Product Policy in Europe New Environmental Perspectives

Author: F. Oosterhuis
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400902778
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Product Policy in Europe: New Environmental Perspectives presents an overview and assessment of a relatively new area of environmental policy in Europe. Whereas the more `traditional' environment policy mainly deals with individual emissions, waste and substances, product policy is a more comprehensive approach addressing the environmental impacts of products during their whole life cycle. The study reviews the current state of affairs and the prospects for product policy in the EU and Switzerland. It shows the relationship with other areas of environmental policy and the potential role of new instruments and approaches. Four case studies (on paint, batteries, public procurement and eco-labelling) illustrate the barriers and opportunities of product policy. Environmental policy makers and policy analysts will find useful information and recommendations in this book. It is also written for those who have a professional interest in reducing the environmental impact of products, including marketing managers, product developers, procurement officers and staff members of environmental and consumer organisations, standardisation and certification institutions, etc.

Environmental and Technology Policy in Europe

Author: G.J. Schrama
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401702659
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book contains six studies on various national environmental policies and environment -oriented technology policy systems in Austria, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, and the United Kingdom, sandwiched between this introductory and a concluding chapter. These studies were conducted as part of the ENVINNO research project, "Towards an Integration of Environmental and Ecology-Oriented Technology Policy: Stimulus and Response in Environment Related Innovation Networks", which formed part of the Targeted Social and Economic Research (TSER) Programme of Directorate-General XII of the European Commission, now 1 Directorate-General for Research. We like to thank Mrs. Genevieve Zdrojewski of GD Directorate-General Research for her kind support of our research project. The project was carried out between 1998 and 2001 by research teams from the six countries. The co-ordinating institute was the Department of Environmental Economics and Management at the Vienna University of 2 Economics and Business Administration. At this place we want to mention all researchers involved in the ENVINNO project and we want to thank them all for their contributions to this book and the project and for the good time we have had performing the project and meeting each other at regular intervals in Vienna (A), Enschede (NL), Berlin (D), and Sevilla (E). Department of Environmental Economics and Management at the Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration in Austria: • Univ. Prof. Dr. Uwe Schubert, • Mag. Judith Kock, • Mag. Jiirgen Mellitzer, 1 Under contract-number SOEI-CT98-110S. 2 The project website is http://www.wu-wien.ac.atiwwwu/institute/iuwIENVINNO.

Law and Economics of International Climate Change Policy

Author: R. Schwarze
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401720479
Format: PDF
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International climate change policy can be broadly divided into two periods: A first period, where a broad consensus was reached to tackle the risk of global warming in a coordinated global effort, and a second period, where this consensus was finally framed into a concrete policy. The first period started at the "Earth Summit" of Rio de Janeiro in 1992, where the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was opened for signature. The UNFCCC was subsequently signed and ratified by 174 countries, making it one of the most accepted international rd treaties ever. The second period was initiated at the 3 Conference of the Parties (COP3) to the UNFCCC in Kyoto in 1997, which produced the Kyoto Protocol (KP). Till now, eighty-four countries have signed the Kyoto Protocol, but only twelve ratified it. A major reason for this slow ratification is that most operational details of the Kyoto Protocol were not decided in Kyoto but deferred to following conferences. This deferral of the details, while probably appropriate to initially reach an agreement, is a major stepping stone for a speedy ratification of the protocol. National policy makers and their constituencies, who would ultimately bear the cost of Kyoto, are generally not prepared to ratify a treaty that could mean anything, from an unsustainable strict regime of international control of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to an "L-regime" ofloopholes, or from a pure market-based international carbon trading to a regime of huge international carbon tax funds.

Climate Change and European Leadership

Author: Joyeeta Gupta
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780792364665
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The issue of climate change is now widely recognised as one of the major challenges for mankind in the 21st century, not only because it may ultimately affect many areas of our environment, nature and human activity but also because its mitigation may have far reaching consequences for almost all sectors of the economy where energy conversion takes place. Although climate change is firmly positioned on the political agenda and some initial targets have been agreed within a global framework, we are still far away from a mature political and practical policy which may deliver timely and appropriate results .to tum the tide. This is partly due to the complex nature of a possible global climate change regime, the still early stage of the development of effective and efficient instruments and the wide variety of possible ramifications for individual countries and economic sectors. But it is also due to the complexity of the negotiation process, and the lack of effective international or even global governance and leadership to tackle a multi-dimensional problem of this size and nature. This book is the first broad attempt to address the issue of leadership by one of the major parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change in the ongoing international debate and negotiations towards such a policy which inevitably has to be constructed on a global scale.

Coping with Water Deficiency

Author: Phoebe Koundouri
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402066153
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Research results discussed in this book demonstrate that effective water management tools and decision-making practices are needed to support interventions to increase availability and manage demand for scarce water supplies. Furthermore, the book bridges the gap between ideas and actions endorsed in the research-oriented environmental debate and their translation into policymaking structures and programs in developed and developing countries.

