Readings in Qualitative Reasoning About Physical Systems

Author: Daniel S. Weld
Publisher: Morgan Kaufmann
ISBN: 1483214478
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Readings in Qualitative Reasoning about Physical Systems describes the automated reasoning about the physical world using qualitative representations. This text is divided into nine chapters, each focusing on some aspect of qualitative physics. The first chapter deal with qualitative physics, which is concerned with representing and reasoning about the physical world. The goal of qualitative physics is to capture both the commonsense knowledge of the person on the street and the tacit knowledge underlying the quantitative knowledge used by engineers and scientists. The succeeding chapter discusses the qualitative calculus and its role in constructing an envisionment that includes behavior over both mythical time and elapsed time. These topics are followed by reviews of the mathematical aspects of qualitative reasoning, history-based simulation and temporal reasoning, as well as the intelligence in scientific computing. The final chapters are devoted to automated modeling for qualitative reasoning and causal explanations of behavior. These chapters also examine the qualitative kinematics of reasoning about shape and space. This book will prove useful to psychologists and psychiatrists.

Qualitative Reasoning about Physical Systems

Author: D.G. Bobrow
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444599215
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This volume brings together current work on qualitative reasoning. Its publication reflects the maturity of qualitative reasoning as a research area and the growing interest in problems of reasoning about physical systems. The papers present knowledge bases for a number of very different domains, including heat flow, transistors, and digital computation. A common theme of all these papers is explaining how physical systems work. An important shared criterion is that the behavioral description must be compositional, that is the description of a system's behavior must be derivable from the structure of the system. This material should be of interest to anyone concerned with automated reasoning about the real (physical) world.

Intelligent Assembly Systems

Author: Mark H. Lee
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9789810224943
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book deals with a key area of industrial robotics ? the automation of small batch assembly. Assembly imparts enormous added value but turns out to be extraordinarily difficult to automate. The work presented here, all from the Centre for Intelligent Systems at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth, addresses this issue and shows ways in which the difficulties may be reduced through systematic architectural designs and specific structures for interfacing and controlling sensory-actuation systems. The book develops three main themes: a task-centred approach to robotic assembly, explicit reasoning techniques for fault diagnosis and error handling; and sensor-actuator integration methods. These are vital topics for those concerned with flexible automation and robotics.

Artificial Intelligence in Design 92

Author: John S. Gero
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401127875
Format: PDF, ePub
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Design has now become an important research topic in engineering and architecture. Design is one of the keystones to economic competitiveness and the fundamental precursor to manufacturing. The development of computational models founded on the artificial intelligence paradigm has provided an impetus for current design research. This volume contains contributions from the Second International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Design held in June 1992 in Pittsburgh. They represent the state-of-the-art and the cutting edge of research and development in this field. They are of particular interest to researchers, developers and users of computer systems in design. This volume demonstrates both the breadth and depth of artificial intelligence in design and points the way forward for our understanding of design as a process and for the development of computer-based tools to aiddesigners.

Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

Author: Daniel Gureasko Bobrow
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262521864
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This major collection of short essays reviews the scope and progress of research in artificial intelligence over the past two decades. Seminal and most-cited papers from the journal Artificial Intelligence are revisited by the authors who describe how their research has been developed, both by themselves and by others, since the journals first publication. The twenty-eight papers span a wide variety of domains, including truth maintainance systems and qualitative process theory, chemical structure analysis, diagnosis of faulty circuits, and understanding visual scenes; they also span a broad range of methodologies, from AI's mathematical foundations to systems architecture. The volume is dedicated to Allen Newell and concludes with a section of fourteen essays devoted to a retrospective on the strength and vision of his work. Sections/Contributors: "Artificial Intelligence in Perspective, " D. G. Bobrow. Foundations. J. McCarthy, R. C. Moore, A. Newell, N. J. Nilsson, J. Gordon and E. H. Shortliffe, J. Pearl, A. K. Mackworth and E. C. Freuder, J. de Kleer. Vision. H. G. Barrow and J. M. Tenenbaum, B. K. P. Horn and B. Schunck, K. Ikeuchi, T. Kanade. Qualitative Reasoning. J. de Kleer, K. D. Forbus, B. J. Kuipers, Y. Iwasake and H. A Simon. Diagnosis. R. Davis, M. R. Genesereth, P. Szolovits and S. G. Pauker, R. Davis, B. G. Buchanan and E. H. Shortliffe, W. J. Clancey. Architectures. J. S. Aikins, B. Hayes-Roth, M. J. Stefik et al. Systems. R. E. Fikes and N. J. Nilsson, E. A Feigenbaum and B. G. Buchanan, J. McDermott. Allen Newell. H. A. Simon, M. J. Stefik and S. W. Smoliar, M. A. Arbib, D. C. Dennett, Purves, R. C. Schank and M.Y. Jona, P. S. Rosenbloom and J. E. Laird, P. E. Agre.

