Remaining Chickasaw in Indian Territory 1830s 1907

Author: Wendy St. Jean
Publisher: University of Alabama Press
ISBN: 0817356428
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Explores the lives of the Chickasaw Indians living in Indian Territory after their removal from the Southeastern United States, describing their struggles with Texans and Plains Indians, intermarried white men, U.S. citizens in their territory and their former slaves. Simultaneous.

Rivers of Sand

Author: Christopher D. Haveman
Publisher: U of Nebraska Press
ISBN: 0803273924
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Treason -- Fission -- Frenzy -- Fraud -- Eclipse -- Sand -- Chains -- Coercion -- Defiance -- Perseverance -- Conclusion

The Eastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma

Author: Stephen Warren
Publisher: University of Oklahoma Press
ISBN: 0806161019
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Non-Indians have amassed extensive records of Shawnee leaders dating back to the era between the French and Indian War and the War of 1812. But academia has largely ignored the stories of these leaders’ descendants—including accounts from the Shawnees’ own perspectives. The Eastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma focuses on the nineteenth- and twentieth-century experiences of the Eastern Shawnee Tribe, presenting a new brand of tribal history made possible by the emergence of tribal communities’ own research centers and the resources afforded by the digital age. Offering various perspectives on the history of the Eastern Shawnees, this volume combines essays by leading and emerging scholars of Shawnee history with contributions by Eastern Shawnee citizens and interviews with tribal elders. Editor Stephen Warren introduces the collection, acknowledging that the questions and concerns of colonizers have dominated the themes of American Indian history for far too long. The essays that follow introduce readers to the story of the Eastern Shawnees and consider treaties with the U.S. government, laws impacting the tribe, and tribal leadership. They analyze the Eastern Shawnees’ ways of telling the tribe’s stories, detail Shawnee experiences of federal boarding schools, and recount stories of their chiefs. The book concludes with five tribal members’ life histories, told in their own words. The Eastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma is the culmination of years of collaboration between tribal citizens and Native as well as non-Native scholars. Providing a fuller, more nuanced, and more complete portrayal of Native American historical experiences, this book serves as a resource for both future scholars and tribal members to reconstruct the Eastern Shawnee past and thereby better understand the present. This book was made possible through generous funding from the Administration for Native Americans.

Black Slaves Indian Masters

Author: Barbara Krauthamer
Publisher: UNC Press Books
ISBN: 1469607115
Format: PDF, Docs
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From the late eighteenth century through the end of the Civil War, Choctaw and Chickasaw Indians bought, sold, and owned Africans and African Americans as slaves, a fact that persisted after the tribes' removal from the Deep South to Indian Territory. The tribes formulated racial and gender ideologies that justified this practice and marginalized free black people in the Indian nations well after the Civil War and slavery had ended. Through the end of the nineteenth century, ongoing conflicts among Choctaw, Chickasaw, and U.S. lawmakers left untold numbers of former slaves and their descendants in the two Indian nations without citizenship in either the Indian nations or the United States. In this groundbreaking study, Barbara Krauthamer rewrites the history of southern slavery, emancipation, race, and citizenship to reveal the centrality of Native American slaveholders and the black people they enslaved. Krauthamer's examination of slavery and emancipation highlights the ways Indian women's gender roles changed with the arrival of slavery and changed again after emancipation and reveals complex dynamics of race that shaped the lives of black people and Indians both before and after removal.

African Cherokees in Indian Territory

Author: Celia E. Naylor
Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press
ISBN: 9780807877548
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Forcibly removed from their homes in the late 1830s, Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, and Chickasaw Indians brought their African-descended slaves with them along the Trail of Tears and resettled in Indian Territory, present-day Oklahoma. Celia E. Naylor vividly charts the experiences of enslaved and free African Cherokees from the Trail of Tears to Oklahoma's entry into the Union in 1907. Carefully extracting the voices of former slaves from interviews and mining a range of sources in Oklahoma, she creates an engaging narrative of the composite lives of African Cherokees. Naylor explores how slaves connected with Indian communities not only through Indian customs--language, clothing, and food--but also through bonds of kinship. Examining this intricate and emotionally charged history, Naylor demonstrates that the "red over black" relationship was no more benign than "white over black." She presents new angles to traditional understandings of slave resistance and counters previous romanticized ideas of slavery in the Cherokee Nation. She also challenges contemporary racial and cultural conceptions of African-descended people in the United States. Naylor reveals how black Cherokee identities evolved reflecting complex notions about race, culture, "blood," kinship, and nationality. Indeed, Cherokee freedpeople's struggle for recognition and equal rights that began in the nineteenth century continues even today in Oklahoma.

The Native North American Almanac

Author: Duane Champagne
Publisher: Gale Group
ISBN: 9780787616557
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This source covers the civilization and culture of the indigenous peoples of the U.S. and Canada - both historic and contemporary. Included are signed essays, annotated directories, excerpts and biographies. Each chapter contains a subject-specific bibliography, photographs, maps and charts.

After Removal

Author: Samuel J. Wells
Publisher: Univ. Press of Mississippi
ISBN: 9781617030840
Format: PDF, Docs
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This informative study helps to complete the saga of the Choctaw by documenting the life and culture of those who escaped removal. It is an account that until now has been left largely untold. The Choctaw Indians, once one of the largest and most advanced tribes in North America, have mainly been studied as the first victims of removal during the Jacksonian era. After signing the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek in 1830, the great mass of the tribe--about 20,000 of perhaps 25,000--was resettled in what is present-day Oklahoma. What became of the thousands that remained? The history of the Choctaw remaining in Mississippi has been given only scant attention by scholars, and generally it has been forgotten by the public. As this new book points out, several thousand remained on individual land allotments or as itinerant farm workers and continued to follow old customs. Many of mixed-blood abandoned their ancestral ways and were merged into the white community. Some faded into the wilderness. Despite many obstacles, the remnants of this Mississippi Choctaw society endured and in the modern era through federal legislation have been recognized as a society known as the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians.