Physics of Soft Impact and Cratering

Author: Hiroaki Katsuragi
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 4431556486
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book focuses on the impact dynamics and cratering of soft matter to describe its importance, difficulty, and wide applicability to planetary-related problems. A comprehensive introduction to the dimensional analysis and constitutive laws that are necessary to discuss impact mechanics and cratering is first provided. Then, particular coverage is given to the impact of granular matter, which is one of the most crucial constituents for geophysics. While granular matter shows both solid-like and fluid-like behaviors, neither solid nor fluid dynamics is sufficient to fully understand the physics of granular matter. In order to reveal its fundamental properties, extensive impact tests have been carried out recently. The author reveals the findings of these recent studies as well as what remains unsolved in terms of impact dynamics. Impact crater morphology with various soft matter impacts also is discussed intensively. Various experimental and observational results up to the recent Itokawa asteroid’s terrain and nanocrater are reviewed and explained mainly by dimensional analysis. The author discusses perspectives of the relation between soft matter physics and planetary science, because it is an important step towards unifying physics and planetary science, in both of which fields crater morphology has been studied independently.

Soft Matter at Aqueous Interfaces

Author: Peter R. Lang
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319245023
Format: PDF
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This book covers the science of interfaces between an aqueous phase and a solid, another liquid or a gaseous phase, starting from the basic physical chemistry all the way to state-of-the-art research developments. Both experimental and theoretical methods are treated thanks to the contributions of a distinguished list of authors who are all active researchers in their respective fields. The properties of these interfaces are crucial for a wide variety of processes, products and biological systems and functions, such as the formulation of personal care and food products, paints and coatings, microfluidic and lab-on-a-chip applications, cell membranes, and lung surfactants. Accordingly, research and expertise on the subject are spread over a broad range of academic disciplines and industrial laboratories. This book brings together knowledge from these different places with the aim of fostering education, collaborations and research progress.

Introduction to the Physics of Landslides

Author: Fabio Vittorio de Blasio
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400711228
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Landslides represent one of the most destructive natural catastrophes. They can reach extremely long distances and velocities, and are capable of wiping out human communities and settlements. Yet landslides have a creative facet as they contribute to the modification of the landscape. They are the consequence of the gravity pull jointly with the tectonic disturbance of our living planet. Landslides are most often studied within a geotechnical and geomorphological perspective. Engineering calculations are traditionally applied to the stability of terrains. In this book, landslides are viewed as a physical phenomenon. A physical understanding of landslides is a basis for modeling and mitigation and for understanding their flow behavior and dynamics. We still know relatively little about many aspects of landslide physics. It is only recently that the field of landslide dynamics is approaching a more mature stage. This is testified by the release of modelling tools for the simulation of landslides and debris flows. In this book the emphasis is placed on the problems at the frontier of landslide research. Each chapter is self-consistent, with questions and arguments introduced from the beginning.

Impact Cratering

Author: G. R. Osinski
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118447328
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Impact cratering is arguably the most ubiquitous geological process in the Solar System. It has played an important role in Earth’s history, shaping the geological landscape, affecting the evolution of life, and generating economic resources. However, it was only in the latter half of the 20th century that the importance of impact cratering as a geological process was recognized and only during the past couple of decades that the study of meteorite impact structures has moved into the mainstream. This book seeks to fill a critical gap in the literature by providing an overview text covering broad aspects of the impact cratering process and aimed at graduate students, professionals and researchers alike. It introduces readers to the threat and nature of impactors, the impact cratering process, the products, and the effects – both destructive and beneficial. A series of chapters on the various techniques used to study impact craters provide a foundation for anyone studying impact craters for the first time.

