Reactive Oxygen Species in Biology and Human Health

Author: Shamim I. Ahmad
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1315352648
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Unlike other narrowly focused books, Reactive Oxygen Species in Biology and Human Health provides a comprehensive overview of ROS. It covers the current status of research and provides pointers to future research goals. Additionally, it authoritatively reviews the impact of reactive oxygen species with respect to various human diseases and discusses antioxidants and other compounds that counteract oxidative stress. Comprised of seven sections, the first section describes the introduction, detection, and production of ROS, emphasizing phenolic compounds and vitamin E for their abilities to act as antioxidants. This section also highlights the role of lipoprotein-associated oxidative stress. Section two addresses the importance of iron accumulation in the brain resulting in the development of a group of neurodegenerative disorders (NDs) and identifies several causative genes for neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) associated with Parkinsonism-related disorders. The third section discusses a number of NDs, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), epilepsy, and multiple sclerosis (MS). Section four addresses autoimmune diseases caused by ROS, including asthma, autoimmune liver diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid disease, primary biliary cirrhosis, and systemic lupus. Section five analyzes a number of different cancers, including lung cancer, breast cancer, and melanoma, along with possible treatment regimens. Section six discusses cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) induced by ROS, presents the ROS-associated complex biochemical processes inducing inflammation as an important cause of CVDs, and explains the roles carotenoids play in preventing CVDs. The final section addresses other human diseases induced by oxidative stress, including sickle cell disease, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, retinopathy, fibromyalgia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, pulmonary hypertension, infertility, and aging of human skin.

Free Radicals in Human Health and Disease

Author: Vibha Rani
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 8132220358
Format: PDF, Docs
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The role of oxidative stress in human disease has become an area of intense interest. Free radicals, a normal product of metabolism, exist in all aerobic cells in balance with biochemical antioxidants. Environmental stress increases the levels of free radicals drastically, thereby disturbing the equilibrium between free radical production and the antioxidant capability causing oxidative stress. Over the years, ROS has been implicated in the pathologies of various diseases like cancer, neurological disorder, cardiovascular diseases rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes etc. This book provides an in depth critical state-of-art reviews from established investigators on free radicals, ROS associated pathogenesis of human diseases, biomarkers of oxidative damage, antioxidants, phytonutrients and other related health concerns of modern society. The present book is aimed at graduate students, researchers in academia, industry and clinicians with the interest in redox biology. Special attention has been devoted to the topic of ROS signalling, oxidative stress induced human pathologies & antioxidative therapies. The book consists of four parts in specified topics based on the current literatures for the better understanding of the readers with respect to their subject-wise interests. The first section of the book provides an overview about the ROS production and their measuring tools and techniques followed by the mechanisms involved in the oxidative stress in the second section. The third section describes the involvement of oxidative stress in different human diseases and the last section focuses on the different strategies to ameliorate oxidative stress induced stress.

Reactive Oxygen Species in Biological Systems An Interdisciplinary Approach

Author: Carol Colton
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0306468069
Format: PDF, Docs
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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) which include free radicals, peroxides, singlet oxygen, ozone, and nitrogen monoxide and dioxide free radicals, is an area of intense research. This volume covers (1) the destruction of cellular function by ROS resulting in pathological states; (2) the protection by ROS of an organism against invading organisms that cause infections; and (3) the role of ROS in normal physiological processes. Designed for beginning graduate students, this book gives a concise overview of the field.

Oxidative Stress and Biomaterials

Author: Thomas Dziubla
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128032707
Format: PDF, Docs
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Oxidative Stress and Biomaterials provides readers with the latest information on biomaterials and the oxidative stress that can pose an especially troubling challenge to their biocompatibility, especially given the fact that, at the cellular level, the tissue environment is a harsh landscape of precipitating proteins, infiltrating leukocytes, released oxidants, and fluctuations of pH which, even with the slightest shift in stasis, can induce a perpetual state of chronic inflammation. No material is 100% non-inflammatory, non-toxic, non-teratogenic, non-carcinogenic, non-thrombogenic, and non-immunogenic in all biological settings and situations. In this embattled terrain, the most we can hope for from the biomaterials we design is a type of “meso-compatibility, a material which can remain functional and benign for as long as required without succumbing to this cellular onslaught and inducing a local inflammatory reaction. Explores the challenges of designing and using biomaterials in order to minimize oxidative stress, reducing patterns of chronic inflammation and cell death Brings together the two fields of biomaterials and the biology of oxidative stress Provides approaches for the design of biomaterials with improved biocompatibility

