Rapid Assessment Process

Author: James Beebe
Publisher: Rowman Altamira
ISBN: 9780759100121
Format: PDF
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Rapid Assessment Process is the first introduction to the RAP group of ethnographic methods and techniques that provide field-based research findings for policymakers and program planners. Prepared by an international development professional, it provides clear guidelines on producing high quality research in a fraction of the time taken by traditional ethnography. Visit our website for sample chapters!

School Bond Success

Author: Carleton R. Holt
Publisher: R&L Education
ISBN: 1607091682
Format: PDF
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Many school buildings across America are falling apart due to age or lack of maintenance. Others are outmoded and do not meet the needs of modern educational programs and curricula. Unfortunately, school administrators and boards of education have found it increasingly difficult to obtain the funding necessary to correct facility problems in their districts. However help is at hand in the third edition of a popular title originally published in 1999. Holt updates the status of school facilities in the U.S. and provides new information on the relationship between school climate and student achievement. New to this edition is a discussion of the importance of technology in school bond issues and construction. The nuts and bolts of securing the funding for facility construction, a component of the building process usually overlooked in training administrators, are clearly outlined in chapters that begin with a look at the problem of aging schools and follow through the planning and project development phasesto the bond campaign and election day. Filled with tips, checklists, and insights on the details from experienced school leaders, this is the perfect guide to consult every step on the way to victory.

