Prisons Crowding A Psychological Perspective

Author: Paul Paulus
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461238129
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This volume is a summary of a 1S-year effort to determine the effects of prison crowding and their relationship to the broader realm of crowding phenomena and theories. Although the writing of this volume was for the most part a solitary effort, the data and ideas it is based on were mostly the result of a collaborative effort with Verne Cox and Garvin McCain. Their schedules limited their ability to contribute to this volume, but they provided much constructive feedback and assistance. Cox also wrote a preliminary draft of Chapter 3, and both McCain and Cox made major contributions to Chapter S and assisted with several other chapters. I am greatly indebted to these two fine scholars for their efforts and support over the course of our joint research endeavors. In recognition of this fact, the pronoun "we" is used throughout this volume. This research would not have been possible without the cooperation and support of thousands of inmates and hundreds of prison officials. The un conditional support throughout the project from Director Norman Carlson and former regional research director Jerome Mabli, both of the Federal Bureau of Prisons, is also greatly appreciated. Thanks are due to the National Institute of Justice for financial support during various phases of this project. The support of John Spevacek of the Institute was indispens able. Funds were also provided by the Hogg Foundation, U. S. Department of Justice-Civil Rights Division, and the University of Texas at Arlington.

The Environmental Psychology of Prisons and Jails

Author: Richard E. Wener
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107376017
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book distils thirty years of research on the impacts of jail and prison environments. The research program began with evaluations of new jails that were created by the US Bureau of Prisons, which had a novel design intended to provide a non-traditional and safe environment for pre-trial inmates and documented the stunning success of these jails in reducing tension and violence. This book uses assessments of this new model as a basis for considering the nature of environment and behavior in correctional settings and more broadly in all human settings. It provides a critical review of research on jail environments and of specific issues critical to the way they are experienced and places them in historical and theoretical context. It presents a contextual model for the way environment influences the chance of violence.

Psychological Criminology

Author: Richard Wortley
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1136652892
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Psychological Criminology addresses the question: what is it about individuals and their experiences that cause them to commit crime and/or to become criminal? This book provides a comprehensive coverage of psychological theories of crime and criminality, exploring theories focusing on factors present at birth (human nature, heredity); theories that focus on factors that influence the offender over the lifespan (learning, development); and theories focusing on factors present at the crime scene. It emphasizes the connections among the different approaches, and demonstrates how, taken together rather than as rival explanations, they provide a more complete picture of crime and criminality than each provides individually. Theories are arranged throughout the book in a temporal sequence, from distal to proximal causes of crime. The analysis spans 100,000 years, from the evolutionary roots of criminal behaviour in the ancestral environments of early humans on the African savana, to the decision to engage in a specific criminal act. Key features of the book include: a focus on theory – ‘explaining’ crime and criminality, an integrative approach, accessible to readers who do not have a background in psychology. Psychological Criminology highlights the contributions that psychological theory can make to the broader field of criminology; it will be of interest to students, academics, researchers and practitioners in both criminology and forensic psychology.

Environmental Criminology and Crime Analysis

Author: Richard Wortley
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1317487109
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Environmental criminology is a term that encompasses a range of overlapping perspectives. At its core, the many strands of environmental criminology are bound by a common focus on the role that the immediate environment plays in the performance of crime, and a conviction that careful analyses of these environmental influences are the key to the effective investigation, control, and prevention of crime. This new edition brings together leading theorists and practitioners in the field to provide a comprehensive, integrative coverage of the field of environmental criminology and crime analysis. This book is divided into three sequential parts: • Understanding the crime event explores routine activity approach, crime pattern theory, the rational choice perspective, and situational precipitators of crime. • Analysing crime patterns discusses crime mapping, offender mobility, repeat victimisation, geographic profiling, and crime scripts. • Preventing and controlling crime covers topics including problem oriented policing, situational crime prevention, and environmental design. Fully updated and including new chapters on crime scripts and offender mobility, a scene-setting introductory overview, and critical thinking questions at the end of each chapter, this text is an essential and comprehensive resource for practitioners and students taking courses on environmental criminology, crime analysis, and crime prevention.

Psychology and Social Policy

Author: Peter Suedfeld
Publisher: Taylor & Francis US
ISBN: 9781560320630
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Self-Hypnosis: The Complete Manual for Health and Self-Change, 2nd ed offers a step-by step guide to using hypnosis to better well-being and stronger self-control. For over two decades renowned therapist and author Brian Alman showed thousands of individuals how to use self-inductive techniques for relief from pain, stress, and discomfort. Self-hypnosis assists in meditation and fosters positive self-regard. The exercises in Self-Hypnosis are clear, concise and easily attainable. As an effective therapy in alleviating the pain of childbirth, medical and dental surgery, burns, and accidental injuries, hypnosis is practiced widely. Hypnosis in pain relief is a noninvasive and natural healing process. Self-Hypnosis makes this healing technique available to the lay reader.

