Re Thinking Time at the Interface of Physics and Philosophy

Author: Albrecht von Müller
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319104462
Format: PDF
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The current volume of the Parmenides Series “On Thinking” addresses our deepest and most personal experience of the world, the experience of “the present,” from a modern perspective combining physics and philosophy. Many prominent researchers have contributed articles to the volume, in which they present models and express their opinions on and, in some cases, also their skepticism about the subject and how it may be (or may not be) addressed, as well as which aspects they consider most relevant in this context. While Einstein might have once hoped that “the present” would find its place in the theory of general relativity, in a later discussion with Carnap he expressed his disappointment that he was never able to achieve this goal. This collection of articles provides a unique overview of different modern approaches, representing not only a valuable summary for experts, but also a nearly inexhaustible source of profound and novel ideas for those who are simply interested in this question.

Collapse of the Wave Function

Author: Shan Gao
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1108428983
Format: PDF, ePub
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An overview of the collapse theories of quantum mechanics. Written by distinguished physicists and philosophers of physics, it discusses the origin and implications of wave-function collapse, the controversies around collapse models and their ontologies, and new arguments for the reality of wave function collapse.

Concept and Formalization of Constellatory Self Unfolding

Author: Albrecht von Müller
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319897764
Format: PDF
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This volume offers a fundamentally different way of conceptualizing time and reality. Today, we see time predominantly as the linear-sequential order of events, and reality accordingly as consisting of facts that can be ordered along sequential time. But what if this conceptualization has us mistaking the “exhausts” for the “real thing”, i.e. if we miss the best, the actual taking place of reality as it occurs in a very differently structured, primordial form of time, the time-space of the present? In this new conceptual framework, both the sequential aspect of time and the factual aspect of reality are emergent phenomena that come into being only after reality has actually taken place. In the new view, facts are just the “traces” that the actual taking place of reality leaves behind on the co-emergent “canvas’’ of local spacetime. Local spacetime itself emerges only as facts come into being – and only facts can be adequately localized in it. But, how does reality then actually occur? It is conceived as a “constellatory self-unfolding”, characterized by strong self-referentiality, and taking place in the primordial form of time, the not yet sequentially structured “time-space of the present”. Time is seen here as an ontophainetic platform, i.e. as the stage on which reality can first occur. This view of time (and, thus, also space) seems to be very much in accordance with what we encounter in quantum physics before the so-called collapse of the wave function. In parallel, classical and relativistic physics largely operate within the factual portrait of reality, and the sequential aspect of time, respectively. Only singularities constitute an important exemption: here the canvas of local spacetime – that emerged together with factization – melts down again. In the novel framework quantum reduction and singularities can be seen and addressed as inverse transitions: In quantum physical state reduction reality “gains” the chrono-ontological format of facticity, and the sequential aspect of time becomes applicable. In singularities, by contrast, the inverse happens: Reality loses its local spacetime formation and reverts back into its primordial, pre-local shape – making in this way the use of causality relations, Boolean logic and the dichotomization of subject and object obsolete. For our understanding of the relation between quantum and relativistic physics this new view opens up fundamentally new perspectives: Both are legitimate views of time and reality, they just address very different chrono-ontological portraits, and thus should not lead us to erroneously subjugating one view under the other. The task of the book is to provide a formal framework in which this radically different view of time and reality can be addressed properly. The mathematical approach is based on the logical and topological features of the Borromean Rings. It draws upon concepts and methods of algebraic and geometric topology – especially the theory of sheaves and links, group theory, logic and information theory, in relation to the standard constructions employed in quantum mechanics and general relativity, shedding new light on the pestilential problems of their compatibility. The intended audience includes physicists, mathematicians and philosophers with an interest in the conceptual and mathematical foundations of modern physics.

Knowledge and Time

Author: Hans Primas
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319473700
Format: PDF
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This is a unique volume by a unique scientist, which combines conceptual, formal, and engineering approaches in a way that is rarely seen. Its core is the relation between ways of learning and knowing on the one hand and different modes of time on the other. Partial Boolean logic and the associated notion of complementarity are used to express this relation, and mathematical tools of fundamental physics are used to formalize it. Along the way many central philosophical problems are touched and addressed, above all the mind-body problem. Completed only shortly before the death of the author, the text has been edited and annotated by the author's close collaborator Harald Atmanspacher.

