Rapid Assessment Process

Author: James Beebe
Publisher: Rowman Altamira
ISBN: 9780759100121
Format: PDF
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Rapid Assessment Process is the first introduction to the RAP group of ethnographic methods and techniques that provide field-based research findings for policymakers and program planners. Prepared by an international development professional, it provides clear guidelines on producing high quality research in a fraction of the time taken by traditional ethnography. Visit our website for sample chapters!

Rapid Qualitative Inquiry

Author: James Beebe
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
ISBN: 9780759123199
Format: PDF, ePub
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Practitioners in need of timely results for program and policy planning and students looking for realistic research projects will find solutions in Rapid Qualitative Inquiry (RQI), a team-based, applied research method designed to quickly develop an insider s perspective on and preliminary understanding of complicated on-the-ground situations. In this accessible field guide to RQI, James Beebe provides an introduction to research that substitutes teamwork for long-term fieldwork; uses iterative data collection, data analysis, and additional data collection; triangulates data from multiple sources; and applies techniques and concepts from ethnography and case study research. Extensive examples make clear that rapid does not mean rushed and that rigorous RQI depends upon flexibility rather than an arbitrary list of techniques. Throughout, Beebe s clear prose guides interdisciplinary readers through the process, promise, and potential pitfalls of RQI."

Functional Assessment of Wetlands

Author: E. Maltby
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 184569516X
Format: PDF
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Wetlands perform functions that deliver benefits to society, often referred to as ecosystem services. These ecosystem services include water supply, flood regulation, water purification, climate regulation, biodiversity, agriculture (e.g. grazing land), and amenity. A functional approach to wetland assessment enables a holistic view to be taken of the wide range of services wetlands can provide. The functional assessment procedures (FAPs) in this volume translate best available scientific knowledge into reasonable predictions of how component parts of wetlands function in different landscape contexts. They can be used to indicate the potential and priorities for management options in such areas as flood control, pollution reduction and biodiversity conservation. Functional assessment enables the user to predict the functioning of a wetland area without the need for comprehensive and expensive empirical research The FAPs therefore provide a methodology that can be used by both experts and non-experts to assess wetland functioning relatively rapidly. The volume includes an electronic version of the FAPs on CD which automates aspects of the assessment once the initial recording stage is completed. It is anticipated that the FAPs will be used by a range of individuals or organisations concerned with wetland management who wish to gain a better understanding of the processes, functions, services or benefits and potential of the wetlands for which they have responsibility. Provides a systematic methodology to evaluate how wetlands function Allows non-experts to assess wetland functioning rapidly and cost-effectively Automates aspects of the functional assessment through the accompanying CD-ROM

Rapid Sensory Profiling Techniques

Author: J Delarue
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1782422587
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Sensory analysis is an important tool in new product development. There has recently been significant development in the methods used to capture sensory perception of a product. Rapid Sensory Profiling Techniques provides a comprehensive review of rapid methods for sensory analysis that can be used as alternatives or complementary to conventional descriptive methods. Part one looks at the evolution of sensory perception capture methods. Part two focuses on rapid methods used to capture sensory perception, and part three covers their applications in new product development and consumer research. Finally, part four explores the applications of rapid methods in testing specific populations.

Lean Rapid and Profitable New Product Development

Author: Robert G. Cooper
Publisher: Stage-Gate International
ISBN: 1439224609
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Although many companies have introduced product innovation processes, they are still struggling to achieve the financial results they expected. This book shows how to properly balance the need for speed with the drive for profitability. It demonstrates how to maximize the value of a new product portfolio, how to streamline the product innovation process, and how to achieve growth that is both profitable and sustainable. New product success is not simply about developing new products that sell; it's about getting them to market quickly with the lowest cost and the highest return. Dr. Robert G. Cooper and Dr. Scott J. Edgett use their latest research and draw upon their combined 60 years of experience in the field to show you what the companies that continuously win at new products are doing. Top performers have discovered how to properly balance the need for speed with profitability. With a new process they call NexGen(TM) Stage-Gate(R), Dr. Cooper and Dr. Edgett show precisely how you can ensure that your innovation is not only lean and rapid but profitable as well. For more information, visit: www.stage-gate.com

