Responses of Fruit Trees to Global Climate Change

Author: Fernando Ramirez
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319142003
Format: PDF, Mobi
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​Global climate change is expected to produce increased carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere, higher temperatures, aberrant precipitation patterns and a host of other climatic changes that would affect all life on this planet. This review article addresses the impact of climate change on fruit trees and the response of the trees to a changing environment. The response of fruit trees to increasing carbon dioxide levels, phenological changes occurring in the trees themselves due to increased temperature and the lower chilling hours especially in the temperate regions, ecophysiological adaptations of the trees to the changing climate, impact of aberrant precipitation, etc. are reviewed. There is very little data on the impact of rising CO2 levels on fruit tree performance or productivity including the temperate region. Based on a large number of observations on the phenology, there is reason to believe that the flowering and fruiting of most species have advanced by quite a few days, but with variations in different crops and on different continents. The chilling hours have also grown shorter in many regions, causing considerable reductions in yield for several species. In the tropics, there is very little work on fruit trees; however, the available data show that precipitation is a major factor regulating their phenology and yield. The ecophysiological adaptations vary from species to species, and there is a need to develop phenological models in order to estimate the impact of climate change on plant development in different regions of the world. More research is also called for to develop adaptation strategies to circumvent the negative impacts of climate change.

Tree Pollination Under Global Climate Change

Author: Fernando Ramírez
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319739697
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This brief reviews the pollination aspects of both wild and domesticated fruit tree species in a global climate change context. It explores cross-pollination mediated by insects, vertebrates and abiotic factors, self-pollination and their global warming implications. The authors identify the link between abiotic factors such as precipitation and severe droughts in the context of tree pollination and climate change. Furthermore, pollination and conservation implications in agriculture as well as wild tree populations are explored. Emphasis has been given to fruit trees growing in tropical, subtropical and temperate environments.

The Impact of Climate Change on Our Life

Author: Abdelnaser Omran
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811077487
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book introduces the highly topical issue from many different angles, sensitizing readers to the various challenges to human life posed by climate change, identifying possible intentional and inadvertent anthropogenic factors and consequences, and seeking socially and environmentally viable solutions. The book begins by examining the impact of the climate change discussion on science, politics, economy and culture – from its historical origin in the first Club of Rome Report and its inclusion in the UN's SDGs to the Paris Agreement and beyond. Comprising 12 chapters, it analyses the factors which caused the catastrophic 2014 Kelantan flood in Malaysia, focusing on the Kuala Krai district and discusses mud architecture in Wadi Hadramout, Yemen and mitigating the expected effects of climate change on this unique architecture and cultural heritage. It also examines the economic costs of climate change on health and the increased burden on individual expenditures and national health systems. The role of climate change in the water-energy nexus and efforts to increase efficiency in energy and water end-use to increase Queensland’s agricultural sector’s resilience in Australia is addressed, as is water security and climate change issues in developing countries and the potential of partnership procurement strategies for managing sustainable urban water supply in Nigerian cities. It also includes a chapter offering a new approach to waste management, exploring to what extent waste can complicate our daily actions and influence environmental decay, and recommending that renewable materials be sorted and separated from other types of materials to avoid cross-contamination, to increase the value of the materials, and to ease the process of manufacturing. Subsequent chapters identify factors sustaining the municipal solid waste management and practices in Ajdabiya city in Libya, and look at accounting disclosure remedies by exploring areas in which sustainability reporting could expand beyond corporate environmental reporting to additional disclosures, curbing recklessness in pursuing merely economic goals. The book shows – from the perspective of agriculture – how human activities can increase the negative impacts of climate change on lifestyle in Malaysia, suggesting alternative lifestyles and encouraging international cooperative efforts. The last chapters evaluate the impacts of various environmental factors on the local tourism sector in Pakistan, and discuss strategies to tackle climate change, focusing on the opportunities and risks of climate engineering. Since these risks encompass inadvertent negative effects and targeted abuse for covert weather warfare and terrorism that violate the UN’s ENMOD convention, the author recommends viable alternatives to deal with climate change.

Tree Pollination Under Global Climate Change

Author: Fernando Ramírez
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319739697
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download Now
This brief reviews the pollination aspects of both wild and domesticated fruit tree species in a global climate change context. It explores cross-pollination mediated by insects, vertebrates and abiotic factors, self-pollination and their global warming implications. The authors identify the link between abiotic factors such as precipitation and severe droughts in the context of tree pollination and climate change. Furthermore, pollination and conservation implications in agriculture as well as wild tree populations are explored. Emphasis has been given to fruit trees growing in tropical, subtropical and temperate environments.

Phenological Research

Author: Irene L. Hudson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789048133352
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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As climate change continues to dominate the international environmental agenda, phenology – the study of the timing of recurring biological events – has received increasing research attention, leading to an emerging consensus that phenology can be viewed as an ‘early warning system’ for climate change impact. A multidisciplinary science involving many branches of ecology, geography and remote sensing, phenology to date has lacked a coherent methodological text. This new synthesis, including contributions from many of the world’s leading phenologists, therefore fills a critical gap in the current biological literature. Providing critiques of current methods, as well as detailing novel and emerging methodologies, the book, with its extensive suite of references, provides readers with an understanding of both the theoretical basis and the potential applications required to adopt and adapt new analytical and design methods. An invaluable source book for researchers and students in ecology and climate change science, the book also provides a useful reference for practitioners in a range of sectors, including human health, fisheries, forestry, agriculture and natural resource management.

