Radiation Hormesis and the Linear No Threshold Assumption

Author: Charles L. Sanders
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642037207
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Current radiation protection standards are based upon the application of the linear no-threshold (LNT) assumption, which considers that even very low doses of ionizing radiation can cause cancer. The radiation hormesis hypothesis, by contrast, proposes that low-dose ionizing radiation is beneficial. In this book, the author examines all facets of radiation hormesis in detail, including the history of the concept and mechanisms, and presents comprehensive, up-to-date reviews for major cancer types. It is explained how low-dose radiation can in fact decrease all-cause and all-cancer mortality and help to control metastatic cancer. Attention is also drawn to biases in epidemiological research when using the LNT assumption. The author shows how proponents of the LNT assumption consistently reject, manipulate, and deliberately ignore an overwhelming abundance of published data and falsely claim that no reliable data are available at doses of less than 100 mSv.

Radiobiology and Radiation Hormesis

Author: Charles L. Sanders
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319563726
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book presents new information on radiobiology that more clearly refutes the linear no-threshold (LNT) assumption and supports radiation hormesis. Fresh light is cast on the mechanisms of radiation hormesis and the potential benefits of low-dose ionizing radiation in preventing and treating a wide variety of inflammatory and proliferative diseases. It is proposed that these effects may derive from cellular communication via electromagnetic waves directed by DNA, with each cell acting as a quantum computer. Readers will also find close analysis of the negative impacts of radiophobia on many aspects of modern life, including attitudes to imaging technologies, licensing of nuclear power reactors, and preparedness for survival of nuclear war. The book will be of interest to researchers and scientists in radiobiology, radiation protection, health physics, medical physics, and radiology. Specifically, it will provide medical physicians, radiation oncologists, radiation epidemiologists, gerontologists, cell biologists, toxicologists, and nuclear engineers with a wide range of interesting facts and enlightening novel perspectives.

Radiation Dose from Adult and Pediatric Multidetector Computed Tomography

Author: D. Tack
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540685753
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book considers in depth all the factors that influence the radiation dose and the risk associated with MDCT in children and adults. Only a small proportion of referring clinicians, radiologists, and technologists are aware of both the radiation risks and their underlying mechanisms. The book proposes detailed guidelines for optimization of the radiation dose when using MDCT. It is written by experts of international standing.

Underexposed

Author: Ed Hiserodt
Publisher: BookBaby
ISBN: 1483509087
Format: PDF
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There is a very large disconnect between the actual dangers of exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation and the fears of such exposure. A tiny leak at a nuclear power plant is front page news, while there has never been a death or even an injury to the public from escaping radiation. Meanwhile 50,000 deaths from auto accidents go almost unnoticed. This fear is particularly ironic since hundreds of studies show that low doses of ionizing radiation result is lower cancer rates and overall mortality. One of these studies examined in some detail was done by Johns-Hopkins involving an initial pool of 700,000 workers, some of whom worked on ships with nuclear propulsion, while others (randomly selected) were employed on non-nuclear ships. The nuclear workers had a standard mortality rate of 0.76 times that of non-nuclear workers. In largest "ecological" study in history, Professor Bernard Cohen of Pittsburgh University was attempting to correlate level of residential radon with lung cancer. He was astonished to find that the opposite was true -- the more radon, the less cancer. Of course these data, from 1,729 counties (about 90% of the U.S.), didn't faze the Environmental Protection Agency that has continued its crusade against radon exposure. The positive benefits of low doses of radiation is known as "hormesis" and is identified in over 150 studies and other documented evidence presented in the book.

Hormesis

Author: Mark P. Mattson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781607614951
Format: PDF, Docs
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Hormesis is a poorly understood phenomenon affecting all forms of life on earth. This groundbreaking book summarizes and analyzes the various positives of hormesis in an attempt to reveal hormesis as a fundamental principle of biomedical sciences as a whole.

Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation

Author: Committee to Assess Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 030909156X
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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BEIR VII develops the most up-to-date and comprehensive risk estimates for cancer and other health effects from exposure to low-level ionizing radiation. It is among the first reports of its kind to include detailed estimates for cancer incidence in addition to cancer mortality. In general, BEIR VII supports previously reported risk estimates for cancer and leukemia, but the availability of new and more extensive data have strengthened confidence in these estimates. A comprehensive review of available biological and biophysical data supports a "linear-no-threshold" (LNT) risk model-that the risk of cancer proceeds in a linear fashion at lower doses without a threshold and that the smallest dose has the potential to cause a small increase in risk to humans. The report is from the Board on Radiation Research Effects that is now part of the newly formed Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board.