Urban Crime Criminals and Victims

Author: Per-Olof H. Wikström
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 146139077X
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Crime is largely an urban phenomenon, but the specifically urban and area dimen sions of the social processes that are connected with crime have been seriously understated in much recent criminological work ... Such a claim could not have been made forty years ago. (Baldwin & Bottoms, 1976, p. 1). The above statement by Baldwin and Bottoms about the neglect in crimi nology of the urban dimension of crime was made in the mid-1970s. However, in the last decade there has been a significant upswing in theory and research on crime in the urban environment. Also, new areas oftheory and research into urban crime have come into focus. (For overviews see Brantingham & Brantingham, 1984; Davidson, 1981.) One very good example of the increasing interest in urban crime is the recent volume of Crime and Justice entitled "Communities and Crime" (Reiss & Tonry, 1986), in which Reiss makes a strong argument for the importance of the study of crime in urban communities and for the linking of the ecological and individual traditions in theory and research on crime. A review of the literature on crime in urban environments shows, not unexpectedly, that Anglo-American research heavily dominates the scene (Wikstrom, 1982; 1987b). Hence, much of the experience we have on urban crime is based on North American and British research and theory.

Prison Inc

Author: K.C. Carceral
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 9780814799543
Format: PDF, ePub
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In 1888, Leo Tolstoy mysteriously declared that sexual intercourse should no longer exist. Years later he would admit to being "horrified" by this pronouncement, but still remained an ardent believer in sexual abstinence. Frequenter of brothels in his youth, father of thirteen children by his wife and at least two children by peasant women before he was married, Tolstoy now had the audacity to suggest that people should stop having sex. How can such a repudiation be explained? Beginning with Tolstoy's Kreutzer Sonata-his first written "declaration of war on human sexuality"--Tolstoy on the Couch takes us on a sweeping psychoanalytic tour of Tolstoy's diaries and other private materials, revealing that behind his campaign for celibacy lay a painful and complicated drama of early childhood. Rooting Tolstoy's polarized feelings about women and sexuality in his uncontrollable rage toward the mother who died when he was a toddler, Rancour-Laferriere offers profound psychobiographic insights into Tolstoy's lifelong animosity toward women--and into the women he loved to hate.

The Oxford Handbook of Prisons and Imprisonment

Author: John D. Wooldredge
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019994816X
Format: PDF
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Research on prisons prior to the prison boom of the 1980s and 1990s focused mainly on inmate subcultures, inmate rights, and sociological interpretations of inmate and guard adaptations to their environment, with qualitative studies and ethnographic methods the norm. In recent years, research has expanded considerably to issues related to inmates' mental health, suicide, managing special types of offenders, risk assessment, and evidence-based treatment programs. The Oxford Handbook of Prisons and Imprisonment provides the only single source that bridges social scientific and behavioral perspectives, providing graduate students with a more comprehensive understanding of the topic, academics with a body of knowledge that will more effectively inform their own research, and practitioners with an overview of evidence-based best practices. Across thirty chapters, leading contributors offer new ideas, critical treatments of substantive topics with theoretical and policy implications, and comprehensive literature reviews that reflect cumulative knowledge on what works and what doesn't. The Handbook covers critical topics in the field, some of which include recent trends in imprisonment, prison gangs, inmate victimization, the use and impact of restrictive housing, unique problems faced by women in prison, special offender populations, risk assessment and treatment effectiveness, prisoner re-entry, and privatization. The Oxford Handbook of Prisons and Imprisonment offers a rich source of information on the current state of institutional corrections around the world, on issues facing both inmates and prison staff, and on how those issues may impede or facilitate the various goals of incarceration.

Male Criminal Activity from Childhood Through Youth

Author: Marc Le Blanc
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461235707
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Male Criminal Activity From Childhood Through Youth reports the results of a large longitudinal study from 1972 to 1985 on a sample of delinquents and a comparison sample of the population in Montreal. A clarification emerges from this extensive study: how to describe criminal activity in a comprehensive theory of crime which integrates the offense, offending, and patterns of offending. Using a developmental approach, Drs. Le Blanc and Fréchette observed a gradation of crimes with subjects progressing through five distinct stages of offending. In all, the research investigates the factors that sustain the development of offending and the mechanisms which accelerate, stabilize, and decelerate the commission of crimes. This book represents a significant advance in the understanding of the development of criminal activity.