Place of Science in a World of Values and Facts

Author: Loucas G. Christophorou
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0306476231
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This is an engrossing book. It is also an unusual book: it is written by a scientist who is quite willing to talk about the softer side of life, about things such as love and respect and responsibility, and to try and position them in the context of his science. He is also willing to talk about religion, the manner in which it relates to science and science to it, and to attempt reconciliation of both. He sets himself a tough task, to tread the narrow path between the maudlin and the severely sober. In this, he is eminently successful. He is successful not because he aims at any grand synthesis, but because he has chosen the more modest path of simply laying out the cards on the table. This work is also unusual for another reason. The majority of books that attempt to explain science to a lay public, that try to describe its workings, its raison d'être, its hidden contents, its societal impact, its implications for our future, etc. , are written by theorists. This is hardly surprising. The theoretician, after all, is expected to think deeply, to be the great unifier, to be concernedwith meaning. Very few books about science are written by scientists, ones who spend their time in a working experimental laboratory. This is such a book. And because it is, it is also a very different book.

Activist Science and Technology Education

Author: Larry Bencze
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9400743602
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This collection examines issues of agency, power, politics and identity as they relate to science and technology and education, within contemporary settings. Social, economic and ecological critique and reform are examined by numerous contributing authors, from a range of international contexts. These chapters examine pressing pedagogical questions within socio-scientific contexts, including petroleum economies, food justice, health, environmentalism, climate change, social media and biotechnologies. Readers will discover far reaching inquiries into activism as an open question for science and technology education, citizenship and democracy. The authors call on the work of prominent scholars throughout the ages, including Bourdieu, Foucault, Giroux, Jasanoff, Kierkegaard, Marx, Nietzsche, Rancière and Žižek. The application of critical theoretical scholarship to mainstream practices in science and technology education distinguishes this book, and this deep, theoretical treatment is complemented by many grounded, more pragmatic exemplars of activist pedagogies. Practical examples are set within the public sphere, within selected new social movements, and also within more formal institutional settings, including elementary and secondary schools, and higher education. These assembled discussions provide a basis for a more radically reflexive reworking of science and technology education. Educational policy makers, science education scholars, and science and technology educators, amongst others, will find this work thought-provoking, instructive and informative.

The Re emergence of Values in Science Education

Author: Deborah Corrigan
Publisher: Sense Publishers
ISBN: 908790035X
Format: PDF
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Issues relating to values have always had a place in the school science curriculum. Sometimes this has been only in terms of the inclusion of topics such as 'the nature of science' and/or 'scientific method' and/or particular intentions for laboratory work that relate to 'scientific method.' Sometimes it has been much broader, for example in curricula with STS emphases. Of importance to aspects of this proposal is that different countries/cultures have had different traditions in terms of the place of values in the school [science] curriculum. One obvious very broad difference of this form is the central place in [science] education thinking in many European countries of bildung, and the complete absence of this construct from most [science] curriculum thinking in English speaking contexts. There are numbers of such country/cultural differences. In the 1990s many countries moved towards various conceptualizations of Outcomes Based Education - OBE (sometimes so labelled and sometimes not). It was usual (but not universal) for OBE focused science curricula to have constrained views of the values that should be implicit and explicit in curriculum; that is views concerned only with 'the nature of science' and 'scientific method' (both usually seen as quite unproblematic). Currently there are a number of education systems that are changing again, and choosing to move away from Outcomes Based Education (for example, South Africa and several Australian states). One of the most interesting features of many of these movements is the re-embracing of a wider view of the science curriculum, including a reconsideration of the nature and place of the values associated with science in the purposes for and approaches to science education.

How People Learn

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309131979
Format: PDF, Docs
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First released in the Spring of 1999, How People Learn has been expanded to show how the theories and insights from the original book can translate into actions and practice, now making a real connection between classroom activities and learning behavior. This edition includes far-reaching suggestions for research that could increase the impact that classroom teaching has on actual learning. Like the original edition, this book offers exciting new research about the mind and the brain that provides answers to a number of compelling questions. When do infants begin to learn? How do experts learn and how is this different from non-experts? What can teachers and schools do-with curricula, classroom settings, and teaching methods--to help children learn most effectively? New evidence from many branches of science has significantly added to our understanding of what it means to know, from the neural processes that occur during learning to the influence of culture on what people see and absorb. How People Learn examines these findings and their implications for what we teach, how we teach it, and how we assess what our children learn. The book uses exemplary teaching to illustrate how approaches based on what we now know result in in-depth learning. This new knowledge calls into question concepts and practices firmly entrenched in our current education system. Topics include: How learning actually changes the physical structure of the brain. How existing knowledge affects what people notice and how they learn. What the thought processes of experts tell us about how to teach. The amazing learning potential of infants. The relationship of classroom learning and everyday settings of community and workplace. Learning needs and opportunities for teachers. A realistic look at the role of technology in education.

Science Technology Society as Reform in Science Education

Author: Robert Eugene Yager
Publisher: SUNY Press
ISBN: 9780791427699
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Science/Technology/Society (S/T/S) is a reform effort to broaden science as a discipline in schools and colleges; to relate science to other facets of the curriculum; and to relate science specifically to technology and to the society that supports and produces new conceptualizations of both. S/T/S is also defined as the teaching and learning of science/technology in the context of human experience. It focuses on a method of teaching that recognizes the importance that experience in the real world has on the learning process. And it recognizes that real learning can occur only when the learner is engaged and able to construct her or his own meaning. Science/Technology/Society As Reform in Science Education is rich with examples of such teaching and learning. It includes impressive research evidence that illustrates that progress has been made and goals have been met. For teachers and administrators alike, this book provides and validates new visions for science education.

