Restraint

Author: Barry R. Posen
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 0801470862
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The United States, Barry R. Posen argues in Restraint, has grown incapable of moderating its ambitions in international politics. Since the collapse of Soviet power, it has pursued a grand strategy that he calls “liberal hegemony,” one that Posen sees as unnecessary, counterproductive, costly, and wasteful. Written for policymakers and observers alike, Restraint explains precisely why this grand strategy works poorly and then provides a carefully designed alternative grand strategy and an associated military strategy and force structure. In contrast to the failures and unexpected problems that have stemmed from America’s consistent overreaching, Posen makes an urgent argument for restraint in the future use of U.S. military strength. After setting out the political implications of restraint as a guiding principle, Posen sketches the appropriate military forces and posture that would support such a strategy. He works with a deliberately constrained notion of grand strategy and, even more important, of national security (which he defines as including sovereignty, territorial integrity, power position, and safety). His alternative for military strategy, which Posen calls “command of the commons,” focuses on protecting U.S. global access through naval, air, and space power, while freeing the United States from most of the relationships that require the permanent stationing of U.S. forces overseas.

The Source of Military Doctrine

Author: Barry R. Posen
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 0801468574
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Barry R. Posen explores how military doctrine takes shape and the role it plays in grand strategy-that collection of military, economic, and political means and ends with which a state attempts to achieve security. Posen isolates three crucial elements of a given strategic doctrine: its offensive, defensive, or deterrent characteristics, its integration of military resources with political aims, and the degree of military or operational innovation it contains. He then examines these components of doctrine from the perspectives of organization theory and balance of power theory, taking into account the influence of technology and geography. Looking at interwar France, Britain, and Germany, Posen challenges each theory to explain the German Blitzkrieg, the British air defense system, and the French Army's defensive doctrine often associated with the Maginot Line. This rigorous comparative study, in which the balance of power theory emerges as the more useful, not only allows us to discover important implications for the study of national strategy today, but also serves to sharpen our understanding of the origins of World War II.

TERRORISM COMMENTARY ON SECURITY DOCUMENTS VOLUME 146

Author: Douglas C. Lovelace, Jr.
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190654236
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Terrorism: Commentary on Security Documents is a series that provides primary source documents and expert commentary on various topics relating to the worldwide effort to combat terrorism, as well as efforts by the United States and other nations to protect their national security interests. Volume 146, Russia's Resurgence, examines recent developments in the foreign policy and strategy of the Russian Federation, including an examination of its aggression against neighboring states with Russian populations, its recent focus on strengthening its military capabilities, its larger strategy vis-à-vis NATO and the United States, its utilization of hybrid warfare in the "gray zone" to achieve its goals, its increasing influence on Middle Eastern politics, and the historical context within which these developments have occurred. This volume includes Congressional Research Service reports on security issues concerning the United States, Ukraine, and the Russian Federation, as well as an English-language version of the Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation made available to the public, NATO's Framework for Future Alliance Operations, and recent studies on Russia's hybrid warfare from the NATO Defense College and the Joint Special Operations University Press.

Terrorism Commentary on Security Documents Volume 147

Author: Douglas C. Lovelace Jr.
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190654244
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Terrorism: Commentary on Security Documents is a series that provides primary source documents and expert commentary on various topics relating to the worldwide effort to combat terrorism, as well as efforts by the United States and other nations to protect their national security interests. Volume 147, Assessing the 2017 U.S. National Security Strategy, evaluates the changes in U.S. national security policy indicated in the National Security Strategy published by the Trump administration in 2017, as well as the U.S. National Defense Strategy, a summary of which was made available to the public in 2018. The volume also takes a close look at the comparable strategy documents of the Russian Federation and the People's Republic of China (PRC), the two greatest competitors of the U.S. in the global power structure, in addition to considering the U.S. security posture in the broader international context. In addition to including the text of the 2017 U.S. National Security Strategy and the 2018 U.S. National Defense Strategy, this volume also includes the Russian Federation's Foreign Policy Concept, National Security Strategy, and Military Doctrine, and China's national defense, military strategy, and Asia-Pacific cooperation documents, as well as Chinese President Xi Jinping's October 2017 speech to the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China outlining the way forward for the PRC. Two 2017 CRS reports examining U.S. security strategy in the international context are also included: U.S. Role in the World: Background and Issues for Congress and A Shift in the International Security Environment: Potential Implications for Defense-Issues for Congress.

Terrorism Commentary on Security Documents Volume 146

Author: Douglas C. Lovelace Jr
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190255366
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Terrorism: Commentary on Security Documents is a series that provides primary source documents and expert commentary on various topics relating to the worldwide effort to combat terrorism, as well as efforts by the United States and other nations to protect their national security interests. Volume 146, Russia's Resurgence, examines recent developments in the foreign policy and strategy of the Russian Federation, including an examination of its aggression against neighboring states with Russian populations, its recent focus on strengthening its military capabilities, its larger strategy vis-�-vis NATO and the United States, its utilization of hybrid warfare in the "gray zone" to achieve its goals, its increasing influence on Middle Eastern politics, and the historical context within which these developments have occurred. This volume includes Congressional Research Service reports on security issues concerning the United States, Ukraine, and the Russian Federation, as well as an English-language version of the Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation made available to the public, NATO's Framework for Future Alliance Operations, and recent studies on Russia's hybrid warfare from the NATO Defense College and the Joint Special Operations University Press.

