Phase Equilibrium Engineering

Author: Esteban Brignole
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
ISBN: 0128082577
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Phase equilibrium knowledge is required for the design of all sorts of chemical processes that may involve separations, reactions, fluids flow, particle micronization, etc. Indeed, different phase behavior scenarios are required for a rational conceptual process design. The aim of this chapter is to present the possible fluid mixture phase behavior that can be found in binary, ternary, and multicomponent systems. Moreover, representation of phase behavior in terms of phase diagrams is discussed. Dealing with phase diagrams of complex mixtures is not an easy task for beginners; however, very simple concepts are behind the rules for their construction. Phase diagrams are essential tools for phase equilibrium engineering as they provide valuable hints to understand the process and to assess the feasible and optimum operating regions. In this chapter, the “phenomenological” meaning of each phase behavior and its relation with molecular properties is discussed. A special attention is given to binary system phase behavior. Even though, in practice we rarely found such simple mixtures, they furnish a great deal of information for the understanding of multicomponent systems.

High pressure Fluid Phase Equilibria

Author: Ulrich K. Deiters
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444563474
Format: PDF
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The book begins with an overview of the phase diagrams of fluid mixtures (fluid = liquid, gas, or supercritical state), which can show an astonishing variety when elevated pressures are taken into account; phenomena like retrograde condensation (single and double) and azeotropy (normal and double) are discussed. It then gives an introduction into the relevant thermodynamic equations for fluid mixtures, including some that are rarely found in modern textbooks, and shows how they can they be used to compute phase diagrams and related properties. This chapter gives a consistent and axiomatic approach to fluid thermodynamics; it avoids using activity coefficients. Further chapters are dedicated to solid-fluid phase equilibria and global phase diagrams (systematic search for phase diagram classes). The appendix contains numerical algorithms needed for the computations. The book thus enables the reader to create or improve computer programs for the calculation of fluid phase diagrams. introduces phase diagram classes, how to recognize them and identify their characteristic features presents rational nomenclature of binary fluid phase diagrams includes problems and solutions for self-testing, exercises or seminars

Supercritical Fluid Science and Technology

Author: Keith P. Johnston
Publisher: Amer Chemical Society
ISBN: 9780841216785
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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New directions in supercritical fluids science and technology, fluorescence spectroscopy studies of intermolecular interactions in supercritical fluids, solvation structure in supercritical fluid mixtures based on molecular distribution functions, gibbs-ensemble Monte Carlo simulations of phase equilibria in supercritical fluid mixtures, spectroscopic determination of solvent strength and structure in supercritical fluid mixtures, partition coefficients of polyethyle glycols in super critical carbon dioxide, experimental measurement of supercritical fluid-liquid phase equilibrium, vapor-liquid equilibria of fatty acid esters in supercritical fluids, four-phase equilibrium of two ternary organic systems with carbon dioxide, direct viscosity enhancement of carbon dioxide, inverse emulsion polymerization of acrylamide, interaction of polymers with near-critical carbon dioxide, fundamental kinetics of methanol oxidation in supercritical fluids, thermodynamic analysis of corrosion of iron alloys in supercritical water, electrochemical measurements of corrosion of iron alloys in supercritical water, phase and reaction equilibria considerations in the evaluation and operation of supercritical fluid reaction processes, kinetic model for supercritical delignification of wood, gas antisolvent recrystallization solids formation after the expansion of supercritical mixtures, food, pharmaceutical, and environmental applications, design of commercial plant.

Particle Formation with Supercritical Fluids

Author: Michael Türk
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444594434
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Particle formation with supercritical fluids is a promising alternative to conventional precipitation processes as it allows the reduction of particle size and control of morphology and particle size distribution without degradation or contamination of the product. The book comprehensively examines the current status of research and development and provides perspectives and insights on promising future directions. The introduction to high pressure and high temperature phase equilibria and nucleation phenomena provides the basic principles of the underlying physical and chemical phenomena, allowing the reader an understanding of the relationship between process conditions and particle characteristics. Bridging the gap between theory and application, the book imparts the scientific and engineering fundamentals for innovative particle formation processes. The interdisciplinary "modus operandi" will encourage cooperation between scientists and researchers from different but complementary disciplines. Focuses on the general principles of particle formation in supercritical fluids Considers high pressure and high temperature phase equilibria, fluid dynamics and nucleation theory Discusses the underlying physical and chemical phenomena needed to understand the different applications, pointing out the relationship between process conditions and product properties

