Plant and Insect Mycoplasma Techniques

Author: M. J. Daniels
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401511640
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Only 14 years have passed since the first publication appeared which implicated mycoplasmas as agents of plant disease. The diseases them selves have been known for much longer; indeed clover phyllody, a typical example, was described in the seventeenth century, well before any animal mycoplasma diseases had been documented. The early history of plant mycoplasmas is described in Chapter 2 and one obvious conclusion to be drawn from the frustrating experiences of the earlier workers is that the experimental methods at their disposal were simply inadequate for the task. Progress in science depends critically upon the development of new methods. Although important advances have been made in plant and insect mycoplasmology, notably in the discovery of spiroplasmas, many intractable problems remain. Most plant myco plasmas cannot yet be cultured in vitro, and their natural plant habitat, the phloem, is one of the most difficult plant tissues for the experi menter to handle, placing severe restrictions on the type of experiments which can be performed in vivo. It is clear that radically new methods may be required to solve these problems. A survey of the progress which has been made shows that application of techniques from a wide range of disciplines has been necessary. A successful individual or group of workers must possess the skills of a plant pathologist, a plantsman, a plant physiologist, a light-and electron microscopist, a bacteriologist, a biochemist, an immunologist, an ento mologist, a virologist and a molecular geneticist.

The Mycoplasmas V5

Author: R Whitcomb
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0323143555
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The Mycoplasmas,Volume V: Spiroplasmas, Acholeplasmas,and Mycoplasmas of Plants and Arthropods focuses on existing knowledge and recent development in research on spiroplasmas, acholeplasmas, and other mollicutes of plants and arthropods. Organized into 11 chapters, this volume discusses the nutrition, cultivation, ecology, and molecular and cellular biology of spiroplasmas. Because the occurrence of other mollicutes (mycoplasma and acholeplasma) in plant and arthropod environments is not extensively discussed in other volumes, this volume shows the rapid progress in describing the new mollicutes from arthropods and plant surface that they contaminate. Molecular studies of mollicute phylogeny and plant infections incited by the so-called mycoplasma-like organisms are also presented. This book will provide a comprehensive reference source for all mycoplasmologists and a relevant and exhaustive summary of recent advances in the study of spiroplasmas, acholeplasmas, and mycoplasmas in plant and arthropod hosts for microbiologists, cellular and molecular biologists, plant pathologists, and entomologists.

Tree Mycoplasmas and Mycoplasma Diseases

Author: Chuji Hiruki
Publisher: University of Alberta
ISBN: 9780888641267
Format: PDF
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Mycoplasma are the smallest free-living prokaryotes lacking a cell wall and are, therefore, highly pleomorphic. This book is a contribution toward an understanding of the complex problems of tree diseases caused by mycoplasma-like organisms and their relatives.

Plant Viruses

Author: C.L. Mandahar
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351092693
Format: PDF, Docs
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This book deals with the structure and replication of plant viruses, viroids, satellites of plant viruses, and spiroplasmas and neatly sums up the state of our knowledge about these aspects of these pathogens.Published information about single-stranded positive-sense RNA plant viruses is far greater than for any other group of plant pathogens.The book caters to the needs of students as well as researchers and is illustrated with micrographs, figures of postulated models, and genetic maps

Molecular and Diagnostic Procedures in Mycoplasmology

Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0080536794
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book and its companion, Volume I, concentrate on new procedures--especially those based on the new molecular methodology--developed within the past decade. This volume deals with the new genetic and immunological tools applied to the diagnosis of mycoplasma infections of humans, animals, plants, insects, and all cultures. Volume I outlines the approaches, techniques, and procedures applied to cell and molecular biology studies of mycoplasmas. Key Features * Diagnostic genetic probes * Immunological tools * Antibiotic sensitivity testing * Diagnosis of specific diseases * Experimental infections * Diagnosis of mycoplasma infections of cell cultures

Methods in Mycoplasmology V2

Author: Joseph Tully
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0323149391
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Methods in Mycoplasmology, Volume II: Diagnostic Mycoplasmology is the second of a two-volume series that resulted from cumulative efforts to meet the need for standardized techniques in mycoplasmology. The book is organized into five sections. Section A discusses techniques for isolating mycoplasmas from humans. These include the recovery of mycoplasmas from the respiratory and genitourinary tracts, from blood and special tissues, and serological Identification of mycoplasmas from humans. Section B focuses on techniques for isolating mycoplasmas from animals, including the recovery and identification of avian, bovine, caprine, ovine, canine, and feline mycoplasmas. Section C presents techniques for isolating mycoplasmas from cell cultures. These include agar and broth techniques, the use of indicator cell lines, and DNA fluorochrome staining. Section D discusses techniques for isolating mycoplasmas from plants and insects. Section E describes some of the techniques that are useful in evaluating the pathogenicity of mycoplasmas, ureaplasmas, and spiroplasmas. Section F defines some of the techniques useful in virus detection by electron microscopy and presents methods for isolating and characterizing viruses from both mycoplasmas and spiroplasmas.

Methods in Mycoplasmology V1

Author: Samuel Razin
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0323147135
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Methods in Mycoplasmology, Volume I: Mycoplasma Characterization is the first of a two-volume series that resulted from cumulative efforts to meet the need for standardized techniques in mycoplasmology. The book is organized into five sections. Section A provides an introduction to the mycoplasmas by discussing their characteristics and classification, mycoplasma-animal host interrelationships, and mycoplasma-plant-insect interrelationships. The chapters in Section B examine the morphological and ultrastructural features of mycoplasmas, using techniques such as phase-contrast microscopy, dark-field microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Section C discusses the cultivation and nutrition of mycoplasmas. Section D focuses on analytical methods for the characterization of mycoplasmas, including harvest and washing procedures, cell lysis and membrane isolation, and crossed immunoelectrophoresis. Section E describes tests designed to detect specific enzymatic activities or nutritional requirements of mycoplasmas. These include sugar fermentation and arginine hydrolysis tests as well as tests to establish the sterol requirement of mycoplasmas. Section F deals with serological tests. These tests either have specific application to detection of mycoplasma antigens or antibody in plant and animal tissues; are useful in identification of specific groups of mycoplasmas (spiroplasmas); or provide higher sensitivity in measurements of antibodies against mycoplasmas.