Resonance

Author: Krzysztof Burdzy
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 1783269227
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Resonance examines some building blocks of epistemology as a prelude to the careful analysis of the foundations of probability. The concept of resonance is introduced to shed light on the philosophical problems of induction, consciousness, intelligence and free will. The same concept is later applied to provide support for a new philosophical theory of probability. Although based on existing ideas and theories, the epistemological concept of resonance is investigated for the first time in this book. The best-known philosophical theories of probability, frequency and subjective, are shown to be unrealistic and dissociated from the two main branches of statistics: frequency statistics and Bayesian statistics. Written in an accessible style, this book can be enjoyed by philosophers, statisticians and mathematicians, and also by anyone looking to expand their understanding of the disciplines of epistemology and probability. Contents: IntroductionPhilosophy of Probability:Main Philosophies of ProbabilitySkepticismThe Frequency Philosophy of ProbabilityThe Subjective Philosophy of ProbabilityThe Logical Philosophy of ProbabilityCommon IssuesEpistemology:EpistemologyReligionScienceScience of Probability:The Science of ProbabilityDecision MakingFrequency StatisticsBayesian StatisticsMiscellanea:On IdeologiesParadoxes, Wagers and RulesTeaching ProbabilityMathematical Methods of Probability and Statistics Readership: Philosophers, statisticians and mathematicians, and readers who are interested in the fields of epistemology and probability.

Epistemological and Experimental Perspectives on Quantum Physics

Author: Daniel Greenberger
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401714541
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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From the very beginning it was realised that quantum physics involves radically new interpretative and epistemological consequences. While hitherto there has been no satisfactory philosophical analysis of these consequences, recent years have witnessed the accomplishment of many experiments to test the foundations of quantum physics, opening up vistas to a completely novel technology: quantum technology. The contributions in the present volume review the interpretative situation, analyze recent fundamental experiments, and discuss the implications of possible future technological applications. Readership: Analytic philosophers (logical empiricists), scientists (especially physicists), historians of logic, mathematics and physics, philosophers of science, and advanced students and researchers in these fields. Can be used for seminars on theoretical and experimental physics and philosophy of science, and as supplementary reading at advanced undergraduate and graduate levels.

The Search for Certainty

Author: Krzysztof Burdzy
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814273708
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This volume represents a radical departure from the current philosophical duopoly in the area of foundations of probability, that is, the frequency and subjective theories. One of the main new ideas is a set of scientific laws of probability. The new laws are simple, intuitive and, last but not least, they agree well with the contents of current textbooks on probability. Another major new claim is that the ?frequency statistics? has nothing in common with the ?frequency philosophy of probability,? contrary to popular belief. Similarly, contrary to the general perception, the ?Bayesian statistics? shares nothing in common with the ?subjective philosophy of probability.? This volume is non-partisan on the scientific side ? that it is supportive of both frequency statistics and Bayesian statistics. On the other hand, it contains well-documented and thoroughly-explained criticisms of the frequency and subjective philosophies of probability. Short reviews of other philosophical theories of probability and basic mathematical methods of probability and statistics are incorporated. This volume includes essential chapters on decision theory and teaching probability, and it is easily accessible to the general audience.

The Powers of Philology

Author: Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht
Publisher: University of Illinois Press
ISBN: 9780252028304
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Philology--the discovery, editing, and presentation of historical texts--was once a firmly established discipline that formed the core study for students across a wide range of linguistic and literary fields. Although philology departments are steadily disappearing from contemporary educational establishments, in this book Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht demonstrates that the problems, standards, and methods of philology remain as vital as ever.For two and a half millennia philologists have viewed themselves as the modest heirs and curators of their textual past's most glorious periods, collecting and editing text fragments, historicizing them and adding commentary, and ultimately teaching them to contemporary readers.Gumbrecht argues for a return to this tradition as an alternative to an often free-floating textual interpretation and to the more recent redefinition of literary studies as "cultural studies," which risks a loss of intellectual focus. Such a return to philological core exercises, however, can become more than yet another movement of academic nostalgia only if it takes into account the hidden desire that has inspiredphilology since its Hellenistic beginnings: the desire to make the past present again by embodying it.

The Social Neuroscience of Empathy

Author: Jean Decety
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262293366
Format: PDF, Kindle
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In recent decades, empathy research has blossomed into a vibrant and multidisciplinary field of study. The social neuroscience approach to the subject is premised on the idea that studying empathy at multiple levels (biological, cognitive, and social) will lead to a more comprehensive understanding of how other people's thoughts and feelings can affect our own thoughts, feelings, and behavior. In these cutting-edge contributions, leading advocates of the multilevel approach view empathy from the perspectives of social, cognitive, developmental and clinical psychology and cognitive/affective neuroscience. Chapters include a critical examination of the various definitions of the empathy construct; surveys of major research traditions based on these differing views (including empathy as emotional contagion, as the projection of one's own thoughts and feelings, and as a fundamental aspect of social development); clinical and applied perspectives, including psychotherapy and the study of empathy for other people's pain; various neuroscience perspectives; and discussions of empathy's evolutionary and neuroanatomical histories, with a special focus on neuroanatomical continuities and differences across the phylogenetic spectrum. The new discipline of social neuroscience bridges disciplines and levels of analysis. In this volume, the contributors' state-of-the-art investigations of empathy from a social neuroscience perspective vividly illustrate the potential benefits of such cross-disciplinary integration.ContributorsC. Daniel Batson, James Blair, Karina Blair, Jerold D. Bozarth, Anne Buysse, Susan F. Butler, Michael Carlin, C. Sue Carter, Kenneth D. Craig, Mirella Dapretto, Jean Decety, Mathias Dekeyser, Ap Dijksterhuis, Robert Elliott, Natalie D. Eggum, Nancy Eisenberg, Norma Deitch Feshbach, Seymour Feshbach, Liesbet Goubert, Leslie S. Greenberg, Elaine Hatfield, James Harris, William Ickes, Claus Lamm, Yen-Chi Le, Mia Leijssen, Abigail Marsh, Raymond S. Nickerson, Jennifer H. Pfeifer, Stephen W. Porges, Richard L. Rapson, Simone G. Shamay-Tsoory, Rick B. van Baaren, Matthijs L. van Leeuwen, Andries van der Leij, Jeanne C. Watson

