Psychological Issues in Eyewitness Identification

Author: Siegfried L. Sporer
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1317824636
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Why do police officers, investigators, prosecutors, judges, and others with an interest in eliciting accurate memory-based testimony need to inform themselves of the research literature in experimental psychology that addresses the question of witness memory? The answer is straightforward, from the perspective of a simple cost/benefit analysis. As with so many matters in the administration of public funds, effectiveness holds important rewards. Those who investigate crimes and decide which line of investigation to pursue and which line to postpone or set aside, necessarily make judgments about the likely guilt of suspects based on the information at hand. If they can make these judgments with a high degree of accuracy, everyone benefits. For many cases eyewitness identification is an important component of evidence, prosecution, and plea negotiation. If witness identification is correctly implemented, investigators and prosecutors can make their judgments effectively, and focus their resources more efficiently. A major component of effectiveness requires avoiding expending scarce resources on erroneous prosecutions. It is in everyone's interest to make the best use of the memory of witnesses: to preserve it without changing it; to render it maximally accessible; to provide an environment in which witnesses feel free to report their recollections; and to accurately assess the probable validity of the witness's report, regardless of the witness's certainty or doubts about its accuracy. This volume gathers evidence from various research domains on eyewitness testimony. Although many of the studies discussed deal with eyewitness identification, it is noteworthy that many of them also touch upon other areas of concern to eyewitness researchers, including chapters on: *voice recognition by humans and computers, with particularly detailed instructions on conducting voice "lineup," *differential aspects of recognition memory in children, *elderly eyewitness' memory, *problems of cross-racial identification, *psychological aspects of facial image reconstruction techniques, *person descriptions, *particular benefits of reinstating context as a means to improve eyewitness memory, *problems associated with various research paradigms in the eyewitness arena, and *recommendations on how to conduct lineups and photospreads and their proper evaluation. Differentiated from other literature on this topic by its non-technical language and accessibility to non-professionals, this volume covers a great deal of ground, raises a host of questions, settles some others, and points the way to more effective use and evaluation of what eyewitnesses have to say.

The Psychology of Eyewitness Identification

Author: James M. Lampinen
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1848728832
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This volume provides a tutorial review and evaluation of scientific research on the accuracy and reliability of eyewitness identification. The book starts with the perspective that there are a variety of conceptual and empirical problems with eyewitness identification as a form of forensic evidence, just as there are a variety of problems with other forms of forensic evidence. There is then an examination of the important results in the study of eyewitness memory and the implications of this research for psychological theory and for social and legal policy. The volume takes the perspective that research on eyewitness identification can be seen as the paradigmatic example of how psychological science can be successfully applied to real-world problems.

Expert Testimony on the Psychology of Eyewitness Identification

Author: Brian L. Cutler
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199736638
Format: PDF, ePub
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Eyewitness testimony is highly compelling in a criminal trial, and can have an indelible impact on jurors. However, two decades of research on the subject have shown us that eyewitnesses are sometimes wrong, even when they are highly confident that they are making correct identifications. This book brings together an impressive group of researchers and practicing attorneys to provide current overviews and critiques of key topics in eyewitness testimony.

Mistaken Identification

Author: Brian L. Cutler
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521445726
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Examines traditional safeguards against mistaken eyewitness identification.

Adult Eyewitness Testimony

Author: David Frank Ross
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521432559
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Investigates the factors that influence the accuracy of eyewitness testimony.

Eyewitness Testimony

Author: Gary L. Wells
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521255646
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Topics examined are eyewitness memory as a function of age, the adequacy of intuition in judging eyewitness memory, & the relationship between confidence & accuracy. Also includes chapters on hypnosis, lie detection, & legal aspects of the dangers inherent in eyewitness identification testimony.

Handbook of Forensic Psychology

Author: William O'Donohue
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080495109
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Forensic psychology has mushroomed into a diverse and increasingly complex field that is equal parts law and psychology. Psychologists act as expert witnesses in legal cases - sometimes without knowing much about the laws involved, and legal professionals rely on the assessment of psychologists sometimes without knowing much about how such assessments are made. The purpose of this handbook is to provide professionals with current, practical, and empirically based information to guide their work in forensic settings, or to better their understanding of the issues and debates in forensic psychology. Divided into four sections, the Handbook of Forensic Psychology covers basic issues, assessment, mental disorders and forensic psychology, and special topics. The basic issue chapters present a primer on law for the psychologist, a primer on psychology for attorneys, an overview of ethical issues relevant to forensic psychology, and a chapter on forensic report writing. The assessment section discusses factors and measures relevant for assessing a variety of behaviors, propensities, and capabilities, including dangerousness, violence, suicide, competency, substance abuse, PTSD and neuropsychological evaluations, as well as discussing interviewing children and child custody evaluations. Additional chapters discuss eyewitness testimony, recovered memory, polygraphs, sexual harassment, juror selection, and issues of ethnicity in forensic psychology.

Reform of Eyewitness Identification Procedures

Author: Brian L. Cutler
Publisher: Amer Psychological Assn
ISBN: 9781433812835
Format: PDF, Mobi
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"Psychologists now have a solid understanding of such issues as the effects of suggestive questioning on eyewitness reports, the suggestibility of children, methods of improving eyewitness interviews, the effects of crime factors on identification accuracy, the relation between confidence and identification accuracy, methods of improving identification accuracy, and the effectiveness of safeguards designed to protect defendants from wrongful conviction in eyewitness cases. In this volume, authors focus narrowly on methods of improving identification accuracy. Several factors point to the need for a thorough treatment on this topic"--Introduction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

Eyewitness Testimony

Author: Elizabeth F. Loftus
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674287778
Format: PDF
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By shedding light on the many factors that can intervene and create inaccurate testimony, Elizabeth Loftus illustrates how memory can be radically altered by the way an eyewitness is questioned, and how new memories can be implanted and old ones changed in subtle ways.