Potassic Igneous Rocks and Associated Gold Copper Mineralization

Author: Daniel Müller
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319929798
Format: PDF, Docs
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This book reviews the geochemical and petrological characteristics of potassic igneous rock complexes, and investigates the various tectonic settings in which these rocks occur. The authors provide an overview and classification of these rocks and elucidate the geochemical differences between barren and mineralized potassic igneous complexes. High-K rocks are genetically associated with a number of epithermal gold and porphyry copper-gold deposits. In recent years, there has also been growing recognition of an association of such rocks with iron-oxide copper-gold (IOCG) deposits, intrusion-related gold deposits (IRGDs) and Carlin-type gold deposits. This fifth updated and expanded edition incorporates new data and references from world-class copper and gold deposits worldwide. It also includes the latest publications on the petrogenesis of high-K magmatism and related mineral deposits. Numerous new representative ore photographs of the mineral deposits described are also included in the new edition. As such, the book offers a valuable guide not only for academic petrologists working on alkaline rocks, but also for exploration geologists prospecting for epithermal gold and/or porphyry copper-gold deposits in modern and ancient terrains.

Fossil Earthquakes The Formation and Preservation of Pseudotachylytes

Author: Aiming Lin
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3540742360
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book focuses on the earthquake source materials produced or deformed by both seismic faulting and aseismic creep within seismogenic fault zones at different levels of the crust. In particular, the mechanisms and processes involved in the formation of earthquake materials are covered. The book is intended to help bridge the gap between seismology and geology and to encourage further studies of earthquake mechanisms and seismic faulting processes.

Origin of Potassium rich Silica deficient Igneous Rocks

Author: Alok Krishna Gupta
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 8132220838
Format: PDF, ePub
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The book summarizes the occurrence, geochemistry, mineralogy, petrology and phase-equilibria studies in air and under high pressures related to the most intriguing group of potassium-rich mafic and ultramafic rocks, often including host of exotic mineral assemblages including feldspathoids. Mantle-derived K-rich melts had intrigued most of the founders of Geology and many of the later experts in the field of Igneous Petrology, because they are sometimes associated with carbonatites and even diamond. They tend to contain anomalous concentration of many such elements as K, Rb, Sr, U, F, P, etc., along with Ni, Co and Cr indicating a mixture of crust and mantle materials. Although these rocks occur rarely in ancient geologic time, they have been erupting mostly in modern geological history (less than last 120 Ma or so). Are the old age data real or the result of a sampling problem? Modern observations leave no doubt that sediments must be subducted on a large scale. There is now evidence that the upper mantle (and perhaps even the lower mantle) is not homogeneous but rather like a fruit cake, and that there are thermal anomalies in the mantle resulting from deep mantle plumes or subduction. Is this related to release of these unusual rocks clearing the mantle of left over subduction materials? This volume, written for those interested in the geochemistry of K-rich melts from the deep Earth, reviews the present state of knowledge of these unique igneous rocks. The author is an expert in the field of Igneous Petrology and the book will serve as a valuable reference book for researchers and academicians in the discipline.

Arc Volcano of Japan

Author: Takeru Yanagi
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 4431539956
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book presents an analysis of our current knowledge on the origin of the Earth’s continental crust. There are two aspects to consider: tectonic and igneous processes. Tectonic aspects include sedimentary accretion, terrane accretion, and continental collision at continental margins, in association with plate subduction. These processes result in the formation of large mountain belts, the building up of which literally grows the continents. However, these tectonic aspects are concerned with material recycling within the crust, and hence do not contribute to volumetric growth of continental crust. Igneous processes concern separation of continental crust from the mantle and result in the volumetric growth of continental crust. Therefore, the main focus of this book is to systematically examine why and how the Earth’s continental crust forms, by evaluating magmatic processes at island arcs where new continental crust forms.