Ultraviolet Light in Human Health Diseases and Environment

Author: Shamim I. Ahmad
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319560174
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book is about the roles and importance of Ultraviolet (UV) light from sun and from man-made UV lamps in our daily life, on health and diseases, also its application in sterilization and treatment. The key words are: reactive oxygen species, DNA damage, UV mutagenicity, skin cancers, polymorphous light eruption, Xeroderma pigmentosum, vitiligo, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndromes, cardiovascular diseases, dermatology, photobiology, photodermatosis, vitamin D synthesis, vitamin D efficiency, water sterilization, blood sterilization, phototherapies, skin tanning and UV dosimeter. The book starts with introduction to UV light and the history of development of UV lamps and its applications. It then moves to describing the interaction of this light with biological components and the production of reactive oxygen species, their roles in cell signaling, cellular defense from foreign invaders, in mutagenesis leading to skin diseases including vitiligo, polymorphous light eruption and various forms of skin cancer. Then it presents the synthesis and importance of UV light and diseases, induced due to the deficiency of vitamin D. Roles of UV light in sterilization, disinfection, phototherapies are depicted in the next part and finally use and abuse of UV light in tanning salon and the availability and importance of use of UV dosimeter are highlighted. The three main focuses of this book are: - Damage to biological systems by UV light leading to certain skin diseases; most importantly skin cancers. - Importance of UV light in the in vivo synthesis of vitamin D when human bodies are exposed to it. - Diseases caused due to the deficiency of vitamin D and the use of UV lamps in phototherapy and sterilization processes. The editor has considerable experience in publishing medical books and has used it critically selecting the matters which will attract the readers from many areas of medical and non-medical fields. It is hoped that the materials presented in this book will give great benefit and will stimulate both novice and expert researchers in the field. The book gives excellent overviews of the current status of research and pointers to the future research achievements. Clinicians, medical general practitioners, technicians and staff working in UV related industries and especially those working in tanning salon should benefit from the information presented in safe handling of this light.

Oxygen Radicals in Biology and Medicine

Author: Michael Simic
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1468455680
Format: PDF, Docs
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This book is based on the papers presented at the "Fourth International Congress on Oxygen Radicals (4-ICOR)," held June 27 - July 3, 1987, at the University of California, La Jolla. The chapters deal with the phenomena associated with highly reactive oxygen species (hydroxy, peroxy, alkoxy, aroxy, and superoxide radicals, as well as singlet oxygen) and their peroxidation products (hydrogen peroxide, hydroperoxides, peroxides, and epoxides) as they relate to the fields of chemistry, food technology, nutrition, biology, pharmacology, and medicine. The kinetics, energetics, and mechanistic aspects of the reactions of these species and the interrelationship of oxygen radicals (or any other free radicals) and peroxidized products have been emphasized. Special attention is focused on the mechanisms of the generation of free radicals and peroxy products in biosystems and on the adverse effects of these radicals and products in humans. The topics span the continuum from the simple chemistry of model systems to the complex considerations of clinical medicine. The book also explores the mechanisms of agents that protect against free radicals and peroxy products in vitro and in vivo. These agents include antioxidants used in materials, food antioxidants, physiological antioxidants, and antioxienzymes (SOD, glutathione peroxidase, and catalases). The use of these inhibitors to prevent damage to organs being prepared for transplantation, thereby maintaining the quality of transplanted organs and/or extending their "shelf-life," also is examined.

Antioxidant Food Supplements in Human Health

Author: Lester Packer
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080527284
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Antioxidant Food Supplements in Human Health discusses new discoveries in the areas of oxygen and nitric oxide metabolism and pathophysiology, redox regulation and cell signaling, and the identification of natural antioxidants and their mechanisms of action on free radicals and their role in health and disease. An essential resource for researchers, students, and professionals in food science and nutrition, gerontology, physiology, pharmacology, and related areas. Health effects of antioxidant nutrients Nutrients of vitamins C and E, selenium, alpha-lipoic acid, coenzyme Q10, carotenoids, and flavonoids Natural source antioxidants, including pine bark, ginko biloba, wine, herbs,uyaku, and carica papaya

Analysis of Free Radicals in Biological Systems

Author: A. Favier
Publisher: Birkhäuser
ISBN: 3034890745
Format: PDF, Kindle
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"Oxidative stress" is used as the generic term describing the involve ment of reactive oxygen species in various human diseases. The scope of such a topic is becoming increasingly wide. The recent interest in radicals such as nitric oxide and the discovery of new mechanisms such as the effect of free radicals on redox sensitive proteins and genes are enlarging our understanding of the physiological role of free radicals. Oxidative stress is involved in numerous pathological. processes such as ageing, respiratory or cardiovascular diseases, cancer, neurological pathologies such as dementia or Parkinson's disease. It still remains difficult, however, to demonstrate by chemical measurement the in vivo production of free radicals and even more to realise their speciation. Therefore, the development of new tools and indicators is engrossing many researchers working in this field. Reliable indicators are abso lutely necessary not only to monitor the evolution of oxidative stress in patients but also to evaluate the efficiency of new antioxidant treat ments. The French Free radical club of Grenoble, the CERLIB has been involved for many years in the organisation of international training programs on methodology, in order to provide both theoretical and practical help to researchers from various countries. Such training sessions have been highly successful and participants value the oppor tunity to learn reliable techniques. This positive echo explains why the researchers of CERLIB decided, with the help of Prof. Dr. B. Kalyanaraman, to publish selected techniques on free radical re search.

Quantum Effects in Biology

Author: Masoud Mohseni
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107010802
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Explores the role of quantum mechanics in biology for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in physics, biology and chemistry.

Antioxidants and Reactive Oxygen Species in Plants

Author: Nicholas Smirnoff
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1405171464
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced during the interaction of metabolism with oxygen. As ROS have the potential to cause oxidative damage by reacting with biomolecules, research on ROS has concentrated on the oxidative damage that results from exposure to environmental stresses and on the role of ROS in defence against pathogens. However, more recently, it has become apparent that ROS also have important roles as signalling molecules. A complex network of enzymatic and small molecule antioxidants controls the concentration of ROS and repairs oxidative damage, and research is revealing the complex and subtle interplay between ROS and antioxidants in controlling plant growth, development and response to the environment. This book covers these new developments, generally focussing on molecular and biochemical details and providing a point of entry to the detailed literature. It is directed at researchers and professionals in plant molecular biology, biochemistry and cell biology, in both the academic and industrial sectors.