Preventive Measures

Author: John L. Davies
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 9780847688746
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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State failure, ethnopolitical war, genocide, famine, and refugee flows are variants of a type of complex political and humanitarian crisis, exemplified during the 1990s in places like Somalia, Bosnia, Liberia, and Afghanistan. The international consequences of such crises are profound, often threatening regional security and requiring major inputs of humanitarian assistance. They also may pose long-term and costly challenges of rebuilding shattered governments and societies. A vital policy question is whether failures can be diagnosed far enough in advance to facilitate effective international efforts at prevention or peaceful transformation. This volume of original essays examines crisis early warning factors at different levels, in different settings, and judges their effectiveness according to various models. Top contributors offer answers along with analyses as they move from early warning to early response in their policy recommendations.

Early Warning and Conflict Management in the Horn of Africa

Author: Cirû Mwaûra
Publisher: The Red Sea Press
ISBN: 9781569021576
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The Horn of Africa has come to be defined by the frequency and intensity of its violent conflicts. Yet, whereas in other regions conflict prevention stresses formal, top-down inter-governmental structures, in the Horn of Africa an alternative conflict management regime that seeks to build on local capacity and is based on inclusive and collaborative decision-making has emerged. This publication outlines the two-year process of CEWARN's and IGAD's development.

Walking the Tightrope

Author: Jaïr van der Lijn
Publisher: Rozenberg Publishers
ISBN: 9036100372
Format: PDF
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The media generally tend to focus in particular on the failures of U.N. peacekeeping operations. In Walking the Tightrope, Jair Van Der Lijn draws a different conclusion. He argues once a peace agreement has been signed, the efforts of the U.N. peacekeeping operations do contribute to durable peace. By analyzing the U.N. peacekeeping operations in Cambodia, Mozambique, Rwanda, and El Salvador in a structured focused comparison, this book shows how U.N. operations do have a contribution to make.

The Prevention and Intervention of Genocide

Author: Samuel Totten
Publisher: Transaction Publishers
ISBN: 1412809649
Format: PDF, ePub
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Over the last twenty years the world has witnessed four major genocides. There was the genocide in Iraq (1988), in Rwanda (1994), in Srebrenica (1995), and in Darfur (2003 and continuing). Most observers agree there is an urgent need to assess the international community's efforts to prevent genocide and to intervene (once a genocide is under way) in an effective and timely manner. This volume, the latest in a widely respected series on the subject of genocide, provides an overview of a host of issues germane to this task. The book begins with a cogent discussion of the issues of prevention and intervention during the Cold War years. The second chapter discusses the abject failures and moderate (though, in some cases, highly controversial) successes at prevention and intervention carried out in the 1990s and early 2000s. Further chapters examine latest efforts to develop an effective genocide early warning system and examine the complexity of and barriers to prevention. The pros and cons of sanctions and the problems of enforcement and evaluation their effectiveness are then discussed. Conflicts between state sovereignty and the protection of threatened populations are examined both in historical context and by incorporating the latest thinking. Later chapters treat the issue of intervention; why and how it has met with only limited success. Concentrating on Rwanda and Srebrenica, chapter 8 discusses various peace operations that were abject failures and those that were moderately successful. The concept of an anti-genocide regime is examined in terms of progress in developing such a regime as well as what the international community must do in order to implement it. Chapters discuss key issues related to post-genocidal periods, those that need to be addressed in order to establish stability in a wounded land and populace as well as to prevent future genocides. The final chapter asks whether bringing perpetrators to justice has any impact in breaking impunity, ensuring deterrence, and bringing about reconciliation. The contributors to the volume are all noted scholars, some of whom specialize in the study of genocide, and others who specialize in such areas as early warning, peacekeeping, and sanctions.

Advances in Information Systems and Technologies

Author: Álvaro Rocha
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642369812
Format: PDF
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This book contains a selection of articles from The 2013 World Conference on Information Systems and Technologies (WorldCIST'13), a global forum for researchers and practitioners to present and discuss the most recent innovations, trends, results, experiences and concerns in the several perspectives of Information Systems and Technologies. The main topics covered are: Information and Knowledge Management; Organizational Models and Information Systems; Intelligent and Decision Support Systems; Software Systems, Architectures, Applications and Tools; Computer Networks, Mobility and Pervasive Systems; Radar Technologies; and Human-Computer Interaction.