Living Translation

Author: Sonya Pritzker
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 1782383115
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Integrating theoretical perspectives with carefully grounded ethnographic analyses of everyday interaction and experience, Living Translation examines the worlds of international translators as well as U.S. teachers and students of Chinese medicine, focusing on the transformations that occur as participants engage in a "search for resonance" with foreign terms and concepts. Based on a close examination of heated international debates as well as specific texts, classroom discussions, and interviews with publishers, authors, teachers, and students, Sonya Pritzker demonstrates the "living translation" of Chinese medicine as a process unfolding through interaction, inscription, embodied experience, and clinical practice. By documenting the stream of conversations that together constitute this process, the book thus traces the translation of Chinese medicine from text to practice with an eye towards the social, political, historical, moral, and even personal dimensions involved in the transnational production of knowledge about health, illness, and the body.

Keynes

Author: Robert Skidelsky
Publisher: PublicAffairs
ISBN: 1610390032
Format: PDF, Kindle
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In the debris of the financial crash of 2008, the principles of John Maynard Keynes—that economic storms are a normal part of the market system, that governments need to step in and use fiscal ammunition to prevent these storms from becoming depressions, and that societies that value the pursuit of money should reprioritize—are more pertinent and applicable than ever. In Keynes: The Return of the Master, Robert Skidelsky brilliantly synthesizes Keynes career and life, and offers nervous capitalists a positive answer to the question we now face: When unbridled capitalism falters, is there an alternative?

Translational Dynamics and Magnetic Resonance

Author: Paul T. Callaghan
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191621048
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Taking the reader through the underlying principles of molecular translational dynamics, this book outlines the ways in which magnetic resonance, through the use of magnetic field gradients, can reveal those dynamics. The measurement of diffusion and flow, over different length and time scales, provides unique insight regarding fluid interactions with porous materials, as well as molecular organisation in soft matter and complex fluids. The book covers both time and frequency domain methodologies, as well as advances in scattering and diffraction methods, multidimensional exchange and correlation experiments and orientational correlation methods ideal for studying anisotropic environments. At the heart of these new methods resides the ubiquitous spin echo, a phenomenon whose discovery underpins nearly every major development in magnetic resonance methodology. Measuring molecular translational motion does not require high spectral resolution and so finds application in new NMR technologies concerned with 'outside the laboratory' applications, in geophysics and petroleum physics, in horticulture, in food technology, in security screening, and in environmental monitoring.

Artificial Intelligence and Soft Computing

Author: Amit Konar
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351835629
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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With all the material available in the field of artificial intelligence (AI) and soft computing-texts, monographs, and journal articles-there remains a serious gap in the literature. Until now, there has been no comprehensive resource accessible to a broad audience yet containing a depth and breadth of information that enables the reader to fully understand and readily apply AI and soft computing concepts. Artificial Intelligence and Soft Computing fills this gap. It presents both the traditional and the modern aspects of AI and soft computing in a clear, insightful, and highly comprehensive style. It provides an in-depth analysis of mathematical models and algorithms and demonstrates their applications in real world problems. Beginning with the behavioral perspective of "human cognition," the text covers the tools and techniques required for its intelligent realization on machines. The author addresses the classical aspects-search, symbolic logic, planning, and machine learning-in detail and includes the latest research in these areas. He introduces the modern aspects of soft computing from first principles and discusses them in a manner that enables a beginner to grasp the subject. He also covers a number of other leading aspects of AI research, including nonmonotonic and spatio-temporal reasoning, knowledge acquisition, and much more. Artificial Intelligence and Soft Computing: Behavioral and Cognitive Modeling of the Human Brain is unique for its diverse content, clear presentation, and overall completeness. It provides a practical, detailed introduction that will prove valuable to computer science practitioners and students as well as to researchers migrating to the subject from other disciplines.

The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

Author: Thomas S. Kuhn
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226458148
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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A good book may have the power to change the way we see the world, but a great book actually becomes part of our daily consciousness, pervading our thinking to the point that we take it for granted, and we forget how provocative and challenging its ideas once were—and still are. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is that kind of book. When it was first published in 1962, it was a landmark event in the history and philosophy of science. Fifty years later, it still has many lessons to teach. With The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Kuhn challenged long-standing linear notions of scientific progress, arguing that transformative ideas don’t arise from the day-to-day, gradual process of experimentation and data accumulation but that the revolutions in science, those breakthrough moments that disrupt accepted thinking and offer unanticipated ideas, occur outside of “normal science,” as he called it. Though Kuhn was writing when physics ruled the sciences, his ideas on how scientific revolutions bring order to the anomalies that amass over time in research experiments are still instructive in our biotech age. This new edition of Kuhn’s essential work in the history of science includes an insightful introduction by Ian Hacking, which clarifies terms popularized by Kuhn, including paradigm and incommensurability, and applies Kuhn’s ideas to the science of today. Usefully keyed to the separate sections of the book, Hacking’s introduction provides important background information as well as a contemporary context. Newly designed, with an expanded index, this edition will be eagerly welcomed by the next generation of readers seeking to understand the history of our perspectives on science.