Reactive Oxygen Species in Biology and Human Health

Author: Shamim I. Ahmad
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1315352648
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Unlike other narrowly focused books, Reactive Oxygen Species in Biology and Human Health provides a comprehensive overview of ROS. It covers the current status of research and provides pointers to future research goals. Additionally, it authoritatively reviews the impact of reactive oxygen species with respect to various human diseases and discusses antioxidants and other compounds that counteract oxidative stress. Comprised of seven sections, the first section describes the introduction, detection, and production of ROS, emphasizing phenolic compounds and vitamin E for their abilities to act as antioxidants. This section also highlights the role of lipoprotein-associated oxidative stress. Section two addresses the importance of iron accumulation in the brain resulting in the development of a group of neurodegenerative disorders (NDs) and identifies several causative genes for neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) associated with Parkinsonism-related disorders. The third section discusses a number of NDs, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), epilepsy, and multiple sclerosis (MS). Section four addresses autoimmune diseases caused by ROS, including asthma, autoimmune liver diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid disease, primary biliary cirrhosis, and systemic lupus. Section five analyzes a number of different cancers, including lung cancer, breast cancer, and melanoma, along with possible treatment regimens. Section six discusses cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) induced by ROS, presents the ROS-associated complex biochemical processes inducing inflammation as an important cause of CVDs, and explains the roles carotenoids play in preventing CVDs. The final section addresses other human diseases induced by oxidative stress, including sickle cell disease, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, retinopathy, fibromyalgia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, pulmonary hypertension, infertility, and aging of human skin.

Free Radicals in Human Health and Disease

Author: Vibha Rani
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 8132220358
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The role of oxidative stress in human disease has become an area of intense interest. Free radicals, a normal product of metabolism, exist in all aerobic cells in balance with biochemical antioxidants. Environmental stress increases the levels of free radicals drastically, thereby disturbing the equilibrium between free radical production and the antioxidant capability causing oxidative stress. Over the years, ROS has been implicated in the pathologies of various diseases like cancer, neurological disorder, cardiovascular diseases rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes etc. This book provides an in depth critical state-of-art reviews from established investigators on free radicals, ROS associated pathogenesis of human diseases, biomarkers of oxidative damage, antioxidants, phytonutrients and other related health concerns of modern society. The present book is aimed at graduate students, researchers in academia, industry and clinicians with the interest in redox biology. Special attention has been devoted to the topic of ROS signalling, oxidative stress induced human pathologies & antioxidative therapies. The book consists of four parts in specified topics based on the current literatures for the better understanding of the readers with respect to their subject-wise interests. The first section of the book provides an overview about the ROS production and their measuring tools and techniques followed by the mechanisms involved in the oxidative stress in the second section. The third section describes the involvement of oxidative stress in different human diseases and the last section focuses on the different strategies to ameliorate oxidative stress induced stress.

Reactive Oxygen Species in Biological Systems An Interdisciplinary Approach

Author: Carol Colton
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0306468069
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) which include free radicals, peroxides, singlet oxygen, ozone, and nitrogen monoxide and dioxide free radicals, is an area of intense research. This volume covers (1) the destruction of cellular function by ROS resulting in pathological states; (2) the protection by ROS of an organism against invading organisms that cause infections; and (3) the role of ROS in normal physiological processes. Designed for beginning graduate students, this book gives a concise overview of the field.

Ultraviolet Light in Human Health Diseases and Environment

Author: Shamim I. Ahmad
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319560174
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book is about the roles and importance of Ultraviolet (UV) light from sun and from man-made UV lamps in our daily life, on health and diseases, also its application in sterilization and treatment. The key words are: reactive oxygen species, DNA damage, UV mutagenicity, skin cancers, polymorphous light eruption, Xeroderma pigmentosum, vitiligo, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndromes, cardiovascular diseases, dermatology, photobiology, photodermatosis, vitamin D synthesis, vitamin D efficiency, water sterilization, blood sterilization, phototherapies, skin tanning and UV dosimeter. The book starts with introduction to UV light and the history of development of UV lamps and its applications. It then moves to describing the interaction of this light with biological components and the production of reactive oxygen species, their roles in cell signaling, cellular defense from foreign invaders, in mutagenesis leading to skin diseases including vitiligo, polymorphous light eruption and various forms of skin cancer. Then it presents the synthesis and importance of UV light and diseases, induced due to the deficiency of vitamin D. Roles of UV light in sterilization, disinfection, phototherapies are depicted in the next part and finally use and abuse of UV light in tanning salon and the availability and importance of use of UV dosimeter are highlighted. The three main focuses of this book are: - Damage to biological systems by UV light leading to certain skin diseases; most importantly skin cancers. - Importance of UV light in the in vivo synthesis of vitamin D when human bodies are exposed to it. - Diseases caused due to the deficiency of vitamin D and the use of UV lamps in phototherapy and sterilization processes. The editor has considerable experience in publishing medical books and has used it critically selecting the matters which will attract the readers from many areas of medical and non-medical fields. It is hoped that the materials presented in this book will give great benefit and will stimulate both novice and expert researchers in the field. The book gives excellent overviews of the current status of research and pointers to the future research achievements. Clinicians, medical general practitioners, technicians and staff working in UV related industries and especially those working in tanning salon should benefit from the information presented in safe handling of this light.

Oxidative Stress and Biomaterials

Author: Thomas Dziubla
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128032707
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Oxidative Stress and Biomaterials provides readers with the latest information on biomaterials and the oxidative stress that can pose an especially troubling challenge to their biocompatibility, especially given the fact that, at the cellular level, the tissue environment is a harsh landscape of precipitating proteins, infiltrating leukocytes, released oxidants, and fluctuations of pH which, even with the slightest shift in stasis, can induce a perpetual state of chronic inflammation. No material is 100% non-inflammatory, non-toxic, non-teratogenic, non-carcinogenic, non-thrombogenic, and non-immunogenic in all biological settings and situations. In this embattled terrain, the most we can hope for from the biomaterials we design is a type of “meso-compatibility, a material which can remain functional and benign for as long as required without succumbing to this cellular onslaught and inducing a local inflammatory reaction. Explores the challenges of designing and using biomaterials in order to minimize oxidative stress, reducing patterns of chronic inflammation and cell death Brings together the two fields of biomaterials and the biology of oxidative stress Provides approaches for the design of biomaterials with improved biocompatibility

Reactive Oxygen Species in Chemistry Biology and Medicine

Author: A. Quintanilha
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1475704178
Format: PDF, ePub
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A NATO Advanced Study Institute on "Oxygen Radicals in Biological Systems: Recent Progress and New Methods of Study" was held in Braga, Portugal between Sep tember 1 and September 14, 1985, in order to consider the basic chemistry and biochem istry of activated oxygen (both radical and non-radical species) and their effect in biolog ical systems. This book summarizes the main lectures given at this meeting. While there is no attempt to cover all the major topics in the expanding subject of oxidative mechanisms in biology, an effort has been made to provide overviews on some key aspects of this field. The authors have attempted to convey a clear picture of both what is known and what remains unclear in their respective subjects. Not only are some of the techniques used for detecting activated oxygen species described, but also their strengths and limi tations. The chemistry of many of these species is discussed and the biological and/or pathological implications are carefully reviewed. The medical and therapeutic aspects of some of the well established pathways of damage and protection are analyzed. It is our hope that the material included in this book might be useful for both researchers and teachers at the graduate level. The success of this meeting was to a large extent due to the tireless committment of Professor Alberto Amaral and Dr. Concei~a:o Rangel; without their outstanding efforts in dealing with all the aspects of the organization, this summer school would not have been possible.

Antioxidant Food Supplements in Human Health

Author: Lester Packer
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080527284
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Antioxidant Food Supplements in Human Health discusses new discoveries in the areas of oxygen and nitric oxide metabolism and pathophysiology, redox regulation and cell signaling, and the identification of natural antioxidants and their mechanisms of action on free radicals and their role in health and disease. An essential resource for researchers, students, and professionals in food science and nutrition, gerontology, physiology, pharmacology, and related areas. Health effects of antioxidant nutrients Nutrients of vitamins C and E, selenium, alpha-lipoic acid, coenzyme Q10, carotenoids, and flavonoids Natural source antioxidants, including pine bark, ginko biloba, wine, herbs,uyaku, and carica papaya

Immunity and Inflammation in Health and Disease

Author: Shampa Chatterjee
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128054026
Format: PDF, Docs
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Immunity and Inflammation in Health and Disease: Emerging Roles of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods in Immune Support provides a comprehensive description of the various pathways by which the vertebrate immune system works, the signals that trigger immune response and how fnew and novel nutraceuticals and functional foods, can be used to contain inflammation and also to boost immunity and immune health. Inflammation is a tool to fight pathogens and the vertebrate immune system has a very complex network of cells to achieve this. However inflammation that goes awry is also the leding cause of several diseases ranging from cardiovascular diseases to diabetes. This book covers the entire gamut from the various cellular players in the inflammation-immune response to its ramifications in terms of protection against pathogens as well as in onset of metabolic, aging and auto-immune related diseases. Finally, the balancing role of dietary nutrients between host defence and immune support is also showcased. The first three scetions explain the various components of the immune system and their modes of activation. The fourth section deals with the ramifications of a robust and execessive inflammatory response. The fifth section is focused on the association between nutrition and immunity and how deficiencies in certain nutrients may affect immunocompetence. The sixth section chapters represent a vision of paradigm shifts within the field and discusses possible future directions. This bool will be a valuable reference for researchers studying immune health either in academia, or in the nutraceutical or functional food industries. Product developers in nutraceutical, supplement, functional food, and health food companies will also appreciate the information presented here. Conceptualizes the key features in natural products which can boost immune function and immune health Explains the intricate mechanistic aspects and balance behind immune health Presents the pathophysiology of several diseases associated with immune system disruption

Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine

Author: Barry Halliwell
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198717474
Format: PDF, Docs
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Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine has become a classic text in the field of free radical and antioxidant research. Now in its fifth edition, the book has been comprehensively rewritten and updated whilst maintaining the clarity of its predecessors. Two new chapters discuss 'in vivo' and 'dietary' antioxidants, the first emphasising the role of peroxiredoxins and integrated defence mechanisms which allow useful roles for ROS, and the second containing new information on the role of fruits, vegetables, and vitamins in health and disease. This new edition also contains expanded coverage of the mechanisms of oxidative damage to lipids, DNA, and proteins (and the repair of such damage), and the roles played by reactive species in signal transduction, cell survival, death, human reproduction, defence mechanisms of animals and plants against pathogens, and other important biological events. The methodologies available to measure reactive species and oxidative damage (and their potential pitfalls) have been fully updated, as have the topics of phagocyte ROS production, NADPH oxidase enzymes, and toxicology. There is a detailed and critical evaluation of the role of free radicals and other reactive species in human diseases, especially cancer, cardiovascular, chronic inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. New aspects of ageing are discussed in the context of the free radical theory of ageing. This book is recommended as a comprehensive introduction to the field for students, educators, clinicians, and researchers. It will also be an invaluable companion to all those interested in the role of free radicals in the life and biomedical sciences.

Synergic Influence of Gaseous Particulate and Biological Pollutants on Human Health

Author: Jozef S. Pastuszka
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1498715125
Format: PDF
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Synergic Influence of Gaseous, Particulate, and Biological Pollutants on Human Health is a unique merger of two divergent parts. The first part is a presentation of the existing knowledge on the characteristics of basic air pollutants and their documented impact on human health. The focus is on the main gaseous, airborne particles (including fiber particles) and biological pollutants. The first part is a literature review conducted by the authors who are actively engaged in studying the described pollutants. The second part contains a study of methods used for the evaluation and prognosis of health effects to exposure to particular pollutants. Most of the chapters of this book go beyond the well-documented, solid facts and contain the authors' own evaluation of the utility and limitations of particular methods, as well as their suggestions for further studies. The reader who manages to wade through this part is sure to understand that the main drawback of the described methods is the impossibility to precisely assess the health effects of exposure to the combination of a few/many air pollutants, while one of the biggest problems is the effect of synergy. The last chapters of the book focus on the attempts to consider the effect of synergy and the analysis of the tedious work of many researchers to construct the tools enabling, to some extent, the prognosis of the health effects of simultaneous exposure to many air pollutants. The book also reveals the synergism of pollutants and social problems, reinforcing the adverse health effect of the population living not only in highly industrialized areas, but also in postindustrial areas. According to the authors, the construction of suitable tools which would at least partially allow for the evaluation of the collective impact of social factors and the conglomerate of the air pollutants on health of particular communities constitutes a great challenge and may inspire the readers to think deeply on this subject. This book is an invaluable volume for air protection professionals and PhD students, environmental engineers, environmental health researchers, and public health policy makers.