The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

Author: Thomas S. Kuhn
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226458148
Format: PDF, Kindle
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A good book may have the power to change the way we see the world, but a great book actually becomes part of our daily consciousness, pervading our thinking to the point that we take it for granted, and we forget how provocative and challenging its ideas once were—and still are. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is that kind of book. When it was first published in 1962, it was a landmark event in the history and philosophy of science. Fifty years later, it still has many lessons to teach. With The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Kuhn challenged long-standing linear notions of scientific progress, arguing that transformative ideas don’t arise from the day-to-day, gradual process of experimentation and data accumulation but that the revolutions in science, those breakthrough moments that disrupt accepted thinking and offer unanticipated ideas, occur outside of “normal science,” as he called it. Though Kuhn was writing when physics ruled the sciences, his ideas on how scientific revolutions bring order to the anomalies that amass over time in research experiments are still instructive in our biotech age. This new edition of Kuhn’s essential work in the history of science includes an insightful introduction by Ian Hacking, which clarifies terms popularized by Kuhn, including paradigm and incommensurability, and applies Kuhn’s ideas to the science of today. Usefully keyed to the separate sections of the book, Hacking’s introduction provides important background information as well as a contemporary context. Newly designed, with an expanded index, this edition will be eagerly welcomed by the next generation of readers seeking to understand the history of our perspectives on science.

Taking Science to School

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309133838
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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What is science for a child? How do children learn about science and how to do science? Drawing on a vast array of work from neuroscience to classroom observation, Taking Science to School provides a comprehensive picture of what we know about teaching and learning science from kindergarten through eighth grade. By looking at a broad range of questions, this book provides a basic foundation for guiding science teaching and supporting students in their learning. Taking Science to School answers such questions as: When do children begin to learn about science? Are there critical stages in a child's development of such scientific concepts as mass or animate objects? What role does nonschool learning play in children's knowledge of science? How can science education capitalize on children's natural curiosity? What are the best tasks for books, lectures, and hands-on learning? How can teachers be taught to teach science? The book also provides a detailed examination of how we know what we know about children's learning of science--about the role of research and evidence. This book will be an essential resource for everyone involved in K-8 science education--teachers, principals, boards of education, teacher education providers and accreditors, education researchers, federal education agencies, and state and federal policy makers. It will also be a useful guide for parents and others interested in how children learn.

Addressing Global Environmental Security Through Innovative Educational Curricula

Author: Susan Allen-Gil
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402093144
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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As the importance of environmental security increases worldwide, colleges and universities are evaluating how well they are preparing the next generation of environmental scientists and managers and developing new educational approaches. In this volume, we examine: (1) current educational practices and the need for change, (2) educational needs from the perspective of employers and professionals, and (3) new practices in higher education in environmental fields. The contributors were carefully selected by an international coordinating team based on their international reputations in the field of progressive educational approaches and understanding of the global employment market in environmental science. Although the focal geographic areas are North America, Europe and the former Soviet republics, the ideas and strategies discussed are universal to all institutions of higher education. We highlight specific non-traditional approaches such as using the university as a curricular tool, developing permaculture programs, and applying sustainability pedagogy, and document their success from both a student and employer perspective. We also include case studies on risk assessment and eco-efficiency education to illustrate why and how transdisciplinary education can be accomplished. We conclude that it is imperative that our educational systems teach environmental security at the university level within a transdisciplinary context; and that opportunities, such as internships and other methods of applied learning, are included in the curriculum.

The Social Function of Science

Author: J. D. Bernal
Publisher:
ISBN: 9780571272723
Format: PDF, ePub
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J. D. Bernal’s important and ambitious work, The Social Function of Science, was first published in January 1939. As the subtitle –What Science Does, What Science Could Do – suggests it is in two parts. Both have eight chapters. Part 1: What Science Does: Introductory, Historical, The Existing Organization of Scientific Research in Britain, Science in Education, The Efficiency of Scientific Research, The Application of Science, Science and War and International Science. Part 11: What Science Could Do: The Training of the Scientist, The Reorganization of Research, Scientific Communication, The Finance of Science, The Strategy of Scientific Advance; Science in the Service of Man, Science and Social Transformation and The Social Function of Science. To quote Bernal’s biographer, Andrew Brown, ‘The Social Function of Science . . . was Bernal’s attempt to ensure that science would no longer be just a protected area of intellectual inquiry, but would have as an inherent function the improvement of life for mankind everywhere. It was a groundbreaking treatise both in exploring the scope of science and technology in fashioning public policy, with Bernal arguing that science is the chief agent of change in society, and in devising policies that would optimize the way science was organized. The sense of impending war clearly emerges. Bernal deplored the application of scientific discoveries in making war ever more destructive, while acknowledging that the majority of scientific and technical breakthroughs have their origins in military exigencies, both because of the willingness to spend money and the premium placed on novelty during wartime.’ Anticipating by two decades the schism C. P. Snow termed ‘The Two Cultures’, Bernal remarked that ‘highly developed science stands almost isolated from a traditional literary culture.’ He found that wrong. Again, quoting Andrew Brown, ‘to him, science was a creative endeavour that still depended on inspiration and talent, just as much as in painting, writing or composing.’The importance of this book was such that twenty-five years after its publication, a collection of essays, The Science of Science, was published, in part in celebration, but also to explore many of the themes Bernal had first developed.