Proteases Structure and Function

Author: Klaudia Brix
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3709108853
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Proteolysis is an irreversible posttranslational modification affecting each and every protein from its biosynthesis to its degradation. Limited proteolysis regulates targeting and activity throughout the lifetime of proteins. Balancing proteolysis is therefore crucial for physiological homeostasis. Control mechanisms include proteolytic maturation of zymogens resulting in active proteases and the shut down of proteolysis by counteracting endogenous protease inhibitors. Beyond the protein level, proteolytic enzymes are involved in key decisions during development that determine life and death – from single cells to adult individuals. In particular, we are becoming aware of the subtle role that proteases play in signaling events within proteolysis networks, in which the enzymes act synergistically and form alliances in a web-like fashion. Proteases come in different flavors. At least five families of mechanistically distinct enzymes and even more inhibitor families are known to date, many family members are still to be studied in detail. We have learned a lot about the diversity of the about 600 proteases in the human genome and begin to understand their physiological roles in the degradome. However, there are still many open questions regarding their actions in pathophysiology. It is in this area where the development of small molecule inhibitors as therapeutic agents is extremely promising. Approaching proteolysis as the most important, irreversible post-translational protein modification essentially requires an integrated effort of complementary research disciplines. In fact, proteolytic enzymes seem as diverse as the scientists working with these intriguing proteins. This book reflects the efforts of many in this exciting field of research where team and network formations are essential to move ahead.

Structure Function Relationships of Proteolytic Enzymes

Author: P. Desnuelle
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483261174
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Structure–Function Relationships of Proteolytic Enzymes provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of proteolytic enzymes. This book presents the historical role of proteolytic enzyme as a group in protein and enzyme chemistry. Organized into 23 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the results obtained from investigation on the chymotrypsinogens of porcine origin. This text then examines the differences of amino acid sequence between chymotrypsin, trypsin, and elastase that affect the substrate binding site, which reflect the specificity differences between these enzymes. Other chapters consider the kinetic parameters related to the trypsin-catalyzed hydrolysis of several model peptides. This book discusses as well the acetylation of trypsin, which result in functional consequences varying from complete inactivation to promotion of activity. The final chapter deals with the physical properties of stem bromelain in comparison with the data for three other sulfhydryl proteases of plant origin. This book is a valuable resource for enzymologists, microbiologists, and biochemists.

Viral Proteases and Their Inhibitors

Author: Satya Prakash Gupta
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128096829
Format: PDF, Docs
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Viral Proteases and Their Inhibitors provides a thorough examination of viral proteases from their molecular components, to therapeutic applications. As information on three dimensional structures and biological functions of these viral proteases become known, unexpected protein folds and unique mechanisms of proteolysis are realized. This book investigates how this facilitates the design and development of potent antiviral agents used against life-threatening viruses. Users will find descriptions of each virus that detail the structure and function of viral proteases, discuss the design and development of inhibitors, and analyze the structure-activity relationships of inhibitors. This book is ideal biochemists, virologists and those working on antiviral agents. Provides comprehensive, state-of-the-art coverage of virus infections, the virus lifecycle, and mechanisms of protease inhibition Analyzes structure-activity relationships of inhibitors of each viral protease Presents an in-depth view of the structure and function of viral proteases

Acid Proteases Structure Function and Biology

Author: Jordan Tang
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9781475707212
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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In the past ten years, a number of proceedings of symposia on the structure and function of proteolytic enzymes have been pub lished. Their coverage of acid proteases has been limited, mainly due to the lack of significant new information on the structure of these enzymes. In the last four years, however, the primary and tertiary structures of a number of acid proteases have been deter mined, prompting the need to discuss the meanings of the old data and the possibilities for new experimentations. It was for this purpose that the "Conference on Acid Proteases: Structure, Function, and Biology" was organized. It took place at the University of Oklahoma on November 21-24, 1976. This book is a collection of the main lectures delivered at the Conference. Acid Proteases, by definition refers to a group of proteases having an optimal pH in acidic solutions. The classic examples are pepsin and chymosin. Some catalytic features are obviously shared by these proteases, most notably, their inhibition by pepstatin. The use of active center-directed inactivators such as diazoacetyl norleucine methyl ester and 1,2-epoxy-3-(p-nitrophenoxy)propane has shown that two catalytic aspartyl residues are present in most of these enzymes. These apparent cornmon features have prompted the suggestion by several investigators to name this group of enzymes "aspartyl proteases" or "carboxyl proteases".