School Bond Success

Author: Carleton R. Holt
Publisher: R&L Education
ISBN: 1607091682
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Many school buildings across America are falling apart due to age or lack of maintenance. Others are outmoded and do not meet the needs of modern educational programs and curricula. Unfortunately, school administrators and boards of education have found it increasingly difficult to obtain the funding necessary to correct facility problems in their districts. However help is at hand in the third edition of a popular title originally published in 1999. Holt updates the status of school facilities in the U.S. and provides new information on the relationship between school climate and student achievement. New to this edition is a discussion of the importance of technology in school bond issues and construction. The nuts and bolts of securing the funding for facility construction, a component of the building process usually overlooked in training administrators, are clearly outlined in chapters that begin with a look at the problem of aging schools and follow through the planning and project development phasesto the bond campaign and election day. Filled with tips, checklists, and insights on the details from experienced school leaders, this is the perfect guide to consult every step on the way to victory.

The SAGE Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods

Author: Lisa M. Given
Publisher: SAGE Publications
ISBN: 1452265895
Format: PDF, ePub
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Qualitative research is designed to explore the human elements of a given topic, while specific qualitative methods examine how individuals see and experience the world. Qualitative approaches are typically used to explore new phenomena and to capture individuals' thoughts, feelings, or interpretations of meaning and process. Such methods are central to research conducted in education, nursing, sociology, anthropology, information studies, and other disciplines in the humanities, social sciences, and health sciences. Qualitative research projects are informed by a wide range of methodologies and theoretical frameworks. The SAGE Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods presents current and complete information as well as ready-to-use techniques, facts, and examples from the field of qualitative research in a very accessible style. In taking an interdisciplinary approach, these two volumes target a broad audience and fill a gap in the existing reference literature for a general guide to the core concepts that inform qualitative research practices. The entries cover every major facet of qualitative methods, including access to research participants, data coding, research ethics, the role of theory in qualitative research, and much more—all without overwhelming the informed reader. Key Features Defines and explains core concepts, describes the techniques involved in the implementation of qualitative methods, and presents an overview of qualitative approaches to research Offers many entries that point to substantive debates among qualitative researchers regarding how concepts are labeled and the implications of such labels for how qualitative research is valued Guides readers through the complex landscape of the language of qualitative inquiry Includes contributors from various countries and disciplines that reflect a diverse spectrum of research approaches from more traditional, positivist approaches, through postmodern, constructionist ones Presents some entries written in first-person voice and others in third-person voice to reflect the diversity of approaches that define qualitative work Key Themes Approaches and Methodologies Arts-Based Research, Ties to Computer Software Data Analysis Data Collection Data Types and Characteristics Dissemination History of Qualitative Research Participants Quantitative Research, Ties to Research Ethics Rigor Textual Analysis, Ties to Theoretical and Philosophical Frameworks The SAGE Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods is designed to appeal to undergraduate and graduate students, practitioners, researchers, consultants, and consumers of information across the social sciences, humanities, and health sciences, making it a welcome addition to any academic or public library.

Qualitative Research Methods for Psychologists

Author: Constance T. Fischer
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080454127
Format: PDF, Docs
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Qualitative Research Methods for Psychologists is a collection of 14 original articles that teaches readers how to conduct qualitative research. Instead of characterizing and justifying certain methods, the contributors show by means of actual research studies what assumptions, procedures, and dilemmas they encountered. Fischer's introduction, which emphasizes the practical nature of qualitative research and the closing chapter, which uses a question-and-answer format to investigate, among other subjects, what is scientific about qualitative research, are complemented by a glossary and other features that increase the book's utility and value. Addresses a range of practical examples from different traditions such as phenomology, grounded theory, ethnography and discourse analysis through actual case studies Discusses various methodology and combinations of methods like assimilation analysis, dialogal approach, intuitive inquiry, and conceptual encounter Terms are defined within chapters and/or in a glossary Helps readers bridge from experimental to qualitative methods Provides in-depth, philosophically grounded, and compelling research findings Includes practical introduction about steps in qualitative research