Supercritical Fluids as Solvents and Reaction Media

Author: Gerd H. Brunner
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080542102
Format: PDF
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Supercritical fluids behave either like a gas or a liquid, depending on the values of thermodynamic properties. This tuning of properties, and other advantageous properties of supercritical fluids led to innovative technologies. More than 100 plants of production size are now in operation worldwide in the areas of process and production technology, environmental applications, and particle engineering. New processes are under research and development in various fields. This book provides an overview of the research activities in the field of Supercritical Fluids in Germany. It is based on the research program "Supercritical fluids as solvents and reaction media" on the initiative of the "GVC-Fachausschuß Hochdruckverfahrenstechnik" (i.e. the German working party on High Pressure Chemical Engineering of the Society of Chemical Engineers). This research program provided an immensely valuable platform for exchange of knowledge and experience. More than 50 young researchers were involved contributing with their expertise, their new ideas, and the motivation of youth. The results of this innovative research are described in this book. - This book provides an overview of the research activities in the field of Supercritical Fluids in Germany - Contains results of projects within the research program on "Supercritical fluids as solvents and reaction media" on the initiative of the German working party on High Pressure Chemical Engineering of the Society of Chemical Engineers. - More than 50 young researchers were involved in contributing with their expertise, their new ideas, and the motivation of youth.

Introduction to Supercritical Fluids

Author: Richard Smith Jr.
Publisher: Newnes
ISBN: 0080931308
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This text provides an introduction to supercritical fluids with easy-to-use Excel spreadsheets suitable for both specialized-discipline (chemistry or chemical engineering student) and mixed-discipline (engineering/economic student) classes. Each chapter contains worked examples, tip boxes and end-of-the-chapter problems and projects. Part I covers web-based chemical information resources, applications and simplified theory presented in a way that allows students of all disciplines to delve into the properties of supercritical fluids and to design energy, extraction and materials formation systems for real-world processes that use supercritical water or supercritical carbon dioxide. Part II takes a practical approach and addresses the thermodynamic framework, equations of state, fluid phase equilibria, heat and mass transfer, chemical equilibria and reaction kinetics of supercritical fluids. Spreadsheets are arranged as Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) functions and macros that are completely (source code) accessible for students who have interest in developing their own programs. Programming is not required to solve problems or to complete projects in the text. Property worksheets/spreadsheets that are easy to use in learning environments Worked examples with Excel VBA Worksheet functions allow users to design their own processes Fluid phase equilibria and chemical equilibria worksheets allow users to change conditions, study new solutes, co-solvents, chemical systems or reactions

Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications

Author: Vladimir Anikeev
Publisher: Newnes
ISBN: 0444626972
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications covers the fundamental principles involved in the preparation and characterization of supercritical fluids (SCFs) used in the energy production and other environmental applications. Energy production from diversified resources — including renewable materials — using clean processes can be accomplished using technologies like SCFs. This book is focused on critical issues scientists and engineers face in applying SCFs to energy production and environmental protection, the innovative solutions they have found, and the challenges they need to overcome. The book also covers the basics of sub- and supercritical fluids, like the thermodynamics of phase and chemical equilibria, mathematical modeling, and process calculations. A supercritical fluid is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its critical point where distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist. At this state the compound demonstrates unique properties, which can be "fine-tuned," making them suitable as organic solvents in a range of industrial and laboratory processes. This volume enables readers to select the most appropriate medium for a specific situation. It helps instructors prepare course material for graduate and postgraduate courses in the area of chemistry, chemical engineering, and environmental engineering. And it helps professional engineers learn supercritical fluid-based technologies and use them in solving the increasingly challenging environmental issues. Relates theory, chemical characteristics, and properties of the particular supercritical fluid to its various applications Covers the fundamentals of supercritical fluids, like thermodynamics of phase and chemical equilibria, mathematical modeling, and process calculations Includes the most recent applications of supercritical fluids, including energy generation, materials synthesis, and environmental protection

