Quantum Tunneling and Field Electron Emission Theories

Author: Shi-Dong Liang
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814440221
Format: PDF, Mobi
Download Now
Quantum tunneling is an essential issue in quantum physics. Especially, the rapid development of nanotechnology in recent years promises a lot of applications in condensed matter physics, surface science and nanodevices, which are growing interests in fundamental issues, computational techniques and potential applications of quantum tunneling. The book involves two relevant topics. One is quantum tunneling theory in condensed matter physics, including the basic concepts and methods, especially for recent developments in mesoscopic physics and computational formulation. The second part is the field electron emission theory, which covers the basic field emission concepts, the Fowler Nordheim theory, and recent developments of the field emission theory especially in some fundamental concepts and computational formulation, such as quantum confinement effects, Dirac fermion, Luttinger liquid, carbon nanotubes, coherent emission current, quantum tunneling time problem, spin polarized field electron emission and non-equilibrium Green's function method for field electron emission. This book presents in both academic and pedagogical styles, and is as possible as self-complete to make it suitable for researchers and graduate students in condensed matter physics and vacuum nanoelectronics. Contents: Introduction"Quantum Tunneling Theory: "Quantum Physics and Quantum FormalismBasic Physics of Quantum Scattering and TunnelingWave Function Matching MethodWKB MethodLippmann-Schwinger FormalismNon-Equilibrium Green's Function MethodSpin TunnelingApplications"Field Electron Emission Theory: "IntroductionTheoretical Model and MethodologyFowler-Nordheim TheoryField Emission from SemiconductorsSurface Effects and ResonanceThermionic Emission TheoryTheory of Dynamical Field EmissionTheory of Spin Polarized Field EmissionTheory of Field Electron Emission from NanomaterialsComputer Simulations of Field EmissionThe Empirical Theory of Field EmissionFundamental Physics of Field Electron Emission Readership: Graduate students and researchers in vacuum nanoelectronics and physics. "

Field Emission Electronics

Author: Nikolay Egorov
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319565613
Format: PDF, Kindle
Download Now
This book is dedicated to field emission electronics, a promising field at the interface between “classic” vacuum electronics and nanotechnology. In addition to theoretical models, it includes detailed descriptions of experimental and research techniques and production technologies for different types of field emitters based on various construction principles. It particularly focuses on research into and production of field cathodes and electron guns using recently developed nanomaterials and carbon nanotubes. Further, it discusses the applications of field emission cathodes in new technologies such as light sources, flat screens, microwave and X-ray devices.

Introduction to the Physics of Electron Emission

Author: Kevin L. Jensen
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119051762
Format: PDF, Kindle
Download Now
A practical, in-depth description of the physics behind electron emission physics and its usage in science and technology Electron emission is both a fundamental phenomenon and an enabling component that lies at the very heart of modern science and technology. Written by a recognized authority in the field, with expertise in both electron emission physics and electron beam physics, An Introduction to Electron Emission provides an in-depth look at the physics behind thermal, field, photo, and secondary electron emission mechanisms, how that physics affects the beams that result through space charge and emittance growth, and explores the physics behind their utilization in an array of applications. The book addresses mathematical and numerical methods underlying electron emission, describing where the equations originated, how they are related, and how they may be correctly used to model actual sources for devices using electron beams. Writing for the beam physics and solid state communities, the author explores applications of electron emission methodology to solid state, statistical, and quantum mechanical ideas and concepts related to simulations of electron beams to condensed matter, solid state and fabrication communities. Provides an extensive description of the physics behind four electron emission mechanisms—field, photo, and secondary, and how that physics relates to factors such as space charge and emittance that affect electron beams. Introduces readers to mathematical and numerical methods, their origins, and how they may be correctly used to model actual sources for devices using electron beams Demonstrates applications of electron methodology as well as quantum mechanical concepts related to simulations of electron beams to solid state design and manufacture Designed to function as both a graduate-level text and a reference for research professionals Introduction to the Physics of Electron Emission is a valuable learning tool for postgraduates studying quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, solid state physics, electron transport, and beam physics. It is also an indispensable resource for academic researchers and professionals who use electron sources, model electron emission, develop cathode technologies, or utilize electron beams.