Recent Advances in Qualitative Physics

Author: Boi Faltings
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262061421
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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These twenty-eight contributions report advances in one of the most active research areas in artificial intellgence. Qualitative modeling techniques are an essential part of building second generation knowledge-based systems. This book provides a timely overview of the field while also giving some indications about applications that appear to be feasible now or in the near future. Chapters are organized into sections covering modeling and simulation, ontologies, computational issues, and qualitative analysis.Modeling a physical system in order to simulate it or solve particular problems regarding the system is an important motivation of qualitative physics, involving formal procedures and concepts. The chapters in the section on modeling address the problem of how to set up and structure qualitative models, particularly for use in simulation. Ontology, or the science of being, is the basis for all modeling. Accordingly, chapters on ontologies discuss problems fundamental for finding representational formalism and inference mechanisms appropriate for different aspects of reasoning about physical systems.Computational issues arising from attempts to turn qualitative theories into practical software are then taken up. In addition to simulation and modeling, qualitative physics can be used to solve particular problems dealing with physical systems, and the concluding chapters present techniques for tasks ranging from the analysis of behavior to conceptual design.Boi Faltings is Associate Professor of Computer Science at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne. Peter Struss is Head of the Advanced Reasoning Methods Group at Siemens Corporate Research and Development in Munich.

Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning

Author: Jon Doyle
Publisher: Morgan Kaufmann Pub
ISBN:
Format: PDF
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The proceedings of KR '94 comprise 55 papers on topics including deduction an search, description logics, theories of knowledge and belief, nonmonotonic reasoning and belief revision, action and time, planning and decision-making and reasoning about the physical world, and the relations between KR

Author: 垣·马
Publisher: 清华大学出版社有限公司
ISBN: 9787302111818
Format: PDF, Mobi
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本书系统介绍了非经典关系数据库理论的国际前沿成果及作者本人的研究成果,内容包括约束关系模型、时态关系模型、空值关系模型、偏序关系模型等。

The Design of Everyday Things

Author: Norman Don
Publisher: Vahlen
ISBN: 3800648105
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Apple, Audi, Braun oder Samsung machen es vor: Gutes Design ist heute eine kritische Voraussetzung für erfolgreiche Produkte. Dieser Klassiker beschreibt die fundamentalen Prinzipien, um Dinge des täglichen Gebrauchs umzuwandeln in unterhaltsame und zufriedenstellende Produkte. Don Norman fordert ein Zusammenspiel von Mensch und Technologie mit dem Ziel, dass Designer und Produktentwickler die Bedürfnisse, Fähigkeiten und Handlungsweisen der Nutzer in den Vordergrund stellen und Designs an diesen angepasst werden. The Design of Everyday Things ist eine informative und spannende Einführung für Designer, Marketer, Produktentwickler und für alle an gutem Design interessierten Menschen. Zum Autor Don Norman ist emeritierter Professor für Kognitionswissenschaften. Er lehrte an der University of California in San Diego und der Northwest University in Illinois. Mitte der Neunzigerjahre leitete Don Norman die Advanced Technology Group bei Apple. Dort prägte er den Begriff der User Experience, um über die reine Benutzbarkeit hinaus eine ganzheitliche Erfahrung der Anwender im Umgang mit Technik in den Vordergrund zu stellen. Norman ist Mitbegründer der Beratungsfirma Nielsen Norman Group und hat unter anderem Autohersteller von BMW bis Toyota beraten. „Keiner kommt an Don Norman vorbei, wenn es um Fragen zu einem Design geht, das sich am Menschen orientiert.“ Brand Eins 7/2013 „Design ist einer der wichtigsten Wettbewerbsvorteile. Dieses Buch macht Spaß zu lesen und ist von größter Bedeutung.” Tom Peters, Co-Autor von „Auf der Suche nach Spitzenleistungen“

Abstraction in Artificial Intelligence and Complex Systems

Author: Lorenza Saitta
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461470528
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Abstraction is a fundamental mechanism underlying both human and artificial perception, representation of knowledge, reasoning and learning. This mechanism plays a crucial role in many disciplines, notably Computer Programming, Natural and Artificial Vision, Complex Systems, Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning, Art, and Cognitive Sciences. This book first provides the reader with an overview of the notions of abstraction proposed in various disciplines by comparing both commonalities and differences. After discussing the characterizing properties of abstraction, a formal model, the KRA model, is presented to capture them. This model makes the notion of abstraction easily applicable by means of the introduction of a set of abstraction operators and abstraction patterns, reusable across different domains and applications. It is the impact of abstraction in Artificial Intelligence, Complex Systems and Machine Learning which creates the core of the book. A general framework, based on the KRA model, is presented, and its pragmatic power is illustrated with three case studies: Model-based diagnosis, Cartographic Generalization, and learning Hierarchical Hidden Markov Models.