Physical Chemistry and Acid Base Properties of Surfaces

Author: Jean-Charles Joud
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1848218435
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The first part of this book looks at the consequence of chemical and topological defects existing on real surfaces, which explain the wettability of super hydrophilc and super hydrophobic surfaces. There follows an in-depth analysis of the acido-basicity of surfaces with, as an illustration, different wettability experiments on real materials. The next chapter deals with various techniques enabling the measurement of acido basicity of the surfaces including IR and XPS technics. The last part of the book presents an electrochemical point of view which explains the surface charges of the oxide at contact with water or other electrolyte solutions in the frame of Bronsted acido-basicity concept. Various consequences are deduced from such analyses illustrated by original measurement of the point of zero charge or by understanding the basic principles of the electrowetting experiments.

Acid base Interactions

Author: K. L. Mittal
Publisher: VSP
ISBN: 9789067643252
Format: PDF, Docs
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This book documents the proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Acid-Base Interactions: Relevance to Adhesion Science and Technology held in Newark, New Jersey, October 19--21, 1998. Since the first symposium on this topic was held on the occasion of the 75th birthday of Professor Frederick M. Fowkes in 1990, it was deemed opportune and necessary to hold the second symposium on this topic. This symposium was organized with the following objectives in mind: (i) to consolidate the R&D activity carried out since the first symposium, (ii) to provide a forum for discussion of latest research results, (iii) to provide an opportunity for cross-pollination of ideas, (iv) to identify topics where there was discordance of opinion or discrepancy, and (v) to highlight areas which needed intensified R&D activities. The final technical program contained a total of 36 papers by researchers and technologists from academia, industry and other organizations. This book contains a total of 32 papers, which were rigorously peer reviewed and suitably revised before inclusion in this book. The book is divided into three parts as follows: Part 1: Fundamental Aspects of Acid-Base Interactions; Part 2: Characterization of the Acid-Base Properties of Materials; and Part 3: Applications of Acid-Base Interactions. The topics covered include: Surface free energy acid-base theory applied to solid surfaces; Good, van Oss and Chaudhury theory; contact angle measurements and interpretation; acid-base theory of contact angles; acid-base strength of solid surfaces; acid-base interactions at solid surfaces; acid-base interactions at the molecular level; characterization of acid-base properties of a host of materials (polymers, wood, glass, ceramics, silica particles, textile fibers, rocks) by XPS, inverse gas chromatography, immersion calorimetry, contact angle titration, and thin layer wicking; and relevance of acid-base interactions to bioadhesion, microbial adhesion, polymer adhesion, and adhesion in reinforced polymer composites.

Impact of Surface Science on Catalysis

Author: Bruce C. Gates
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780122772511
Format: PDF, Docs
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Surface science emerged in the 1960s with the development of reliable ultrahigh vacuum apparatus, providing exact structures of surfaces of metal single crystals, information about their compositions, and relationships between surface structure and composition and catalytic reaction rates. Catalysis, the acceleration of a chemical reaction by a catalyst (substance), provided much of the driving force for the early development of surface science. As surface science continues its rapid development, this book illustrates how it is still driven by the challenges of catalysis and how both theory and scanning tunneling microscopy have forcefully emerged as essential tools. It is also evident how surface science continues to serve as the foundation of catalytic science. This is a compendium written by leading surface scientists presenting an incisive assessment of up-to-date theoretical and experimental results constituting the foundation of fundamental understanding of surface catalysis. This paperback edition is adapted from the serial Advances in Catalysis, Volume 45, ISBN: 0-12-007845-7. COVERAGE INCLUDES: Dynamics of reactions at surfaces on time scales ranging from 10-13s to 103s Density functional theory of adsorption and surface chemical reactions Catalysts in action: atomic-resolution STM images elucidating elementary reactions on surfaces Adsorption energetics and bonding: femtomole calorimetry and first-principles theory Active sites on oxide catalysts: from single crystals to powders Model supported catalysts: metal particles on well-ordered oxide layers Vibrational spectra of reaction intermediates on catalyst surfaces by sum frequency generation

Synthesis Properties and Applications of Oxide Nanomaterials

Author: José A. Rodriguez
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470108967
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Current oxide nanomaterials knowledge to draw from and build on Synthesis, Properties, and Applications of Oxide Nanomaterials summarizes the existing knowledge in oxide-based materials research. It gives researchers one comprehensive resource that consolidates general theoretical knowledge alongside practical applications. Organized by topic for easy access, this reference: * Covers the fundamental science, synthesis, characterization, physicochemical properties, and applications of oxide nanomaterials * Explains the fundamental aspects (quantum-mechanical and thermodynamic) that determine the behavior and growth mode of nanostructured oxides * Examines synthetic procedures using top-down and bottom-up fabrication technologies involving liquid-solid or gas-solid transformations * Discusses the sophisticated experimental techniques and state-of-the-art theory used to characterize the structural and electronic properties of nanostructured oxides * Describes applications such as sorbents, sensors, ceramic materials, electrochemical and photochemical devices, and catalysts for reducing environmental pollution, transforming hydrocarbons, and producing hydrogen With its combination of theory and real-world applications plus extensive bibliographic references, Synthesis, Properties, and Applications of Oxide Nanomaterials consolidates a wealth of current, complex information in one volume for practicing chemists, physicists, and materials scientists, and for engineers and researchers in government, industry, and academia. It's also an outstanding reference for graduate students in chemistry, chemical engineering, physics, and materials science.