Security Development and the Fragile State

Author: David Carment
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135257051
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book provides theoretical clarity about the concepts of failed and fragile states, which have emerged strongly since the 9/11 attacks. Recent contributions often see the fragile state as either a problem of development or of security. This volume argues that that neither perspective on its own is a sufficient basis for good policy. In a wide-ranging treatment, drawing on large samples as well as case studies, the authors create an alternative model of the fragile state emphasizing the multidimensional, multifaceted nature of the "fragile state problematique". On the basis of their model and empirical evidence, they then derive a number of policy-relevant insights regarding the need for contextualized and ongoing country analysis, the perils and pitfalls of unstructured development assistance, and the need to move whole-of-government approaches from the realm of rhetoric to reality. In offering both a synthesis of existing research and an innovative approach to understanding the fragile state, this volume will be of great interest to students of war and conflict studies, risk, conflict management, and international relations in general. It will also be of use to practitioners in policy circles and to NGOs.

The Ties That Divide

Author: Stephen M. Saideman
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231506279
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Ethnic conflicts have created crises within NATO and between NATO and Russia, produced massive flows of refugees, destabilized neighboring countries, and increased the risk of nuclear war between Pakistan and India. Interventions have cost the United States, the United Nations, and other actors billions of dollars. While scholars and policymakers have devoted considerable attention to this issue, the question of why states take sides in other countries' ethnic conflicts has largely been ignored. Most attention has been directed at debating the value of particular techniques to manage ethnic conflict, including partition, prevention, mediation, intervention, and the like. However, as the Kosovo dispute demonstrated, one of the biggest obstacles to resolving ethnic conflicts is getting the outside actors to cooperate. This book addresses this question. Saideman argues that domestic political competition compels countries to support the side of an ethnic conflict with which constituents share ethnicities. He applies this argument to the Congo Crisis, the Nigerian Civil War, and Yugoslavia's civil wars. He then applies quantitative analyses to ethnic conflicts in the 1990s. Finally, he discusses recent events in Kosovo and whether the findings of these case studies apply more broadly.

The International Law and Practice of Early Warning and Preventive Diplomacy

Author: B. G. Ramcharan
Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
ISBN: 9780792313380
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Despite the decrease in tension between East and West, the world is still faced by many threats to international security: a deteriorating environment, terrorism, drug trafficking, humanitarian emergencies, serious human rights violations and mass exoduses of populations. There is a growing need to devote more attention to how these international security challenges can be dealt with; piecemeal approaches and strategies no longer suffice. The interaction of security issues, and their global nature, call for broad and integrated strategies of management and of governance. States are now discovering that if they are to protect their own interests, they will need to entrust to the international community, through the agency of international organizations, competences for the protection of the common interest and human welfare. The United Nations will be called upon to operate an integrated global watch in the environmental, military, political, economic, social and humanitarian sectors: a system of early-warning can prevent potential political conflicts or humanitarian emergencies. The present work sheds some light on the principles of international law for the conduct of early-warning and preventive diplomacy, and shows the urgent need for the establishment of a true Global Watch. The world is now threatened by problems never experienced before in the history of the international community, and partnership and cooperation will be crucial if the international security challenges of the future are to be addressed successfully.

Peoples versus states

Author: Ted Robert Gurr
Publisher: United States Inst of Peace Pr
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Picking up where "Minorities at Risk" left off, "Peoples Versus States" offers an expanded and updated perspective on ethnic and nationalist conflict throughout the world, as well as efforts to manage it.Ted Gurr surveys the behavior of 275 politically active ethnic groups during the 1990s and pinpoints the factors that encourage the assertion of ethnic identities. Whereas his highly acclaimed 1993 book presented a disturbing picture of spreading ethnic violence, this volume documents a pronounced decline since the early 1990s a decline attributable, in part at least, to many states abandoning strategies of assimilation and control in favor of policies of pluralism and accommodation.Nonetheless, Gurr identifies some ninety groups as being at significant risk of conflict and repression in the early 21st century. And he cautions that the emerging global regime of principles and strategies governing relations between communal groups and states is far from perfect or universally effective.

Security Cooperation in Africa

Author: Benedikt Franke
Publisher: First Forum Press
Format: PDF, Docs
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Benedikt Franke assesses the peace and security architecture that is taking shape under the nominal leadership of the African Union, analysing the emerging structures and trends and also rethinking prevailing notions and theoretical assumptions about interstate security relations.