercritical fractionation of lipids; Oilseed solubility and extraction modeling; Modeling of the supercritical fluid extraction rate of oilseeds; Design and economic analysis of supercritical fluid extraction processes; Supercritical fluid extraction and fractionation of fish oils; Supercritical fluid extraction of egg lipids; Supercritical fluid extraction of Cocoa and Cocoa products; Superctitical CO2 extraction of meat products and edible animal fats for cholesterol reduction; Supercritical fluid extraction of algae; Effect of supercritical fluids on residual meals and protein functionality; Treatment of food materials with supercritical carbon dioxide; Enzymatic synthesis in supercritical fluids; Basic principles and the role of supercritical fluid chromatography in lipid analysis; Supercritical fluid chromatography for the analysis of oleochemicals; Supercritical fluid chromatography of trace components in oils and fats; Analytical supercritical fluid extraction for oil and lipid analysis.

Phase Equilibrium Engineering

Author: Esteban Brignole
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
ISBN: 012808264X
Format: PDF, ePub
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In this chapter, supercritical fluid extraction and fractionation of natural oil mixtures are presented as an alternative to traditional methods like steam distillation, liquid solvent extraction, or vacuum distillation. In the search of alternatives to traditional methods, the principles of phase equilibrium engineering are followed to analyze the SCF extraction and continuous fractionation of natural products. The fundamentals of these high pressure technologies, which combine the principles of distillation and extractive distillation, are presented together with the limitation of simple countercurrent fractionation, which in the end justifies the need of external reflux. Through several case studies, the optimization and solvent selection are analyzed for processes in which the fractionation is driven by the pressure, temperature, and flow rate of the SCF.

Supercritical Fluid Technology in Materials Science and Engineering

Author: Ya-Ping Sun
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780824706517
Format: PDF, Docs
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This title analyzes the chemical reactions, structures and fundamental properties of supercritical fluid systems for the production of new compounds, nanomaterials, fibers, and films. It complies contemporary research and technological advances for increased selectivity and reduced waste in chemical, industrial, pharmaceutical, and biomedical applications. Topics include fluid dynamics, catalysis, hydrothermal synthesis, surfactants, conducting polymers, crystal growth, and other aspects and applications of supercritical fluids.

Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications

Author: Vladimir Anikeev
Publisher: Newnes
ISBN: 0444626972
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications covers the fundamental principles involved in the preparation and characterization of supercritical fluids (SCFs) used in the energy production and other environmental applications. Energy production from diversified resources — including renewable materials — using clean processes can be accomplished using technologies like SCFs. This book is focused on critical issues scientists and engineers face in applying SCFs to energy production and environmental protection, the innovative solutions they have found, and the challenges they need to overcome. The book also covers the basics of sub- and supercritical fluids, like the thermodynamics of phase and chemical equilibria, mathematical modeling, and process calculations. A supercritical fluid is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its critical point where distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist. At this state the compound demonstrates unique properties, which can be "fine-tuned," making them suitable as organic solvents in a range of industrial and laboratory processes. This volume enables readers to select the most appropriate medium for a specific situation. It helps instructors prepare course material for graduate and postgraduate courses in the area of chemistry, chemical engineering, and environmental engineering. And it helps professional engineers learn supercritical fluid-based technologies and use them in solving the increasingly challenging environmental issues. Relates theory, chemical characteristics, and properties of the particular supercritical fluid to its various applications Covers the fundamentals of supercritical fluids, like thermodynamics of phase and chemical equilibria, mathematical modeling, and process calculations Includes the most recent applications of supercritical fluids, including energy generation, materials synthesis, and environmental protection

Supercritical Fluids

Author: E. Kiran
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401139296
Format: PDF, ePub
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Supercritical fluids are neither gas nor liquid, but can be compressed gradually from low to high density and they are therefore interesting and important as tunable solvents and reaction media in the chemical process industry. By adjusting the density the properties of these fluids can be customised and manipulated for a given process - physical or chemical transformation. Separation and processing using supercritical solvents such as CO2 are currently on-line commercially in the food, essential oils and polymer industries. Many agencies and industries are considering the use of supercritical water for waste remediation. Supercritical fluid chromatography represents another, major analytical application. Significant advances have recently been made in materials processing, ranging from particle formation to the creation of porous materials. The chapters in this book provide tutorial accounts of topical areas centred around: (1) phase equilibria, thermodynamics and equations of state; (2) critical behaviour, crossover effects; (3) transport and interfacial properties; (4) molecular modelling, computer simulation; (5) reactions, spectroscopy; (6) phase separation kinetics; (7) extractions; (8) applications to polymers, pharmaceuticals, natural materials and chromatography; (9) process scale-up.