Radiation Hormesis

Author: T. D. Luckey
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780849361593
Format: PDF
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Radiation Hormesis presents the only critical review of the effects of whole-body exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation in animals. This is a "must read" book for radiobiologists, health-conscious individuals, and serious environmentalists. Topics discussed include our radiation environment, radiation hormesis in cancer mortality, growth and development, reproduction and mutation, immunity, and cancer. Data is presented that indicates that low doses of ionizing radiation may actually be beneficial to human health. This information could invalidate the "zero thesis" and linear models used by most regulatory agencies. The implications regarding eliminating linear models and accepting radiation hormesis are also discussed.

Radiation Risks in Perspective

Author: Kenneth L. Mossman
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780849379789
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Public misperception of radiological risk consistently directs limited resources toward managing minimal or even phantom risks at great cost to government and industry with no measurable benefit to overall public health. The public’s inability to comprehend small theoretical risks arrived at through inherently uncertain formulae, coupled with an irrational push to eliminate all risk with no contextual understanding of overall benefit, results in a forfeiture of valuable advances in technology in favor of an illusion of safety. Radiation Risks in Perspective uses general concepts underlying radiological risk as a model to illuminate the fundamental problems in public perception, reaction, and policy when faced with possible health risks. Presenting three distinct themes, the author summarizes the causes for the failure of the current system and proposes methods for correction. Beginning with a discussion of the methods used to measure threat, the author weighs the nebulous assessment of risk with the use of a quantifiable assessment of hazardous dose, which uses actual numbers that the public can readily understand and that decision makers can confidently use to enact policy and measure success. Secondly, the author addresses the contextual balancing of cost versus benefit when prioritizing expenditure, specifically emphasizing that it is inappropriate to analyze and discuss individual risks without regard to the presence of other risks. Finally, the author analyzes the public’s tendency to push toward zero risk tolerance, an extremist approach that leads to unreasonable restrictions on technologies, excessive regulatory compliance costs, and the ultimate loss of goods and services. With detailed explanations and illustrative case studies, Radiation Risks in Perspective offers scientists, lawyers, engineers, policy makers, and public health professionals, the skills they need for a rational evaluation of risk.

Blast Waves

Author: Charles E. Needham
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642052880
Format: PDF, Docs
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As an editor of the international scienti?c journal Shock Waves, I was asked whether I might document some of my experience and knowledge in the ?eld of blast waves. I began an outline for a book on the basis of a short course that I had been teaching for several years. I added to the outline, ?lling in details and including recent devel- ments, especially in the subjects of height of burst curves and nonideal explosives. At a recent meeting of the International Symposium on the Interaction of Shock Waves, I was asked to write the book I had said I was working on. As a senior advisor to a group working on computational ?uid dynamics, I found that I was repeating many useful rules and conservation laws as new people came into the group. The transfer of knowledge was hit and miss as questions arose during the normal work day. Although I had developed a short course on blast waves, it was not practical to teach the full course every time a new member was added to the group. This was suf?cient incentive for me to undertake the writing of this book. I cut my work schedule to part time for two years while writing the book. This allowed me to remain heavily involved in ongoing and leading edge work in hydrodynamics while documenting this somewhat historical perspective on blast waves.

Pollutants Human Health and the Environment

Author: Jane A. Plant
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470742607
Format: PDF, ePub
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Pollutants, Human Health and the Environment is a comprehensive, up-to-date overview of environmental pollutants that are of current concern to human health. Clearly structured throughout, the main body of the book is divided by pollutant type with a chapter devoted to each group of pollutants. Each chapter follows a similar format to facilitate comparison and discussion. For each pollutant, the authors describe the sources, pathways, environmental fate and sinks as well as known toxicological effects. Importantly, the second chapter on heavy metals and other inorganic substances deals with trace element deficiencies which can have serious problems for human health. Some rocks and soils are naturally low in some trace elements and intensive agriculture over the past half century has effectively mined many trace elements reducing their levels in soils and crops. The final chapter is a discussion about the various risk assessment frameworks and regulations covering the main pollutants. Comprehensive, up-to-date coverage of environmental pollutants of concern to human health Clearly divided into pollutant type with each chapter devoted to a different pollutant group Clearly structured throughout with the same format for each chapter to help facilitate comparison and discussion and enable readers to prioritise chemicals of concern Description of the sources, pathways, environmental fate and known toxicological effect Includes contributions from leading researchers and edited by a team of experts in the field