Physics of Soft Impact and Cratering

Author: Hiroaki Katsuragi
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 4431556486
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book focuses on the impact dynamics and cratering of soft matter to describe its importance, difficulty, and wide applicability to planetary-related problems. A comprehensive introduction to the dimensional analysis and constitutive laws that are necessary to discuss impact mechanics and cratering is first provided. Then, particular coverage is given to the impact of granular matter, which is one of the most crucial constituents for geophysics. While granular matter shows both solid-like and fluid-like behaviors, neither solid nor fluid dynamics is sufficient to fully understand the physics of granular matter. In order to reveal its fundamental properties, extensive impact tests have been carried out recently. The author reveals the findings of these recent studies as well as what remains unsolved in terms of impact dynamics. Impact crater morphology with various soft matter impacts also is discussed intensively. Various experimental and observational results up to the recent Itokawa asteroid’s terrain and nanocrater are reviewed and explained mainly by dimensional analysis. The author discusses perspectives of the relation between soft matter physics and planetary science, because it is an important step towards unifying physics and planetary science, in both of which fields crater morphology has been studied independently.

Introduction to the Physics of Landslides

Author: Fabio Vittorio de Blasio
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400711228
Format: PDF
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Landslides represent one of the most destructive natural catastrophes. They can reach extremely long distances and velocities, and are capable of wiping out human communities and settlements. Yet landslides have a creative facet as they contribute to the modification of the landscape. They are the consequence of the gravity pull jointly with the tectonic disturbance of our living planet. Landslides are most often studied within a geotechnical and geomorphological perspective. Engineering calculations are traditionally applied to the stability of terrains. In this book, landslides are viewed as a physical phenomenon. A physical understanding of landslides is a basis for modeling and mitigation and for understanding their flow behavior and dynamics. We still know relatively little about many aspects of landslide physics. It is only recently that the field of landslide dynamics is approaching a more mature stage. This is testified by the release of modelling tools for the simulation of landslides and debris flows. In this book the emphasis is placed on the problems at the frontier of landslide research. Each chapter is self-consistent, with questions and arguments introduced from the beginning.

Gastrophysics

Author: Charles Spence
Publisher: Penguin
ISBN: 0735223467
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The answer is gastrophysics, the new area of sensory science pioneered by Oxford professor Charles Spence. Now he's stepping out of his lab to lift the lid on the entire eating experience how the taste, the aroma, and our overall enjoyment of food are influenced by all of our senses, as well as by our mood and expectations.

Complete Course in Astrobiology

Author: Gerda Horneck
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527619003
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This up-to-date resource is based on lectures developed by experts in the relevant fields and carefully edited by the leading astrobiologists within the European community. Aimed at graduate students in physics, astronomy and biology and their lecturers, the text begins with a general introduction to astrobiology, followed by sections on basic prebiotic chemistry, extremophiles, and habitability in our solar system and beyond. A discussion of astrodynamics leads to a look at experimental facilities and instrumentation for space experiments and, ultimately, astrobiology missions, backed in each case by the latest research results from this fascinating field. Includes a CD-ROM with additional course material.

Principles of Environmental Physics

Author: John Monteith
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0123869935
Format: PDF
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Principles of Environmental Physics: Plants, Animals, and the Atmosphere, 4e, provides a basis for understanding the complex physical interactions of plants and animals with their natural environment. It is the essential reference to provide environmental and ecological scientists and researchers with the physical principles, analytic tools, and data analysis methods they need to solve problems. This book describes the principles by which radiative energy reaches the earth’s surface and reviews the latest knowledge concerning the surface radiation budget. The processes of radiation, convection, conduction, evaporation, and carbon dioxide exchange are analyzed. Many applications of environmental physics principles are reviewed, including the roles of surface albedo and atmospheric aerosols in modifying microclimate and climate, remote sensing of vegetation properties, wind forces on trees and crops, dispersion of pathogens and aerosols, controls of evaporation from vegetation and soil (including implications of changing weather and climate), and interpretation of micrometeorological measurements of carbon dioxide and other trace gas fluxes. Presents a unique synthesis of micrometeorology and ecology in its widest sense Deals quantitatively with the impact of weather on living systems but also with the interactions between organisms and the atmosphere that are a central feature of life on earth Offers numerous worked examples and problems with solutions Provides many examples of laboratory and field measurements and their interpretation Includes an up-to-date bibliography and review of recent micrometeorological applications in forestry, ecology, hydrology, and agriculture

Lunar Sourcebook

Author: Grant Heiken
Publisher: CUP Archive
ISBN: 9780521334440
Format: PDF, ePub
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The only work to date to collect data gathered during the American and Soviet missions in an accessible and complete reference of current scientific and technical information about the Moon.

Physics and Chemistry of the Solar System

Author: John Lewis
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0323145841
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Physics and Chemistry of the Solar System focuses on planetary physics and chemistry. This book consists of 12 chapters. Chapters I to IV cover the general properties and environment of the planetary system. The solar system beyond Mars is elaborated in Chapters V to VIII, while the inner solar system is considered in Chapters XI to XII. In these chapters, this compilation specifically discusses the limitations on big bang nucleosynthesis; structure and classification of galaxies; and mass and angular momentum distribution. The radio wave propagation in space plasmas; interiors of Jupiter and Saturn; density and composition of icy satellites; and evaporation and non-gravitational forces are also deliberated. This text also explains the physical properties of meteorites; geology of the Moon; geophysical data on Mars; and search for extraterrestrial intelligence. This publication is a good reference for first-year graduate students who intend to take graduate courses in specialized areas of planetary sciences, as well as practicing Ph.D. scientists with training in physics, chemistry, geology, astronomy, meteorology, and biology.

Atlas of Meteorites

Author: Monica Grady
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139915649
Format: PDF
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A complete visual reference for meteorite classification, this atlas combines high resolution optical microscope images with detailed descriptions. It provides a systematic account of meteorites and their most important classification parameters, making it an essential resource for meteorite researchers. Each chapter starts with a description of the meteorite class, with a summary of the mineralogical, chemical and isotopic characteristics of the group. The full-color images are taken in plane- and cross-polarized light and reflected light, and arranged to highlight textural variations in meteorites. Specimens are grouped to show the effects of increasing thermal alteration and shock, as well as variations in chondrule size and type. Chapters on iron meteorites, pallasites and mesosiderites are included, photographed as mounts in reflected light, to show the range of textural variations that accompany these meteorites. Images from the book can be downloaded from www.cambridge.org/9780521840354.

Introduction to Astronomical Photometry

Author: Edwin Budding
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521847117
Format: PDF, ePub
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Review of astronomical photometry for graduate students, researchers and advanced amateurs in practical and observational astronomy.