Rock Stress and Its Measurement

Author: B. Amadei
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401153469
Format: PDF
Download Now
Rock masses are initially stressed in their current in situ state of stress and to a lesser natural state. Whether one is interested in the extent on the monitoring of stress change. formation of geological structures (folds, faults, The subject of paleostresses is only briefly intrusions, etc. ), the stability of artificial struc discussed. tures (tunnels, caverns, mines, surface excava The last 30 years have seen a major advance our knowledge and understanding of rock tions, etc. ), or the stability of boreholes, a in the in situ or virgin stress field, stress. A large body of data is now available on knowledge of along with other rock mass properties, is the state of stress in the near surface of the needed in order to predict the response of rock Earth's crust (upper 3-4km of the crust). masses to the disturbance associated with those Various theories have been proposed regarding structures. Stress in rock is usually described the origin of in situ stresses and how gravity, within the context of continuum mechanics. It is tectonics, erosion, lateral straining, rock fabric, defined at a point and is represented by a glaciation and deglaciation, topography, curva second-order Cartesian tensor with six compo ture of the Earth and other active geological nents. Because of its definition, rock stress is an features and processes contribute to the current enigmatic and fictitious quantity creating chal in situ stress field.

Stress Field of the Earth s Crust

Author: Arno Zang
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402084447
Format: PDF, Mobi
Download Now
Stress Field of the Earth’s Crust is based on lecture notes prepared for a course offered to graduate students in the Earth sciences and engineering at University of Potsdam. In my opinion, it will undoubtedly also become a standard reference book on the desk of most scientists working with rocks, such as geophysicists, structural geologists, rock mechanics experts, as well as geotechnical and petroleum en- neers. That is because this book is concerned with what is probably the most pe- liar characteristic of rock – its initial stress condition. Rock is always under a natural state of stress, primarily a result of the gravitational and tectonic forces to which it is subjected. Crustal stresses can vary regionally and locally and can reach in places considerable magnitudes, leading to natural or man-made mechanical failure. P- existing stress distinguishes rock from most other materials and is at the core of the discipline of “Rock Mechanics”, which has been developed over the last century. Knowledge of rock stress is fundamental to understanding faulting mechanisms and earthquake triggering, to designing stable underground caverns and prod- tive oil fields, and to improving mining methods and geothermal energy extraction, among others. Several books have been written on the subject, but none has atte- ted to be as all-encompassing as the one by Zang and Stephansson.

In Situ Rock Stress Measurement Interpretation and Application

Author: Abhinav Mishra
Publisher:
ISBN: 9781681174044
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Download Now
Understanding in-situ rock stress is important in the exploration and engineering involving rock masses for mining, hydropower, tunneling, oil and gas production, and stone quarrying. Traditional methods of determining these stresses have not developed substantially to keep pace with the increasing utilization of rock masses. Contributed by a group of leading experts, this book addresses new developments in numerical modeling and advanced measuring techniques. In-Situ Rock Stress: Measurement, Interpretation and Application reflect the development in this field, covering measuring techniques, interpretation methods, and application of the in-situ stress in engineering practice. Estimate of the in-situ rock stress state can be realized by direct or indirect methods. Although the indirect method has developed rapidly in recent years, the direct field measurement is still by far dominating. Great improvements have been achieved with the 'traditional' field tests by overcoring and hydraulic fracturing, whilst the recently developed methods become matured. In addition, ideas of new methods and new instruments will make the stress estimate easier, less expensive and more reliable.

Rock Anisotropy and the Theory of Stress Measurements

Author: Bernard Amadei
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642820409
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Download Now
Any undisturbed rock mass is subject to natural stresses inclu ding gravitational stresses due to the mass of the overburden and possibly tectonic stresses due to the straining of the earth's crust and remanent stresses due to past tectonism. Knowledge of the in situ stress field must be integrated into any rock engineering design along with general rock mass characteristics such as de for mability, strength, permeability and time dependent behavior. For example, the choice of optimum orientation and shape of deep underground caverns or complex underground works will be controlled by the orientation and the magnitude of the in situ stress @ield if it is necessary to minimize stress concentration problems. Long term variation of the in situ stress field may also help to evaluate the potential hazard of earthquake occurences. The magnitude and orientation of the stress field ata point within a rock mass can be measured but there is no known method by which the state of stress at a point can be accurately determined by instruments located remotely. In general, measurements are made inside boreholes, on outcrops or on the internal surfaces of under ground cavities. Most of the measuring techniques intentionally disturb the state of stress in the rock and then measure consequent strains and displacements. Measured strains or displacements are then related to the stresses through assumptions of material behavior. A common procedure is to assume that the rock mass is linearly elastic, isotropic, continuous and homogeneous.