Acid Proteases Structure Function and Biology

Author: Jordan Tang
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1475707193
Format: PDF
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In the past ten years, a number of proceedings of symposia on the structure and function of proteolytic enzymes have been pub lished. Their coverage of acid proteases has been limited, mainly due to the lack of significant new information on the structure of these enzymes. In the last four years, however, the primary and tertiary structures of a number of acid proteases have been deter mined, prompting the need to discuss the meanings of the old data and the possibilities for new experimentations. It was for this purpose that the "Conference on Acid Proteases: Structure, Function, and Biology" was organized. It took place at the University of Oklahoma on November 21-24, 1976. This book is a collection of the main lectures delivered at the Conference. Acid Proteases, by definition refers to a group of proteases having an optimal pH in acidic solutions. The classic examples are pepsin and chymosin. Some catalytic features are obviously shared by these proteases, most notably, their inhibition by pepstatin. The use of active center-directed inactivators such as diazoacetyl norleucine methyl ester and 1,2-epoxy-3-(p-nitrophenoxy)propane has shown that two catalytic aspartyl residues are present in most of these enzymes. These apparent cornmon features have prompted the suggestion by several investigators to name this group of enzymes "aspartyl proteases" or "carboxyl proteases".

Aspartic Acid Proteases as Therapeutic Targets

Author: Arun K. Ghosh
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527641629
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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In this ground-breaking practical reference, the family of aspartic acid proteases is described from a drug developer's perspective. The first part provides a general introduction to the family of aspartic acid proteases, their physiological functions, molecular structure and inhibition. Parts two to five present various case studies of successful protease inhibitor drug design and development, as well as current and potential uses of such inhibitors in pharmaceutical medicine, covering the major therapeutic targets HIV-1 protease, renin, beta-secretase, gamma-secretase,plasmepsins and fungal proteases. A ready reference aimed primarily at professionals in the pharmaceutical industry, as well as for anyone studying proteases and their function.

Handbook of Proteolytic Enzymes

Author: Alan J. Barrett
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080984150
Format: PDF, ePub
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Handbook of Proteolytic Enzymes, Second Edition, Volume 1: Aspartic and Metallo Peptidases is a compilation of numerous progressive research studies on proteolytic enzymes. This edition is organized into two main sections encompassing 328 chapters. This handbook is organized around a system for the classification of peptidases, which is a hierarchical one built on the concepts of catalytic type, clan, family and peptidase. The concept of catalytic type of a peptidase depends upon the chemical nature of the groups responsible for catalysis. The recognized catalytic types are aspartic, cysteine, metallo, serine, threonine, and the unclassified enzymes, while clans and families are groups of homologous peptidases. Homology at the level of a family of peptidases is shown by statistically significant relationship in amino acid sequence to a representative member called the type example, or to another member of the family that has already been shown to be related to the type example. Each chapter discusses the history, activity, specificity, structural chemistry, preparation, and biological aspects of the enzyme. This book will prove useful to enzyme chemists and researchers.

Mechanisms of Protease Action

Author: Laszlo Polgar
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780849369018
Format: PDF, ePub
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A uniform treatment of the four protease groups and a discussion of the differences and similarities in their action is presented in this important new publication. Serine, cysteine, aspartate, and zinc proteases are systematically discussed by nomenclature, evolution, specificity and their regulatory role. The chemistry of the peptide bond, including the catalysis of ester and peptide hydrolyses, is explained. For each protease group the emphasis is placed on the structure and function. Kinetics, enzyme modifications, isotope effects, subzero temperature investigations, nuclear magnetic resonance measurements, X-ray diffraction data, binding of transition-state analogs, zymogen activation, and site-specific mutagenesis are combined to rationalize the action of proteases. Both natural and synthetic inhibitors are considered because of their importance in mechanistic studies and drug design.

Proteases in Physiology and Pathology

Author: Sajal Chakraborti
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811025134
Format: PDF, ePub
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Using a multidisciplinary approach, this book describes the biochemical mechanisms associated with dysregulation of proteases and the resulting pathophysiological consequences. It highlights the role and regulation of different types of proteases as well as their synthetic and endogenous inhibitors. The role of proteases was initially thought to be limited to general metabolic digestion. However, we now know that the role of protein breakdown is much more complex, and proteases have multiple functions: they are coupled to turnover and can affect protein composition, function and synthesis. In addition to eliminating abnormal proteins, breakdown has many modulatory functions, including activating and inactivating enzymes, modulating membrane function, altering receptor channel properties, affecting transcription and cell cycles and forming active peptides. The ubiquity of proteases in nature makes them an important target for drug development. This in-depth, comprehensive is a valuable resource for researchers involved in identifying new targets for drug development. With its multidisciplinary scope, it bridges the gap between fundamental and translational research in the biomedical and pharmaceutical industries, making it thought-provoking reading for scientists in the field.

Cysteine Proteases of Pathogenic Organisms

Author: Mark W. Robinson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441984142
Format: PDF
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Cysteine proteases expressed by pathogenic organisms play key roles in virulence including host entry, feeding and suppression of host immune responses. This book gives comprehensive coverage to all aspects of pathogen cysteine proteases and brings together numerous scientific advances which have been made over many years. Thus, the biochemistry, molecular biology and structure‐function relationships of these important pathogen enzymes are covered in detail. Written by leading researchers from Europe, Australia and North America, this book is essential reading for students and professionals interested in human medicine and infectious disease research.