Surface and Colloid Science

Author: Egon Matijevic
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780306464560
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Ever since the first volume appeared in 1969, this series has received good reviews in a variety of periodicals published in different corners of the world. It would seem that the work has fulfilled its purpose as outlined in the Preface to Volume 1. The rapidly increasing interest in surface and colloid science by people engaged in industrial research and development, and in environmental, ecological, medical, pharmaceutical, and other areas, justifies the continuation of such an effort. The Surface and Colloid Science series originated with John Wiley and Sons and has been continued with Plenum Press. This volume is the third with the present publisher, and is the best assurance of our mutual interest to proceed with this work. Some books in the series, as was the case with Volume 11, may appear under the editorship of other workers in the field. For reasons of continuity, a sequential numbering system will be maintained. This editor hopes to provide the scientific and technical community with high-quality contributions in surface and colloid science in the future. He invites specialists to submit definitive chapters on any topic within the broad area of our discipline for inclusion in this series.

Water Quality Engineering

Author: Mark M. Benjamin
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118632273
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Explains the fundamental theory and mathematics of water and wastewater treatment processes By carefully explaining both the underlying theory and the underlying mathematics, this text enables readers to fully grasp the fundamentals of physical and chemical treatment processes for water and wastewater. Throughout the book, the authors use detailed examples to illustrate real-world challenges and their solutions, including step-by-step mathematical calculations. Each chapter ends with a set of problems that enable readers to put their knowledge into practice by developing and analyzing complex processes for the removal of soluble and particulate materials in order to ensure the safety of our water supplies. Designed to give readers a deep understanding of how water treatment processes actually work, Water Quality Engineering explores: Application of mass balances in continuous flow systems, enabling readers to understand and predict changes in water quality Processes for removing soluble contaminants from water, including treatment of municipal and industrial wastes Processes for removing particulate materials from water Membrane processes to remove both soluble and particulate materials Following the discussion of mass balances in continuous flow systems in the first part of the book, the authors explain and analyze water treatment processes in subsequent chapters by setting forth the relevant mass balance for the process, reactor geometry, and flow pattern under consideration. With its many examples and problem sets, Water Quality Engineering is recommended as a textbook for graduate courses in physical and chemical treatment processes for water and wastewater. By drawing together the most recent research findings and industry practices, this text is also recommended for professional environmental engineers in search of a contemporary perspective on water and wastewater treatment processes.

Colloid And Surface Properties Of Clays And Related Minerals

Author: Rossman F. Giese
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780203910658
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Discusses measuring the surface properties of flat or particulate solids with contact angles of drops of high-energy liquids deposited on solid surfaces or via the thin-layer wicking technique. It focuses on Lifshitz-van der Waals, Lewis acid-base, and electrical double layer interactions.

Catalysis by Nonmetals

Author: Oleg V. Krylov
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 1483191753
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Catalysis by Non-metals: Rules of Catalyst Selection presents the development of scientific principles for the collection of catalysts. It discusses the investigation of the mechanism of chemosorption and catalysis. It addresses a series of properties of solid with catalytic activity. Some of the topics covered in the book are the properties of a solid and catalytic activity in oxidation-reduction reactions; the difference of electronegativities and the effective charges of atoms; the role of d-electrons in the catalytic properties of a solid; the color of solids; and proton-acid and proton-base properties of a surface. The catalytic activity and structure of solids are covered. The type of crystal lattice and crystalline lattice parameters are discussed. The text describes the decomposition of alcohols. A study of the dehydrogenation and hydrogenation reactions is presented. A chapter is devoted to the decomposition of inorganic hydrides. Another section focuses on the hydrogen-deuterium exchange and other simple reactions. The book can provide useful information to scientists, physicists, students, and researchers.

An Introduction to the Physical Chemistry of Food

Author: John Coupland
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1493907611
Format: PDF
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Familiar combinations of ingredients and processing make the structures that give food its properties. For example in ice cream, the emulsifiers and proteins stabilize partly crystalline milk fat as an emulsion, freezing (crystallization) of some of the water gives the product its hardness and polysaccharide stabilizers keep it smooth. Why different recipes work as they do is largely governed by the rules of physical chemistry. This textbook introduces the physical chemistry essential to understanding the behavior of foods. Starting with the simplest model of molecules attracting and repelling one another while being moved by the randomizing effect of heat, the laws of thermodynamics are used to derive important properties of foods such as flavor binding and water activity. Most foods contain multiple phases and the same molecular model is used to understand phase diagrams, phase separation and the properties of surfaces. The remaining chapters focus on the formation and properties of specific structures in foods – crystals, polymers, dispersions and gels. Only a basic understanding of food science is needed, and no mathematics or chemistry beyond the introductory college courses is required. At all stages, examples from the primary literature are used to illustrate the text and to highlight the practical applications of physical chemistry in food science.