Thinking in Time

Author: Suzanne Guerlac
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 1501716972
Format: PDF, Mobi
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"In recent years, we have grown accustomed to philosophical language that is intensely self-conscious and rhetorically thick, often tragic in tone. It is enlivening to read Bergson, who exerts so little rhetorical pressure while exacting such a substantial effort of thought.... Bergson's texts teach the reader to let go of entrenched intellectual habits and to begin to think differently—to think in time.... Too much and too little have been said about Bergson. Too much, because of the various appropriations of his thought. Too little, because the work itself has not been carefully studied in recent decades."—from Thinking in Time Henri Bergson (1859–1941), whose philosophical works emphasized motion, time, and change, won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1927. His work remains influential, particularly in the realms of philosophy, cultural studies, and new media studies. In Thinking in Time, Suzanne Guerlac provides readers with the conceptual and contextual tools necessary for informed appreciation of Bergson's work. Guerlac's straightforward philosophical expositions of two Bergson texts, Time and Free Will (1888) and Matter and Memory (1896), focus on the notions of duration and memory—concepts that are central to the philosopher's work. Thinking in Time makes plain that it is well worth learning how to read Bergson effectively: his era and our own share important concerns. Bergson's insistence on the opposition between the automatic and the voluntary and his engagement with the notions of "the living," affect, and embodiment are especially germane to discussions of electronic culture.

Physics and Whitehead

Author: Timothy E. Eastman
Publisher: SUNY Press
ISBN: 0791485994
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Leading scholars explore the connections between quantum physics and process philosophy.

The Message of Quantum Science

Author: Philippe Blanchard
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3662464225
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This collection of essays is above all intended to pay tribute to the fact that while QM today is a refined and incredibly successful instrument, many issues concerning the internal consistency and the interpretation of this theory are still not nearly as well understood as they ought to be. In addition, whenever possible these essays take the opportunity to link foundational issues to the many exciting developments that are often linked to major experimental and technological breakthroughs in exploiting the electromagnetic field and in particular, its quantum properties and its interactions with matter, as well as to advances in solid state physics (such as new quantum Hall liquids, topological insulators and graphene). The present volume also focuses on various areas, including new interference experiments with very large molecules passing through double-slits, which test the validity of the Kochen-Specker theorem; new tests of the violation of Bell’s inequalities and the consequences of entanglement; new non-demolition measurements and tests of “wave-function collapse” to name but a few. These experimental developments have raised many challenging questions for theorists, leading to a new surge of interest in the foundations of QM, which have puzzled physicists ever since this theory was pioneered almost ninety years ago. The outcome of a seminar program of the same name on foundational issues in quantum physics (QM), organized by the editors of this book and addressing newcomers to the field and more seasoned specialists alike, this volume provides a pedagogically inspired snapshot view of many of the unresolved issues in the field of foundational QM.

A Minimalist Ontology of the Natural World

Author: Michael Esfeld
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351392174
Format: PDF
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This book seeks to work out which commitments are minimally sufficient to obtain an ontology of the natural world that matches all of today’s well-established physical theories. We propose an ontology of the natural world that is defined only by two axioms: (1) There are distance relations that individuate simple objects, namely matter points. (2) The matter points are permanent, with the distances between them changing. Everything else comes in as a means to represent the change in the distance relations in a manner that is both as simple and as informative as possible. The book works this minimalist ontology out in philosophical as well as mathematical terms and shows how one can understand classical mechanics, quantum field theory and relativistic physics on the basis of this ontology. Along the way, we seek to achieve four subsidiary aims: (a) to make a case for a holistic individuation of the basic objects (ontic structural realism); (b) to work out a new version of Humeanism, dubbed Super-Humeanism, that does without natural properties; (c) to set out an ontology of quantum physics that is an alternative to quantum state realism and that avoids any ontological dualism of particles and fields; (d) to vindicate a relationalist ontology based on point objects also in the domain of relativistic physics.

Quantum Physics Fuzzy Sets and Logic

Author: Jarosław Pykacz
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319193848
Format: PDF, ePub
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This Brief presents steps towards elaborating a new interpretation of quantum mechanics based on a specific version of Łukasiewicz infinite-valued logic. It begins with a short survey of main interpretations of quantum mechanics already proposed, as well as various models of many-valued logics and previous attempts to apply them for the description of quantum phenomena. The prospective many-valued interpretation of quantum mechanics is soundly based on a theorem concerning the isomorphic representation of Birkhoff-von Neumann quantum logic in the form of a special Łukasiewicz infinite-valued logic endowed with partially defined conjunctions and disjunctions.