Field Emission in Vacuum Microelectronics

Author: George N. Fursey
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387274195
Format: PDF, Mobi
Download Now
Field emission is a phenomenon described by quantum mechanics. Its emission capability is millions times higher than that of any other known types of electron emission. Nowadays this phenomenon is experiencing a new life due to wonderful applications in the atomic resolution microscopy, in electronic holography, and in the vacuum micro- and nanoelectronics in general. The main field emission properties, and some most remarkable experimental facts and applications, are described in this book.

Vacuum Nanoelectronic Devices

Author: Anatoliy Evtukh
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119037964
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download Now
Introducing up-to-date coverage of research in electron field emission from nanostructures, Vacuum Nanoelectronic Devices outlines the physics of quantum nanostructures, basic principles of electron field emission, and vacuum nanoelectronic devices operation, and offers as insight state-of-the-art and future researches and developments. This book also evaluates the results of research and development of novel quantum electron sources that will determine the future development of vacuum nanoelectronics. Further to this, the influence of quantum mechanical effects on high frequency vacuum nanoelectronic devices is also assessed. Key features: • In-depth description and analysis of the fundamentals of Quantum Electron effects in novel electron sources. • Comprehensive and up-to-date summary of the physics and technologies for THz sources for students of physical and engineering specialties and electronics engineers. • Unique coverage of quantum physical results for electron-field emission and novel electron sources with quantum effects, relevant for many applications such as electron microscopy, electron lithography, imaging and communication systems and signal processing. • New approaches for realization of electron sources with required and optimal parameters in electronic devices such as vacuum micro and nanoelectronics. This is an essential reference for researchers working in terahertz technology wanting to expand their knowledge of electron beam generation in vacuum and electron source quantum concepts. It is also valuable to advanced students in electronics engineering and physics who want to deepen their understanding of this topic. Ultimately, the progress of the quantum nanostructure theory and technology will promote the progress and development of electron sources as main part of vacuum macro-, micro- and nanoelectronics.

Near Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy

Author: Taryl Leaton Kirk
Publisher: Logos Verlag Berlin GmbH
ISBN: 3832525181
Format: PDF, Kindle
Download Now
Low beam energies have been implemented in a simplified SEM technique; where the electron source, remote in standard SEMs, is brought within tens of nanometers to the object. This method, known as the "near field emission scanning electron microscopy" (NFESEM), is capable of imaging conducting surfaces with nanometer resolution using beam energies less than 60 eV. The terminology "near" refers to the locality of the field-emitted electron source; which is to distinguish itself from the "remote" field emission gun sources used in standard SEMs. The main aim of this instrument is the realization of some kind of surface topography image due to the exposure of a primary beam of electrons, as it is rastered along the sample surface. This will be achieved by two distinct (although related) experiments: measuring the field emission (FE) current while scanning and detecting the secondary electrons (SE)s generated when the electron beam impinges on the surface. Here, the FE properties, in accordance with the tip-sample separation, will be emphasized, since the variations in SE yield are directly proportional to the impinging primary electron beam. We observe a direct correlation between the image contrast and the FE current, where the image is enhanced with increasing FE current. Moreover, simple electrostatic measurements can be used to define the performance of the device.

Introduction to the Physics of Electron Emission

Author: Kevin L. Jensen
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119051754
Format: PDF
Download Now
A practical, in-depth description of the physics behind electron emission physics and its usage in science and technology Electron emission is both a fundamental phenomenon and an enabling component that lies at the very heart of modern science and technology. Written by a recognized authority in the field, with expertise in both electron emission physics and electron beam physics, An Introduction to Electron Emission provides an in-depth look at the physics behind thermal, field, photo, and secondary electron emission mechanisms, how that physics affects the beams that result through space charge and emittance growth, and explores the physics behind their utilization in an array of applications. The book addresses mathematical and numerical methods underlying electron emission, describing where the equations originated, how they are related, and how they may be correctly used to model actual sources for devices using electron beams. Writing for the beam physics and solid state communities, the author explores applications of electron emission methodology to solid state, statistical, and quantum mechanical ideas and concepts related to simulations of electron beams to condensed matter, solid state and fabrication communities. Provides an extensive description of the physics behind four electron emission mechanisms—field, photo, and secondary, and how that physics relates to factors such as space charge and emittance that affect electron beams. Introduces readers to mathematical and numerical methods, their origins, and how they may be correctly used to model actual sources for devices using electron beams Demonstrates applications of electron methodology as well as quantum mechanical concepts related to simulations of electron beams to solid state design and manufacture Designed to function as both a graduate-level text and a reference for research professionals Introduction to the Physics of Electron Emission is a valuable learning tool for postgraduates studying quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, solid state physics, electron transport, and beam physics. It is also an indispensable resource for academic researchers and professionals who use electron sources, model electron emission, develop cathode technologies, or utilize electron beams.