Encyclopedia of Social Measurement Kimberly Kempf Leonard

Author: Elsevier Science, Inc
Publisher: Bukupedia
ISBN:
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Preface Methodology . . . [has] developed as a bent of mind rather than as a system of organized principles and procedures. The methodologist is a scholar who is above all analytical in his approach to his subject matter. He tells other scholars what they have done, or might do, rather than what they should do. He tells them what order of finding has emerged from their research, not what kind of result is or is not preferable. This kind of analytical approach requires self-awareness on the one hand, and tolerance, on the other. The methodologist knows that the same goal can be reached by alternative roads. (Lazarsfeld and Rosenberg, 1955, p. 4) In the social sciences we use methodology to try to answer questions about how and why people behave as they do. Some types of behavior are very common or routine, while others happen rarely or only in certain situations. When you realize that every conceivable type of behavior is within the realm of possible subjects for us to study, you can begin to appreciate the scope of social science. Beyond identifying human activities and the boundaries in which they occur, social scientists also want to explain why behaviors happen. In looking for causes, social scientists pursue all dimensions of the social world. We look at personal traits of individuals, characteristics of interactions between people, and contextual features of the communities and cultures in which they live. We study people who lived in the past, try to improve the quality of life today, and anticipate what the future will hold. It is difficult to think of a topic that involves people for which a social scientist could not investigate. Given all we do, it is good that there are so many of us. You will find social scientists in university departments as professors of sociology, psychology, anthropology, political science, and economics. You will also find professors of geography, history, philosophy, math, management, planning, finance, journalism, architecture, humanities, and art who are social scientists. Even this multidisciplinary list is not exhaustive. There are important and prevalent social science investigations that influence decisionmaking in the world outside of universities too. Social scientists are world-wide and work in all branches of government, large and small organizations, and many types of businesses. Daily life for most people is influenced by social science research in marketing, insurance, and government. However, not everyone in these positions is a social scientist; the distinction involves scientific inquiry, or the approach used to try to answer questions about behavior. As the definition cited above conveys, good science includes tolerance and appreciation for many methodological paths. This encyclopedia of social science methodology provides 356 entries written by social scientists about what they do. The entries in this encyclopedia cover many forms of measurement used by social scientists to study behavior. Eleven substantive sections delineate social sciences and the research processes they follow to measure and provide knowledge on a wide range of topics. The encyclopedia has an extensive index too, because many topics include issues that are relevant in more than one section. From many perspectives and strategies, these volumes describe the research questions social scientists ask, the sources and methods they use to collect information, and the techniques they use to analyze these data and provide answers to the important questions. Each section includes entries that address important components of quantitative and qualitative research methods, which are dissected and illustrated with examples from diverse fields of study. The articles convey research basics in sufficient detail to explain even the most complicated statistical technique, and references for additional information are noted for each topic. Most entries describe actual research experiences to illustrate both the realm of possibilities and the potential challenges that might be encountered. Some entries describe major contributions and the social scientists who made them. The authors are accomplished methodologists in their fields of study. They explain the steps necessary to accomplish the measurement goals, as well as provide their practical advice for ways in which to overcome the likely obstacles. Collectively, the entries in this encyclopedia also convey thatno singleapproach, type of data, or technique of analysis reigns supreme. Indeed, plenty of disagreements exist among social scientists about what constitutes the ‘‘best’’ measurement strategy. Often distinctions are made between quantitative and qualitative methodologies, or are xli discipline-specific. Some preferences can be linked to a specific field of study or research topic; others, related to time and location, coincide with how new ideas and advances in technology are shared. Sometimes we don’t even agree on what is the appropriate question we should try to answer! Although our views differ on what is ideal, and even on what are the appropriate standards for assessing measurement quality, social scientists generally do agree that the following five issues should be considered: 1. We agree on the need to be clear about the scope and purpose of our pursuits. The benchmarks for evaluating success differ depending on whether our intent is to describe, explain, or predict and whether we focus extensively on a single subject or case (e.g., person, family, organization, or culture) or more generally on patterns among many cases. 2. We agree on the need to make assurances for the ethical treatment of the people we study. 3. We agree on the need to be aware of potential sources of measurement error associated with our study design, data collection, and techniques of analysis. 