Greening Society

Author: P.J. Driessen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401599580
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book can be regarded as a monograph on the debates and developments in Dutch environmental policy. It has been written with a specific perspective in mind. First and foremost, the line of approach we have taken was from a multidisciplinary social science point of view. The trend in environmental policy is looked at from the angle of sociology, policy studies and political science. Secondly, all analyses depart from the paradigm shift concept. This particular paradigm shift is based on the fact that a radical change has taken shape over the years in the way environmental issues are handled. Previously, environmental policy had always been characterised by is top-down approach in which government determined the actual objectives of policy and assumed that it could win over business, non governmental organisations and citizens to act in line with those objectives. There was also a great deal of faith in the technical solutions to environmental issues. Today's environmental policy is based on a totally different philosophy. Environmental objectives are now reached in association with business, non-governmental organisations and citizens. These actors are also involved in bringing environmental policy into practice. In other words, the implementation of policy has a more interactive nature. New relationships emerge between government, the market and civil society, and policy discourses also become integrated. The environmental interest is more often weighed against the econom1c interests, the spatial development and against social justice.

Economics of Climate Change The Contribution of Forestry Projects

Author: Wolfram Kägi
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 940159600X
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Climate change is one of the major global environmental problems, one that has the potential to confront us with great costs during the decades to come. Climate change is caused by emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as carbon dioxide (CO). As z deforestation leads to CO emissions and growing forests sequester CO, forestry z z projects provide us with options to mitigate CO effects. This study analyses the z contribution Jorestry projects can make within the context of climate change. The contribution of forestry projects is here discussed on two levels. On a first level, the COz effect of individual projects is analysed. On a second level, the study asks whether the analysis of forestry projects can contribute to questions on climate change which have been discussed in the economic literature during the past two decades. While most studies on forestry projects focus on particular details, predominantly on technical issues, this study takes a rather broad perspective, drawing together different relevant aspects: the stability of international agreements is discussed, costs and benefIts of reducing GHG emissions in industrial countries are reviewed, the underlying causes of deforestation are analysed and insights from resource economics are taken into consideration. Such a wide perspectiveallows the identifIcation, discussion and appreciation of problems and opportunities associated with forestry projects in the context of climate change which are otherwise not recognised.

Governance of Integrated Product Policy

Author: Dirk Scheer
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351282581
Format: PDF, Mobi
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European policy patterns are in a state of transformation. New governance models are shifting power away from states and toward the involvement of all stakeholders and the idea of shared responsibility. It's a move from command and control to push and pull. What's in this new approach for the environment? This book provides a detailed analysis of the example of integrated product policy (IPP) which aims to improve the environmental performance of products and services through their life-cycle. All products cause environmental degradation in some way, whether from their manufacturing, use or disposal. The life-cycle of a product is often long and complicated. It covers all the areas from the extraction of natural resources, through their design, manufacture, assembly, marketing, distribution, sale and use to their eventual disposal as waste. At the same time it also involves many different actors such as designers, manufacturers, marketers, retailers and consumers. IPP attempts to systematically stimulate each phase of this complicated chain to improve its environmental performance. With the involvement of so many different products and actors there cannot be one simple policy measure for everything. Instead, IPP employs a whole variety of tools – both voluntary and mandatory – which are used to achieve identified objectives. These include economic instruments, the phase-out of dangerous materials, voluntary agreements, eco-labelling and product design guidelines. IPP is still in relative infancy and can be seen as an ongoing process hugely dependent on effective governance measures to ensure its continued success. This book presents a plethora of perspectives from policy-makers, researchers and consultancies, representatives from business, environmental and consumer associations on how to effectively conceptualise, institutionalise and implement IPP. The book is divided into four parts. First, the approach to the governance of IPP is examined in relation to other approaches to sustainable production and consumption. Second, the widely differing approaches to environmental product policy in practice at national, supranational and global level are analysed. Third, the book explores the challenge of designing a coherent policy mix to support the integration of sustainable consumption and production patterns by sector and theme. Finally, the book concentrates on the key issue of how to involve stakeholders in IPP in order to encourage continuous innovations for sustainability throughout the value chain. Governance of Integrated Product Policy aims to fill a clear gap in work to date on sustainable production and consumption by providing researchers and practitioners from politics, business and civil society new insights into modern environmental governance in practice.

CE Marking Product Standards and World Trade

Author: David Hanson
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 9781781958339
Format: PDF, Kindle
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CE Marking, the European system of mandatory product safety standards, has created major obstacles for US exporters to the European Union (EU). CE Marking, Product Standards and World Trade is one of the first books to analyze the nature and dynamics of this major non-tariff trade barrier. David Hanson looks at the patterns of EU decision-making through a functional comparative analysis with the US, and in the context of the institutional alliances and rivalries that shape outcomes. An increasingly important but little understood issue, CE Marking is also an example of a growing problem in international commerce - the impact of inconsistent domestic product requirements on international trade. The author examines the way in which the EU has implemented the CE Marking system, its impact on US exporters, the dynamic of US - EU trade and negotiations, and the political and administrative arrangements that support them. This comprehensive study will be of great interest to students and scholars of industrial economics and international business. Business people and policymakers will also find much of interest in this timely volume.