Quantum Theory of Tunneling

Author: Mohsen Razavy
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814525030
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Download Now
In this revised and expanded edition, in addition to a comprehensible introduction to the theoretical foundations of quantum tunneling based on different methods of formulating and solving tunneling problems, different semiclassical approximations for multidimensional systems are presented. Particular attention is given to the tunneling of composite systems, with examples taken from molecular tunneling and also from nuclear reactions. The interesting and puzzling features of tunneling times are given extensive coverage, and the possibility of measurement of these times with quantum clocks are critically examined. In addition, by considering the analogy between evanescent waves in waveguides and in quantum tunneling, the times related to electromagnetic wave propagation have been used to explain certain aspects of quantum tunneling times. These topics are treated in both non-relativistic as well as relativistic regimes. Finally, a large number of examples of tunneling in atomic, molecular, condensed matter and nuclear physics are presented and solved. Contents:A Brief History of Quantum TunnelingSome Basic Questions Concerning Quantum TunnelingSimple Solvable ProblemsTime-Dependence of the Wave Function in One-Dimensional TunnelingSemiclassical ApproximationsGeneralization of the Bohr–Sommerfeld Quantization Rule and Its Application to Quantum TunnelingGamow's Theory, Complex Eigenvalues, and the Wave Function of a Decaying StateTunneling in Symmetric and Asymmetric Local Potentials and Tunneling in Nonlocal and Quasi-Solvable BarriersClassical Descriptions of Quantum TunnelingTunneling in Time-Dependent BarriersDecay Width and the Scattering TheoryThe Method of Variable Reflection Amplitude Applied to Solve Multichannel Tunneling ProblemsPath Integral and Its Semi-Classical Approximation in Quantum TunnelingHeisenberg's Equations of Motion for TunnelingWigner Distribution Function in Quantum TunnelingDecay Widths of Siegert States, Complex Scaling and Dilatation TransformationMultidimensional Quantum TunnelingGroup and Signal VelocitiesTime-Delay, Reflection Time Operator and Minimum Tunneling TimeMore About Tunneling TimeTunneling of a System with Internal Degrees of FreedomMotion of a Particle in a Waveguide with Variable Cross Section and in a Space Bounded by a Dumbbell-Shaped ObjectRelativistic Formulation of Quantum TunnelingInverse Problems of Quantum TunnelingSome Examples of Quantum Tunneling in Atomic and Molecular PhysicsSome Examples in Condensed Matter PhysicsAlpha Decay Readership: Graduate students and researchers in theoretical, mathematical, condensed matter and nuclear physics, as well as theoretical chemistry. Keywords:Quantum Tunneling;Quantum Clocks;Electromagnetic Wave Propagation;Semiclassical Approximations

Nanomaterials Handbook Second Edition

Author: Yury Gogotsi
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1315354527
Format: PDF
Download Now
Since publication of the first edition over a decade ago, the field of nanomaterials has grown substantially and has seen many novel developments, such as the discovery of new 2D materials, advancement of photonic crystals, graphene, inorganic nanotubes, and broad utilization of nanoparticles in electronics, medicine, and the food industry. Taking into account these tremendous advances in the field, the Second Edition of the Nanomaterials Handbook has been fully updated and extended to include the latest and emerging materials and technologies. It includes 11 chapters new to this edition, including topics such as graphene, biomedical applications, mechanics, nanoceramics, 2D metal carbides and carbonitrides, and safety of nanomaterials, among others. The Handbook continues its highly successful comprehensive approach covering fundamentals to applications and materials basics to tailored design, with 22 chapters authored by leading international experts.