The Functional Analysis of Quantum Information Theory

Author: Ved Prakash Gupta
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319167189
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book provides readers with a concise introduction to current studies on operator-algebras and their generalizations, operator spaces and operator systems, with a special focus on their application in quantum information science. This basic framework for the mathematical formulation of quantum information can be traced back to the mathematical work of John von Neumann, one of the pioneers of operator algebras, which forms the underpinning of most current mathematical treatments of the quantum theory, besides being one of the most dynamic areas of twentieth century functional analysis. Today, von Neumann’s foresight finds expression in the rapidly growing field of quantum information theory. These notes gather the content of lectures given by a very distinguished group of mathematicians and quantum information theorists, held at the IMSc in Chennai some years ago, and great care has been taken to present the material as a primer on the subject matter. Starting from the basic definitions of operator spaces and operator systems, this text proceeds to discuss several important theorems including Stinespring’s dilation theorem for completely positive maps and Kirchberg’s theorem on tensor products of C*-algebras. It also takes a closer look at the abstract characterization of operator systems and, motivated by the requirements of different tensor products in quantum information theory, the theory of tensor products in operator systems is discussed in detail. On the quantum information side, the book offers a rigorous treatment of quantifying entanglement in bipartite quantum systems, and moves on to review four different areas in which ideas from the theory of operator systems and operator algebras play a natural role: the issue of zero-error communication over quantum channels, the strong subadditivity property of quantum entropy, the different norms on quantum states and the corresponding induced norms on quantum channels, and, lastly, the applications of matrix-valued random variables in the quantum information setting.

Fundamentals of Condensed Matter and Crystalline Physics

Author: David L. Sidebottom
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139510703
Format: PDF, Docs
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This undergraduate textbook merges traditional solid state physics with contemporary condensed matter physics, providing an up-to-date introduction to the major concepts that form the foundations of condensed materials. The main foundational principles are emphasized, providing students with the knowledge beginners in the field should understand. The book is structured in four parts and allows students to appreciate how the concepts in this broad area build upon each other to produce a cohesive whole as they work through the chapters. Illustrations work closely with the text to convey concepts and ideas visually, enhancing student understanding of difficult material, and end-of-chapter exercises varying in difficulty allow students to put into practice the theory they have covered in each chapter and reinforce new concepts.

The Wonders of Physics

Author: Andrey Varlamov
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company
ISBN: 9813108274
Format: PDF
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The book in your hands develops the best traditions of Russian scientific popular literature. Written in a clear and captivating manner by working theoretical physicists, who are, at the same time, dedicated popularizers of scientific knowledge, it brings to the reader the latest achievements in quantum solid-state physics, but along the way also shows how the laws of physics reveal themselves even in seemingly trivial episodes concerning the natural phenomena around us. Most importantly, it shows that we live in a world where scientists are capable of “proving harmony with algebra”. — A A Abrikosov, 2003 Nobel Prize Winner in Physics The third edition is considerably extended with three new chapters where the author discusses exciting examples of applications of recent achievements of physics in medicine, nanotechnologies, and physics in cuisine.

Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion

Author: Gottfried Heinrich Bauer
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3662466848
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This concise primer on photovoltaic solar energy conversion invites readers to reflect on the conversion of solar light into energy at the most fundamental level and encourages newcomers to the field to help find meaningful answers on how photovoltaic solar energy conversion can work (better), eventually contributing to its ongoing advancement. The book is based on lectures given to graduate students in the Physics Department at the University of Oldenburg over the last two decades, yet also provides an easy-to-follow introduction for doctoral and postdoctoral students from related disciplines such as the materials sciences and electrical engineering. Inspired by classic textbooks in the field, it reflects the author’s own ideas on how to understand, visualize and eventually teach the microscopic physical mechanisms and effects, while keeping the text as concise as possible so as to introduce interested readers to the field and balancing essential knowledge with open questions.

Lunar Sourcebook

Author: Grant Heiken
Publisher: CUP Archive
ISBN: 9780521334440
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The only work to date to collect data gathered during the American and Soviet missions in an accessible and complete reference of current scientific and technical information about the Moon.

Rogue and Shock Waves in Nonlinear Dispersive Media

Author: Miguel Onorato
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331939214X
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This self-contained set of lectures addresses a gap in the literature by providing a systematic link between the theoretical foundations of the subject matter and cutting-edge applications in both geophysical fluid dynamics and nonlinear optics. Rogue and shock waves are phenomena that may occur in the propagation of waves in any nonlinear dispersive medium. Accordingly, they have been observed in disparate settings – as ocean waves, in nonlinear optics, in Bose-Einstein condensates, and in plasmas. Rogue and dispersive shock waves are both characterized by the development of extremes: for the former, the wave amplitude becomes unusually large, while for the latter, gradients reach extreme values. Both aspects strongly influence the statistical properties of the wave propagation and are thus considered together here in terms of their underlying theoretical treatment. This book offers a self-contained graduate-level text intended as both an introduction and reference guide for a new generation of scientists working on rogue and shock wave phenomena across a broad range of fields in applied physics and geophysics.