Introduction to Ore Forming Processes

Author: Laurence Robb
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118687574
Format: PDF, Docs
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Introduction to Ore-Forming Processes is the first senior undergraduate – postgraduate textbook to focus specifically on the multiplicity of geological processes that result in the formation of mineral deposits. Opens with an overview of magmatic ore-forming processes Moves systematically through hydrothermal and sedimentary metallogenic environments, covering as it does the entire gamut of mineral deposit types, including the fossil fuels and supergene ores The final chapter relates metallogeny to global tectonics by examining the distribution of mineral deposits in space and time Boxed examples of world famous ore deposits are featured throughout providing context and relevance to the process-oriented descriptions of ore genesis Brings the discipline of economic geology back into the realm of conventional mainstream earth science by emphasizing the fact that mineral deposits are simply one of the many natural wonders of geological process and evolution. Artwork from the book is available to instructors at www.blackwellpublishing.com/robb.

Basic Concepts in Digital Signal Processing for Seismologists

Author: Frank Scherbaum
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3540484035
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Digital signal processing has become more and more an integral part of observational seismology. While it offers unprecedented power in extracting information from seismic signals, it comes at the price of having to learn a variety of new skills. Dealing with digital seismic data requires at least a basic understanding of digital signal processing. Taking the calculation of true ground motion as the guiding problem, this course covers the basic theory of linear systems, the design and analysis of simple digital filters, the effect of sampling and A/D conversion and an introduction to spectral analysis of digital signals. It contains a number of examples and exercises that can be reproduced using the PITSA software package (Scherbaum and Johnson 1993) or similar programs.

Metasomatism and the Chemical Transformation of Rock

Author: Daniel Harlov
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642283934
Format: PDF, Docs
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Fluid-aided mass transfer and subsequent mineral re-equilibration are the two defining features of metasomatism and must be present in order for metamorphism to occur. Coupled with igneous and tectonic processes, metasomatism has played a major role in the formation of the Earth’s continental and oceanic crust and lithospheric mantle as well as in their evolution and subsequent stabilization. Metasomatic processes can include ore mineralization, metasomatically induced alteration of oceanic lithosphere, mass transport in and alteration of subducted oceanic crust and overlying mantle wedge, which has subsequent implications regarding mass transport, fluid flow, and volatile storage in the lithospheric mantle overall, as well as both regional and localized crustal metamorphism. Metasomatic alteration of accessory minerals such as zircon or monazite can allow for the dating of metasomatic events as well as give additional information regarding the chemistry of the fluids responsible. Lastly present day movement of fluids in both the lithospheric mantle and deep to mid crust can be observed utilizing geophysical resources such as electrical resistivity and seismic data. Such observations help to further clarify the picture of actual metasomatic processes as inferred from basic petrographic, mineralogical, and geochemical data. The goal of this volume is to bring together a diverse group of geologists, each of whose specialities and long range experience regarding one or more aspects of metasomatism during geologic processes, should allow them to contribute to a series of review chapters, which outline the basis of our current understanding of how metasomatism influences and helps to control both the evolution and stability of the crust and lithospheric mantle.

Mineral Resources

Author: Manuel Bustillo Revuelta
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319587609
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This comprehensive textbook covers all major topics related to the utilization of mineral resources for human activities. It begins with general concepts like definitions of mineral resources, mineral resources and humans, recycling mineral resources, distribution of minerals resources across Earth, and international standards in mining, among others. Then it turns to a classification of mineral resources, covering the main types from a geological standpoint. The exploration of mineral resources is also treated, including geophysical methods of exploration, borehole geophysical logging, geochemical methods, drilling methods, and mineral deposit models in exploration. Further, the book addresses the evaluation of mineral resources, from sampling techniques to the economic evaluation of mining projects (i.e. types and density of sampling, mean grade definition and calculation, Sichel’s estimator, evaluation methods – classical and geostatistical, economic evaluation – NPV, IRR, and PP, estimation of risk, and software for evaluating mineral resources). It subsequently describes key mineral resource exploitation methods (open pit and underground mining) and the mineral processing required to obtain saleable products (crushing, grinding, sizing, ore separation, and concentrate dewatering, also with some text devoted to tailings dams). Lastly, the book discusses the environmental impact of mining, covering all the aspects of this very important topic, from the description of diverse impacts to the environmental impact assessment (EIA), which is essential in modern mining projects.