4. We agree it is important to understand the extent to which our research is a reliable and valid measure of what we contend. Our measures are reliable if they are consistent with what others would have found in the same circumstances. If our measures also are consistent with those from different research circumstances, for example in studies of other behaviors or with alternate measurement strategies, then such replication helps us to be confident about the quality of our efforts. Sometimes we’d like the results of our study to extend beyond the people and behavior we observed. This focus on a wider applicability for our measures involves the issue of generalizability. When we’re concerned about an accurate portrayal of reality, we use tools to assess validity. When we don’t agree about the adequacy of the tools we use to assess validity, sometimes the source of our disagreements is different views on scientific objectivity. 5. We also agree that objectivity merits consideration, although we don’t agree on the role of objectivity or our capabilities to be objective in our research. Some social scientists contend that our inquiries must be objective to have credibility. In a contrasting view of social science, or epistemology, objectivity is not possible and, according to some, not preferable. Given that we study people and are human ourselves, it is important that we recognize that life experiences necessarily shape the lens through which people see reality. Besides a lack of consensus within the social sciences, other skeptics challenge our measures and methods. In what some recently have labeled ‘‘the science wars,’’ external critics contend that social scientists suffer ‘‘physics envy’’ and that human behavior is not amenable to scientific investigation. Social scientists have responded to ‘‘antiscience’’ sentiments from the very beginning, such as Emile Durkhiem’s efforts in the 19th century to identify ‘‘social facts.’’ As entertaining as some of the debates and mudslinging can be, they are unlikely to be resolved anytime soon, if ever. One reason that Lazarsfeld and Rosenberg contend that tolerance and appreciation for different methodological pathways make for better science is that no individual scientist can have expertise in all the available options.Werecognize this now more than ever, as multidisciplinary teams and collaborations between scientists with diverse methodological expertise are commonplace, and even required by some sources of research funding. Meanwhile, people who can be our research subjects continue to behave in ways that intrigue, new strategies are proffered to reduce social problems and make life better, and the tool kits or arsenals available to social scientists continue to grow. The entries in these volumes provide useful information about how to accomplish social measurement and standards or ‘‘rules of thumb.’’ As you learn these standards, keep in mind the following advice from one of my favorite methodologists: ‘‘Avoid the fallacy fallacy. When a theorist or methodologist tells you you cannot do something, do it anyway. Breaking rules can be fun!’’ Hirschi (1973, pp. 1712). In my view nothing could be more fun than contemporary social science, and I hope this encyclopedia will inspire even more social science inquiry! In preparing this encyclopedia the goal has been to compile entries that cover the entire spectrum of measurement approaches, methods of data collection, and techniques of analysis used by social scientists in their efforts to understand all sorts of behaviors. The goal of this project was ambitious, and to the extent that the encyclopedia is successful there are many to people to thank. Myfirst thank you goes to the members of the Executive Advisory Board and theEditorial Advisory Board who helpedmeto identify my own biased views about social science and hopefully to achieve greater tolerance and appreciation. These scientists helped identify the ideal measurement topics, locate the experts and convince them to be authors, review drafts of the articles, and make the difficult recommendations required by time and space considerations as the project came to a close. My second thank you goes to the many authors of these 356 entries. Collectively, these scholars represent well the methodological status of social science today. Third, I thank the many reviewers whose generous recommendations improved the final product. In particular I extend my personal thanks to colleagues at the University of Texas at Dallas, many of whom participated in large and small roles in this project, and all of whomhave helpedme to broaden my appreciation of social xlii Preface measurement. Finally, I thank Scott Bentley, Kirsten Funk, Kristi Anderson, and their colleagues at Elsevier for the opportunity and their encouragement when the tasks seemed overwhelming. Scott’s insights to the possibilities of a project such as this and the administrative prowess of both Kirsten and Kristi helped make this a reality. Good science is a cumulative process, and we hope this project will be ongoing and always improving. Despite our best efforts to identify topics and authors, sometimes we failed. If you have suggestions, criticisms, or information worth considering, I hope you will let me know. Hirschi, Travis (1973). Procedural rules and the study of deviant behavior. Social Problems 21(2), 159173. Lazarsfeld, Paul and Morris Rosenberg (1955). The Language of Social Research. The Free Press, New York. KIMBERLY KEMPF-LEONARD

Health Impact Assessment

Author: John Kemm
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 9780198526292
Format: PDF
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This book gives a comprehensive overview of the concepts, theory, techniques and applications of Health Impact Assessment to aid all those preparing projects or carrying out assessments. It draws on examples and thinking from many different disciplines and many parts of the world. This is the first easily accessible book, which reviews the whole field. It is likely to become the standard reference for HIA and the first place that anyone seeking to learn about the subject will turn.