Stalking the Wild Sweetgrass

Author: Robert J. Dufault
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461459036
Format: PDF, ePub
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Stalking the Wild Sweetgrass: Domestication and Horticulture of the Grass Used in African-American Coiled Basketry is concerned with the historical domestication of sweetgrass, the main construction/structural grass used in the three century old African-American tradition of coiled basketry in South Carolina. During the plantation era in southern agriculture, sweetgrass baskets were made for post-harvest processing and storage of rice by enslaved Africans from Lower Cape Fear, North Carolina to northern Florida. Enslaved Africans from the Rice Kingdom in Africa were prized for the basketry and rice agronomic skills and were specially sought by slavery traders. Today, this ancient craft still thrives in the community of Mt. Pleasant, South Carolina. Authored by one of the most renowned experts in the field and filled with illuminating color photographs, this volume provides knowledge of the horticulture of an extremely important wild plant and an example of the perils of plant- and people-based research and experimentation. As one of the few authoritative texts on the subject, Stalking the Wild Sweetgrass: Domestication and Horticulture of the Grass Used in African-American Coiled Basketry is a resourceful volume on wild sweetgrass, suitable for researchers and students alike.

Quantifying Functional Biodiversity

Author: Laura Pla
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400726482
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book synthesizes current methods used to quantify functional diversity, providing step-by-step examples for defining functional groups and estimating functional indices. The authors show how to compare communities, and how to analyze changes of diversity along environmental gradients, using real-life examples throughout. One section of the book demonstrates the selection of traits, and the standardization and characterization of ecosystem data. Another section presents methods used to quantify functional diversity, shows how to relate functional diversity with environmental variables and how to connect these to ecosystem services. The concluding section introduces FDiversity, a free program developed by the authors. The reader is guided through every step from software installation and basic functions, to sample and database design, to graphical projection methods, employing case study data to illustrate key concepts.

Ascorbic Acid in Plant Growth Development and Stress Tolerance

Author: Mohammad Anwar Hossain
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319740571
Format: PDF, Docs
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Ascorbic acid (AsA), vitamin C, is one of the most abundant water-soluble antioxidant in plants and animals. In plants AsA serves as a major redox buffer and regulates various physiological processes controlling growth, development, and stress tolerance. Recent studies on AsA homeostasis have broadened our understanding of these physiological events. At the mechanistic level, AsA has been shown to participate in numerous metabolic and cell signaling processes, and the dynamic relationship between AsA and reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been well documented. Being a major component of the ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle, AsA helps to modulate oxidative stress in plants by controlling ROS detoxification alone and in co-operation with glutathione. In contrast to the single pathway responsible for AsA biosynthesis in animals, plants utilize multiple pathways to synthesize AsA, perhaps reflecting the importance of this molecule to plant health. Any fluctuations, increases or decreases, in cellular AsA levels can have profound effects on plant growth and development, as AsA is associated with the regulation of the cell cycle, redox signaling, enzyme function and defense gene expression. Although there has been significant progress made investigating the multiple roles AsA plays in stress tolerance, many aspects of AsA-mediated physiological responses require additional research if AsA metabolism is to be manipulated to enhance stress-tolerance. This book summarizes the roles of AsA that are directly or indirectly involved in the metabolic processes and physiological functions of plants. Key topics include AsA biosynthesis and metabolism, compartmentation and transport, AsA-mediated ROS detoxification, as well as AsA signaling functions in plant growth, development and responses to environmental stresses. The main objective of this volume is therefore to supply comprehensive and up-to-date information for students, scholars and scientists interested in or currently engaged in AsA research.

Predator Prey Interactions Co evolution between Bats and Their Prey

Author: David Steve Jacobs
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319324926
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book provides a comprehensive review of the evolution of traits associated with predation and predator defense for bats and all of their prey, both invertebrates (e.g. insects) and vertebrates (e.g. frogs), in the context of co-evolution. It reviews current knowledge of how echolocation and passive hearing are used by bats to hunt prey in complete darkness. Also it highlights how prey have evolved counter measures to bat echolocation to avoid detection and capture. This includes the whole range of prey responses from being active at times when bats are inactive to the use of acoustic signals of their own to interfere with the echolocation system of bats.

Socioeconomic and Environmental Implications of Agricultural Residue Burning

Author: Parmod Kumar
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 8132220145
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book discusses the important issue of the socioeconomic and environmental impacts of agricultural residue burning, common in agricultural practices in many parts of the world. In particular, it focuses on the pollution caused by rice residue burning using primary survey data from Punjab, India. It discusses emerging solutions to agricultural waste burning that are cost-effective in terms of both money and time. The burning of agricultural residue causes severe pollution in land, water and air and contributes to increased ozone levels and climate change in the long term. However, appropriate assessments have not been undertaken so far to demonstrate the relevant impact of agriculture-based pollution, especially residue burning. This book addresses this gap in the literature. Punjab has been used as a case study as it is the chief granary of India, contributing to 27.2 percent of the Indian national produce of rice and 43.8 percent of wheat. It is presumed that the findings from this state will be useful not only for other agricultural areas in India, but across the world. This book, therefore, sensitizes policy makers, researchers and students about the impacts of air pollution caused by agricultural residue burning---a subject not much dealt in the literature---and provides a way forward.