Encyclopedia of Social Measurement Kimberly Kempf Leonard

Author: Elsevier Science, Inc
Publisher: Bukupedia
ISBN:
Format: PDF, Docs
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Preface Methodology . . . [has] developed as a bent of mind rather than as a system of organized principles and procedures. The methodologist is a scholar who is above all analytical in his approach to his subject matter. He tells other scholars what they have done, or might do, rather than what they should do. He tells them what order of finding has emerged from their research, not what kind of result is or is not preferable. This kind of analytical approach requires self-awareness on the one hand, and tolerance, on the other. The methodologist knows that the same goal can be reached by alternative roads. (Lazarsfeld and Rosenberg, 1955, p. 4) In the social sciences we use methodology to try to answer questions about how and why people behave as they do. Some types of behavior are very common or routine, while others happen rarely or only in certain situations. When you realize that every conceivable type of behavior is within the realm of possible subjects for us to study, you can begin to appreciate the scope of social science. Beyond identifying human activities and the boundaries in which they occur, social scientists also want to explain why behaviors happen. In looking for causes, social scientists pursue all dimensions of the social world. We look at personal traits of individuals, characteristics of interactions between people, and contextual features of the communities and cultures in which they live. We study people who lived in the past, try to improve the quality of life today, and anticipate what the future will hold. It is difficult to think of a topic that involves people for which a social scientist could not investigate. Given all we do, it is good that there are so many of us. You will find social scientists in university departments as professors of sociology, psychology, anthropology, political science, and economics. You will also find professors of geography, history, philosophy, math, management, planning, finance, journalism, architecture, humanities, and art who are social scientists. Even this multidisciplinary list is not exhaustive. There are important and prevalent social science investigations that influence decisionmaking in the world outside of universities too. Social scientists are world-wide and work in all branches of government, large and small organizations, and many types of businesses. Daily life for most people is influenced by social science research in marketing, insurance, and government. However, not everyone in these positions is a social scientist; the distinction involves scientific inquiry, or the approach used to try to answer questions about behavior. As the definition cited above conveys, good science includes tolerance and appreciation for many methodological paths. This encyclopedia of social science methodology provides 356 entries written by social scientists about what they do. The entries in this encyclopedia cover many forms of measurement used by social scientists to study behavior. Eleven substantive sections delineate social sciences and the research processes they follow to measure and provide knowledge on a wide range of topics. The encyclopedia has an extensive index too, because many topics include issues that are relevant in more than one section. From many perspectives and strategies, these volumes describe the research questions social scientists ask, the sources and methods they use to collect information, and the techniques they use to analyze these data and provide answers to the important questions. Each section includes entries that address important components of quantitative and qualitative research methods, which are dissected and illustrated with examples from diverse fields of study. The articles convey research basics in sufficient detail to explain even the most complicated statistical technique, and references for additional information are noted for each topic. Most entries describe actual research experiences to illustrate both the realm of possibilities and the potential challenges that might be encountered. Some entries describe major contributions and the social scientists who made them. The authors are accomplished methodologists in their fields of study. They explain the steps necessary to accomplish the measurement goals, as well as provide their practical advice for ways in which to overcome the likely obstacles. Collectively, the entries in this encyclopedia also convey thatno singleapproach, type of data, or technique of analysis reigns supreme. Indeed, plenty of disagreements exist among social scientists about what constitutes the ‘‘best’’ measurement strategy. Often distinctions are made between quantitative and qualitative methodologies, or are xli discipline-specific. Some preferences can be linked to a specific field of study or research topic; others, related to time and location, coincide with how new ideas and advances in technology are shared. Sometimes we don’t even agree on what is the appropriate question we should try to answer! Although our views differ on what is ideal, and even on what are the appropriate standards for assessing measurement quality, social scientists generally do agree that the following five issues should be considered: 1. We agree on the need to be clear about the scope and purpose of our pursuits. The benchmarks for evaluating success differ depending on whether our intent is to describe, explain, or predict and whether we focus extensively on a single subject or case (e.g., person, family, organization, or culture) or more generally on patterns among many cases. 2. We agree on the need to make assurances for the ethical treatment of the people we study. 3. We agree on the need to be aware of potential sources of measurement error associated with our study design, data collection, and techniques of analysis. 4. We agree it is important to understand the extent to which our research is a reliable and valid measure of what we contend. Our measures are reliable if they are consistent with what others would have found in the same circumstances. If our measures also are consistent with those from different research circumstances, for example in studies of other behaviors or with alternate measurement strategies, then such replication helps us to be confident about the quality of our efforts. Sometimes we’d like the results of our study to extend beyond the people and behavior we observed. This focus on a wider applicability for our measures involves the issue of generalizability. When we’re concerned about an accurate portrayal of reality, we use tools to assess validity. When we don’t agree about the adequacy of the tools we use to assess validity, sometimes the source of our disagreements is different views on scientific objectivity. 5. We also agree that objectivity merits consideration, although we don’t agree on the role of objectivity or our capabilities to be objective in our research. Some social scientists contend that our inquiries must be objective to have credibility. In a contrasting view of social science, or epistemology, objectivity is not possible and, according to some, not preferable. Given that we study people and are human ourselves, it is important that we recognize that life experiences necessarily shape the lens through which people see reality. Besides a lack of consensus within the social sciences, other skeptics challenge our measures and methods. In what some recently have labeled ‘‘the science wars,’’ external critics contend that social scientists suffer ‘‘physics envy’’ and that human behavior is not amenable to scientific investigation. Social scientists have responded to ‘‘antiscience’’ sentiments from the very beginning, such as Emile Durkhiem’s efforts in the 19th century to identify ‘‘social facts.’’ As entertaining as some of the debates and mudslinging can be, they are unlikely to be resolved anytime soon, if ever. One reason that Lazarsfeld and Rosenberg contend that tolerance and appreciation for different methodological pathways make for better science is that no individual scientist can have expertise in all the available options.Werecognize this now more than ever, as multidisciplinary teams and collaborations between scientists with diverse methodological expertise are commonplace, and even required by some sources of research funding. Meanwhile, people who can be our research subjects continue to behave in ways that intrigue, new strategies are proffered to reduce social problems and make life better, and the tool kits or arsenals available to social scientists continue to grow. The entries in these volumes provide useful information about how to accomplish social measurement and standards or ‘‘rules of thumb.’’ As you learn these standards, keep in mind the following advice from one of my favorite methodologists: ‘‘Avoid the fallacy fallacy. When a theorist or methodologist tells you you cannot do something, do it anyway. Breaking rules can be fun!’’ Hirschi (1973, pp. 1712). In my view nothing could be more fun than contemporary social science, and I hope this encyclopedia will inspire even more social science inquiry! In preparing this encyclopedia the goal has been to compile entries that cover the entire spectrum of measurement approaches, methods of data collection, and techniques of analysis used by social scientists in their efforts to understand all sorts of behaviors. The goal of this project was ambitious, and to the extent that the encyclopedia is successful there are many to people to thank. Myfirst thank you goes to the members of the Executive Advisory Board and theEditorial Advisory Board who helpedmeto identify my own biased views about social science and hopefully to achieve greater tolerance and appreciation. These scientists helped identify the ideal measurement topics, locate the experts and convince them to be authors, review drafts of the articles, and make the difficult recommendations required by time and space considerations as the project came to a close. My second thank you goes to the many authors of these 356 entries. Collectively, these scholars represent well the methodological status of social science today. Third, I thank the many reviewers whose generous recommendations improved the final product. In particular I extend my personal thanks to colleagues at the University of Texas at Dallas, many of whom participated in large and small roles in this project, and all of whomhave helpedme to broaden my appreciation of social xlii Preface measurement. Finally, I thank Scott Bentley, Kirsten Funk, Kristi Anderson, and their colleagues at Elsevier for the opportunity and their encouragement when the tasks seemed overwhelming. Scott’s insights to the possibilities of a project such as this and the administrative prowess of both Kirsten and Kristi helped make this a reality. Good science is a cumulative process, and we hope this project will be ongoing and always improving. Despite our best efforts to identify topics and authors, sometimes we failed. If you have suggestions, criticisms, or information worth considering, I hope you will let me know. Hirschi, Travis (1973). Procedural rules and the study of deviant behavior. Social Problems 21(2), 159173. Lazarsfeld, Paul and Morris Rosenberg (1955). The Language of Social Research. The Free Press, New York. KIMBERLY KEMPF-LEONARD

Guide Pour L laboration Des Comptes Nationaux de la Sant

Author: World Health Organization
Publisher: World Health Organization
ISBN: 9789241546072
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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National health accounts are a key practical tool for policy-makers interested in evaluating and restructuring their nation's health care financing and assessing financial interventions to improve people's health. This publication provides guidance in developing socioeconomic information to help establish a framework for national health accounts, including defining health expenditure, acquiring and evaluating data, non-survey data sources, using surveys, estimation procedures and financing agents.

The SAGE Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods

Author: Lisa M. Given
Publisher: SAGE Publications
ISBN: 1452265895
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Qualitative research is designed to explore the human elements of a given topic, while specific qualitative methods examine how individuals see and experience the world. Qualitative approaches are typically used to explore new phenomena and to capture individuals' thoughts, feelings, or interpretations of meaning and process. Such methods are central to research conducted in education, nursing, sociology, anthropology, information studies, and other disciplines in the humanities, social sciences, and health sciences. Qualitative research projects are informed by a wide range of methodologies and theoretical frameworks. The SAGE Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods presents current and complete information as well as ready-to-use techniques, facts, and examples from the field of qualitative research in a very accessible style. In taking an interdisciplinary approach, these two volumes target a broad audience and fill a gap in the existing reference literature for a general guide to the core concepts that inform qualitative research practices. The entries cover every major facet of qualitative methods, including access to research participants, data coding, research ethics, the role of theory in qualitative research, and much more—all without overwhelming the informed reader. Key Features Defines and explains core concepts, describes the techniques involved in the implementation of qualitative methods, and presents an overview of qualitative approaches to research Offers many entries that point to substantive debates among qualitative researchers regarding how concepts are labeled and the implications of such labels for how qualitative research is valued Guides readers through the complex landscape of the language of qualitative inquiry Includes contributors from various countries and disciplines that reflect a diverse spectrum of research approaches from more traditional, positivist approaches, through postmodern, constructionist ones Presents some entries written in first-person voice and others in third-person voice to reflect the diversity of approaches that define qualitative work Key Themes Approaches and Methodologies Arts-Based Research, Ties to Computer Software Data Analysis Data Collection Data Types and Characteristics Dissemination History of Qualitative Research Participants Quantitative Research, Ties to Research Ethics Rigor Textual Analysis, Ties to Theoretical and Philosophical Frameworks The SAGE Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods is designed to appeal to undergraduate and graduate students, practitioners, researchers, consultants, and consumers of information across the social sciences, humanities, and health sciences, making it a welcome addition to any academic or public library.

21st European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering

Author: E. N. Pistikopoulos
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 044453895X
Format: PDF, ePub
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The European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering (ESCAPE) series presents the latest innovations and achievements of leading professionals from the industrial and academic communities. The ESCAPE series serves as a forum for engineers, scientists, researchers, managers and students to present and discuss progress being made in the area of Computer Aided Process Engineering (CAPE). European industries large and small are bringing innovations into our lives, whether in the form of new technologies to address environmental problems, new products to make our homes more comfortable and energy efficient or new therapies to improve the health and well-being of European citizens. Moreover, the European Industry needs to undertake research and technological initiatives in response to humanity's "Grand Challenges", described in the declaration of Lund, namely, Global Warming, Tightening Supplies of Energy, Water and Food, Ageing Societies, Public Health, Pandemics and Security. Thus, the Technical Theme of ESCAPE 21 will be "Process Systems Approaches for Addressing Grand Challenges in Energy, Environment, Health, Bioprocessing & Nanotechnologies".

Rapid Assessment of Water Availability and Appropriate Technologies

Author: Andrew Keller
Publisher: IWMI
ISBN: 9290907894
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Limited access to water is a key reason why millions of poor farmers struggle to grow enough food and marketable crops to improve their lives. Public sector agencies, civil society organizations and donors seeking to improve small-scale farmers’ access to water resources face limited data on the location and accessibility of water resources. This paper addresses this gap by providing a tested method to assess water resources that small-scale farmers can access affordably and sustainably. This paper also supports the selection of appropriate water access and application technologies for available water resources. The method described is rapid and relatively inexpensive; it uses a phased approach to assess a broad-scale area (e.g., a country or region); and then gathers more information in locations that have higher potential for affordable water access by small-scale farmers.

Physical Methods for Microorganisms Detection

Author: Wilfred H. Nelson
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780849341403
Format: PDF
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This volume presents detection and identification methods for bacteria and yeast. Chapters are written by expert laboratory practitioners and instrument makers and focuses on those methods that show widespread practical application, such as ATP luminescence. Food applications include rapid detection and quantitation of bacteria in raw milk, pasteurized milk, other dairy products, and raw meat. Other topics include brewing applications for beverages, starter culture monitoring, clinical analyses, blood and urine analysis procedures, analysis of aerosols, bioprocess safety, and biodeterioration. This book is a must for microbiologists in food quality labs and clinical labs.

Rapid Qualitative Inquiry

Author: James Beebe
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 0759123217
Format: PDF, Kindle
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An accessible field guide to Rapid Qualitative Inquiry (RQI)—a team-based, applied research method designed to quickly develop an insider’s perspective on and preliminary understanding of complicated situations.