TERRORISM COMMENTARY ON SECURITY DOCUMENTS VOLUME 141

Author: Douglas Lovelace Jr.
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019061465X
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Terrorism: Commentary on Security Documents is a series that provides primary source documents and expert commentary on various topics relating to the worldwide effort to combat terrorism, as well as efforts by the United States and other nations to protect their national security interests. Volume 141, Hybrid Warfare and the Gray Zone Threat, considers the mutation of the international security environment brought on by decades of unrivaled U.S. conventional military power. The term "hybrid warfare" encompasses conventional warfare, irregular warfare, cyberwarfare, insurgency, criminality, economic blackmail, ethnic warfare, "lawfare", and the application of low-cost but effective technologies to thwart high-cost technologically advanced forces. This volume is divided into five sections covering different aspects of this topic, each of which is introduced by expert commentary written by series editor Douglas C. Lovelace, Jr. This volume contains thirteen useful documents exploring various facets of the shifting international security environment, including a detailed report on hybrid warfare issued by the Joint Special Operations University and a White Paper on special operations forces support to political warfare prepared by the U.S. Army Special Operations Command, as well as a GAO report and a CRS report covering similar topics. Specific coverage is also given to topics such as cybersecurity and cyberwarfare, the efficacy of sanctions in avoiding and deterring hybrid warfare threats, and the intersection of the military and domestic U.S. law enforcement.

Inadvertent Escalation

Author: Barry R. Posen
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 080146837X
Format: PDF, Docs
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In this sobering book, Barry R. Posen demonstrates how the interplay between conventional military operations and nuclear forces could, in conflicts among states armed with both conventional and nuclear weaponry, inadvertently produce pressures for nuclear escalation. Knowledge of these hidden pressures, he believes, may help some future decision maker avoid catastrophe. Building a formidable argument that moves with cumulative force, he details the way in which escalation could occur not by mindless accident, or by deliberate preference for nuclear escalation, but rather as a natural accompaniment of land, naval, or air warfare at the conventional level. Posen bases his analysis on an empirical study of the east-west military competition in Europe during the 1980s, using a conceptual framework drawn from international relations theory, organization theory, and strategic theory. The lessons of his book, however, go well beyond the east-west competition. Since his observations are relevant to all military competitions between states armed with both conventional and nuclear weaponry, his book speaks to some of the problems that attend the proliferation of nuclear weapons in longstanding regional conflicts. Optimism that small and medium nuclear powers can easily achieve "stable" nuclear balances is, he believes, unwarranted.

Die Methodologie der wissenschaftlichen Forschungsprogramme

Author: Imre Lakatos
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 366308082X
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Royal Society, betrachtet die Hexentheorie als das Musterbeispiel empirischen Denkens. Wir müssen das empirische Denken definieren, ehe wir mit Hume anfangen, Bücher zu verbren nen. Das wissenschaftliche Denken konfrontiert die Theorien mit den Tatsachen; und eine der Hauptbedingungen dabei ist, daß die Theorien von den Tatsachen gestützt sein müs sen. Wie ist das nun des genaueren möglich? Darauf sind mehrere verschiedene Antworten vorgeschlagen worden. Newton selbst glaubte, seine Gesetze aufgrundder Tatsachen bewiesen zu haben. Er war stolz darauf, keine bloßen Hypothesen anzubieten; er veröffentlichte nur Theorien, die aufgrundder Tatsa chen bewiesen waren. Und zwar behauptete er, seine Gesetze aus den Keplerschen 'Erschei nungen' abgeleitet zu haben. Doch das war Unsinn, denn nach Kepler bewegten sich die Plane ten in Ellipsen, nach Newton aber wäre das nur richtig, wenn die Planeten nicht gegenseitig ihre Bewegung stören würden, und eben dies tun sie. Daher mußte Newton eine Störungstheo rie entwickeln, nach der sich kein Planet auf einer Ellipse bewegt. Heute kann man leicht zeigen, daß sich kein Naturgesetz aus endlich vielen Tatsa chen schlüssig ableiten läßt; doch man liest immer noch, wissenschaftliche Theorien würden aufgrundder Tatsachen bewiesen. Woher kommt diese hartnäckige Sperre gegen die elemen tare Logik? Das läßt sich sehr einleuchtend erklären. Die Wissenschaftler möchten ihren Theorien Achtung verschaffen, sie sollen die Bezeichnung 'Wissenschaft' verdienen, also echte Erkenntnis sein. Nun bezog sich im 17. Jahrhundert, als die Wissenschaft entstand, die wichtigste Erkenntnis auf Gott und den Teufel, auf Himmel und Hölle.

Geburtsurkunde

Author: Mark Thompson
Publisher: Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH Co KG
ISBN: 3446249575
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Einige Jahre vor seinem Tod hat Danilo Kis auf wenigen Seiten einen Abriss seines Lebens geschrieben, dem er den Titel "Geburtsurkunde" gab. Der Osteuropakenner Mark Thompson nimmt diesen Text auf virtuose Weise als Vorlage für seine fundierte und vorzüglich lesbare Biografie des Schriftstellers. Sein Buch erzählt nicht nur das Leben von Danilo Kis, sondern ist zugleich eine Werkbiographie und vermittelt den besonderen Zusammenhang von Geschichte und Literatur in Mittel- und Osteuropa. "Mark Thompsons Kompetenz auf diesem Gebiet ist atemberaubend." (Adam Zagajewski)