Supercritical Fluid Engineering Science

Author: Erdogan Kiran
Publisher: Amer Chemical Society
ISBN:
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Current state of supercritical fluid science and technology, high-pressure vapor-liquid equilibria in carbon dioxide and 1-alkanol mixture, phase behavior of supercritical fluid-entrainer systems, three-phase behavior in binary mixtures of near-critical propane and triglycerides multiphase equilibrium behavior of a mixture of carbon dioxide, 1-de canol, and n-tetradecane, group contribution method for estimating the solubility of selected hidrocarbon solutes in supercritical carbonequation-of-state analysis of phase behavior for water-surfactant-supercritical fluid mixture, diffusion in liquid and supercritical fluid mixtures, viscosity of polymer solutions in near-critical and supercritical fluids: polystyrene and n-butane thermophysical properties of natural gas mixtures derived from acoustic cavity measurements, competitive energetic and entropic effects describing solvation in near-critical solutions, chemical potentials in ternary supercritical fluid mixtures, aggregation of methanol in supercritical fluids, hidrogen bonding of simple alcohols in supercritical fluids, adsorption from supercritical fluids, spectroscopic investigations of reactions, fluorescence spectroscopy study of alcohol, effects of specific interactions in supercritical fluid solutions, applications of supercritical fluids of controlled release, dynamic fluorescence, light scattering, simulation and optimization, organic component kinect model, oxidation process, removal of hetero atoms, gas density.

Hydrothermal and Supercritical Water Processes

Author: Gerd Brunner
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444594183
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Hydrothermal and Supercritical Water Processes presents an overview on the properties and applications of water at elevated temperatures and pressures. It combines fundamentals with production process aspects. Water is an extraordinary substance. At elevated temperatures (and pressures) its properties change dramatically due to the modifications of the molecular structure of bulk water that varies from a stable three-dimensional network, formed by hydrogen bonds at low and moderate temperatures, to an assembly of separated polar water molecules at high and supercritical temperatures. With varying pressure and temperature, water is turned from a solvent for ionic species to a solvent for polar and non-polar substances. This variability and an enhanced reactivity of water have led to many practical applications and to even more research activities, related to such areas as energy transfer, extraction of functional molecules, unique chemical reactions, biomass conversion and fuel materials processing, destruction of dangerous compounds and recycling of useful ones, growth of monolithic crystals, and preparation of metallic nanoparticles. This book provides an introduction into the wide range of activities that are possible in aqueous mixtures. It is organized to facilitate understanding of the main features, outlines the main applications, and gives access to further information Summarizes fundamental properties of water for engineering applications Compares process and reactor designs Evaluates processes from thermodynamic, economic, and social impact viewpoints

Introduction to Supercritical Fluids

Author: Richard Smith Jr.
Publisher: Newnes
ISBN: 0080931308
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Download Now
This text provides an introduction to supercritical fluids with easy-to-use Excel spreadsheets suitable for both specialized-discipline (chemistry or chemical engineering student) and mixed-discipline (engineering/economic student) classes. Each chapter contains worked examples, tip boxes and end-of-the-chapter problems and projects. Part I covers web-based chemical information resources, applications and simplified theory presented in a way that allows students of all disciplines to delve into the properties of supercritical fluids and to design energy, extraction and materials formation systems for real-world processes that use supercritical water or supercritical carbon dioxide. Part II takes a practical approach and addresses the thermodynamic framework, equations of state, fluid phase equilibria, heat and mass transfer, chemical equilibria and reaction kinetics of supercritical fluids. Spreadsheets are arranged as Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) functions and macros that are completely (source code) accessible for students who have interest in developing their own programs. Programming is not required to solve problems or to complete projects in the text. Property worksheets/spreadsheets that are easy to use in learning environments Worked examples with Excel VBA Worksheet functions allow users to design their own processes Fluid phase equilibria and chemical equilibria worksheets allow users to change conditions, study new solutes, co-solvents, chemical systems or reactions