Risk Assessment with Time to Event Models

Author: Mark Crane
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420032283
Format: PDF, ePub
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How can environmental regulators use information on 48-hour toxicity tests to predict the effects of a few minutes of pollution? Or, at the other extreme, what is the relevance of 96-hour toxicity data for organisms that may have been exposed to a pollutant for six months or more? Time to event methods are the key to answering these types of questions. Risk Assessment with Time to Event Models is the first comprehensive treatment of these methods in the context of ecological risk assessment. Leading experts from industry, academia, and government regulatory agencies explain how these methods can be used to extract more useful information from laboratory data than is present in simple summary statistics like 48-h LC50. The book offers a clear introduction to the field through several approaches, from the introductory to the more mathematical. Risk Assessment with Time to Event Models demonstrates the relevance of time in the analysis and reporting of toxicity data through the use of practical examples from the field of environmental toxicology. It also incorporates helpful analogies from other disciplines that commonly use time to event modeling.

Regional Scale Ecological Risk Assessment

Author: Wayne G. Landis
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781566706551
Format: PDF, ePub
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As debates over how relative risk can be used to shape landscape-scale environmental management intensify, Regional-Scale Risk Assessment demonstrates the capabilities of RRM using nine case studies in the Pacific Northwest, Pennsylvania, Brazil, and Tasmania. The authors use a process of ranking and filters to interrelate different kinds of risks and illustrates how these relative risks are defined, mapped, and analyzed to determine remediation and management priorities. This book provides detailed descriptions for each step of RRM-from the determination of assessment goals to documentation, evaluation, and communication with decision-makers-that can benefit practitioners in environmental risk assessment and related fields worldwide.

Tolerance to Environmental Contaminants

Author: Claude Amiard-Triquet
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781439817711
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Tolerance, the ability of populations to cope with the chemical stress resulting from toxic contaminants, has been described in many organisms from bacteria to fungi, from phytoplankton to terrestrial flowering plants, and from invertebrates such as worms to vertebrates like fish and amphibians. The building of tolerance, be it by physiological acclimation or genetic adaptation, can have great consequences for the local biodiversity, and hence the ecology and ecosystem functioning of many of the world’s habitats. Understanding the frequency of the occurrence of tolerance has tremendous implications for the sustainability of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Tolerance to Environmental Contaminants takes a multidisciplinary approach across contaminant types, habitats, organisms, biological levels of organization and scientific disciplines. The book examines the general principles governing the acquisition and biological consequences of tolerance, genetically or physiologically based, at different levels of biological organization, taxonomically from bacteria and archaea to flowering plants and vertebrates, and within organisms from molecular biology and biochemistry through physiology to whole organism, community, and ecosystem levels of organization. Presenting a state-of-the-art synthesis of the many aspects of the phenomenon of tolerance to environmental contaminants, this volume covers mechanisms of defense involved in the acquisition of tolerance, different classes of environmental contaminants, positive and negative ecological consequences of tolerance and the impact of tolerance in bacteria, plants, and insects on society. The reviews presented in this book supply the tools for carrying out more informed and therefore more reliable risk-benefit analyses when assessing the ecotoxicological risks to life in any of the contaminated habitats that now surround us in our industrialized society.

Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 199

Author: David M. Whitacre
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387098089
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology attempts to provide concise, critical reviews of timely advances, philosophy and significant areas of accomplished or needed endeavor in the total field of xenobiotics, in any segment of the environment, as well as toxicological implications.

Risk Assessment Methods

Author: V.T. Covello
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1489912169
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Much has already been written about risk assessment. Epidemiologists write books on how risk assessment is used to explore the factors that influence the distribution of disease in populations of people. Toxicologists write books on how risk assess ment involves exposing animals to risk agents and concluding from the results what risks people might experience if similarly exposed. Engineers write books on how risk assessment is utilized to estimate the risks of constructing a new facility such as a nuclear power plant. Statisticians write books on how risk assessment may be used to analyze mortality or accident data to determine risks. There are already many books on risk assessment-the trouble is that they all seem to be about different sUbjects! This book takes another approach. It brings together all the methods for assessing risk into a common framework, thus demonstrating how the various methods relate to one another. This produces four important benefits: • First, it provides a comprehensive reference for risk assessment. This one source offers readers concise explanations of the many methods currently available for describing and quantifying diverse types of risks. • Second, it consistently evaluates and compares available risk assessment methods and identifies their specific strengths and limitations. Understand ing the limitations of risk assessment methods is important. The field is still in its infancy, and the problems with available methods are disappoint ingly numerous. At the same time, risk assessment is being used.

Species Sensitivity Distributions in Ecotoxicology

Author: Leo Posthuma
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420032313
Format: PDF, ePub
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In spite of the growing importance of Species Sensitivity Distribution models (SSDs) in ecological risk assessments, the conceptual basis, strengths, and weaknesses of using them have not been comprehensively reviewed. This book fills that need. Written by a panel of international experts, Species Sensitivity Distributions in Ecotoxicology reviews the current SSD methods from all angles, compiling for the first time the variety of contemporary applications of SSD-based methods. Beginning with an introduction to SSDs, the chapter authors review the issues surrounding SSDs, synthesizing the positions of advocates and critics with their own analysis of each issue. Finally, they discuss the prospects for future development, paving the way for improved future uses. In sum, this book defines the field of SSD modeling and application. It reveals a lively field, with SSD-applications extending beyond legally adopted quality criteria to other applications such as Life-Cycle Analysis. For anyone developing or revising environmental criteria or standards, this book explores the pros and cons of using the SSD approach. For anyone who needs to apply and interpret SSD-based criteria or standards, the book explains the basis for the numbers, thereby making it possible to correctly apply and defend them. For anyone performing ecological risk assessments, the book covers when and how to use SSDs including alternative assumptions, data treatments, computational methods, and available resources. Species Sensitivity Distributions in Ecotoxicology provides you with a clear picture of these standard models for estimating ecological risks from laboratory toxicity data.

Risk Assessment in Environmental Management

Author: D. Kofi Asante-Duah
Publisher: Wiley
ISBN: 9780471981473
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Provides a concise and comprehensive overview of the many facets/aspects relating to chemical risk assessments. It is a superb introduction for anyone needing to have a knowledge of how to conduct, evaluate or review risk assessment for environmental toxicants. Environmental contamination issues are a complex problem with worldwide implications. Risk assessment is a tool used to organize structure, and compile scientific information in order to help identify existing hazardous situations or problems, anticipate potential problems, establish priorities, and provide a basis for regulatory controls and/or corrective actions. This book presents some very important tools and methodologies that can be used to help resolve environmental contamination problems in a consistent, efficient and cost-effective way. It represents a collection and synthesis of the principal elements of the risk assessment process that pertain to environmental contamination problems. It offers an understanding of the scientific basis of risk assessment and its applications in the environmental industry - including a portrayal of how the risk assessment process fits into regulatory policies. Written for both the novice and experienced professional, this book will serve as a useful reference for anyone encountering risk assessment in environmental management programs.