Rock Stress and Earthquakes

Author: Furen Xie
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0203836103
Format: PDF, Mobi
Download Now
The evaluation of in-situ rock stress is not only important in the exploration and engineering involving rock masses for mining, hydropower, tunneling, oil and gas production, and stone quarrying, but also in the geodynamics and earthquake prediction. The methods of determining these stresses for shallow crust in the engineering practice, including hydraulic fracture method, stress relief method, and acoustic emission method, have not developed substantially to satisfy the increasing utilization of rock masses. The geophysical methods for stresses determination of deep crust only determine the stress fields of deep crust qualitatively. Contributed by a group of leading experts from engineering and geophysical community, Rock Stress and Earthquakes addresses new developments in numerical modeling and advanced measuring techniques in engineering practices, and build new connections between traditional and geophysical methods, which will both benefit earthquake prediction based on the concept of the crustal stresses. Rock Stress and Earthquakes reflects the developments in this area, covering measuring techniques, interpretation methods, and the application of in-situ stress in engineering practice and geophysics, and is of interest to academics and engineers in rock mechanics, geophysics, geology, and seismology.

Stress Regimes in the Lithosphere

Author: Terry Engelder
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400863155
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download Now
The purpose of this book is to acquaint the geoscientist with issues associated with the debate over orientation and magnitude of stress in the lithosphere. Terry Engelder provides a broad understanding of the topic, while touching some of the specific details involved in the interpretation of stress data generated by the most commonly used measurement techniques. An understanding of stress in the lithosphere starts with an introduction to nomenclature based on three reference states of stress. Since rock strength governs differential stress magnitudes, stress regimes are identified according to the specific failure mechanism (crack propagation, shear rupture, ductile flow, or frictional slip) that controls the magnitude of stress at a particular time and place in the lithosphere. After introducing the various stress regimes, the author shows how their extent in the upper crust is demarcated by direct measurements of four types: hydraulic fracture, borehole-logging, strain-relaxation, and rigid-inclusion measurements. The relationship between lithospheric stress and the properties of rocks is then presented in terms of microcrack-related phenomena and residual stress. Lithospheric stress is also inferred from the analysis of earthquakes. Finally, lithospheric stress is placed in the context of large-scale stress fields and plate tectonics. Originally published in 1993. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

Vitrification in Assisted Reproduction Second Edition

Author: Michael Tucker
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780415401630
Format: PDF, ePub
Download Now
With the new classification of chronic myeloproliferative disorders, and the rise of interest in molecularly targeted therapies, this timely text brings together international experts on the topic to discuss the current technologies and their implications for the treatment of patients. This title comprehensively covers chronic myeloid leukemia and Ph-negative chronic myeloproliferative disorders and is an essential resource for all practitioners in Hematologic Oncology.

Rock Stress 03

Author: K. Sugawara
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9789058096395
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download Now
This publication contains three special lectures, six keynote addresses and sixty-eight technical papers presented at the symposium. The wide variety of topics covered are grouped in the proceedings according to subject.

Petroleum Rock Mechanics

Author: Bernt Sigve Aadnøy
Publisher: Gulf Professional Publishing
ISBN: 0123855462
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Download Now
Pt. 1. Fundamentals of solid mechanics -- pt. 2. Petroleum rock mechanics.

Earthquakes at North Atlantic Passive Margins Neotectonics and Postglacial Rebound

Author: Søren Gregersen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400923112
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Download Now
For many years, the two subjects of (1) postglacial rebound and its potential for generating earthquakes and (2) the seismicity of passive continental ml!rgins have been of interest and concern to earth scientists on both sides of the North Atlantic. New data and theoretical interpretations have given rise to vigorous discussions on how much the two phenomena inter-relate and whether a significant controlling factor on seismicity in northeastern North America and Scandinavia is the crustal uplift that has been occurring since the latest ice age. The lack of a good understanding of these phenomena presented a particular problem for engineering seismologists attempting to prepare accurate seismic hazard estimates for facili ties both on land (e. g. , nuclear power stations and radioactive waste repositories) and offshore (e. g. , petroleum production facili ties) . The NATO Advanced Research Workshop programme provided an opportuni ty to bring together a group of relevant geophysicists, geologists and geodesists from both sides of the North Atlantic, and a workshop on "Causes and Effects of Earthquakes at Passive Margins and in Areas of Postglacial Rebound on both Sides of the North Atlantic" was held in Vordingborg, Denmark, 9-13 May 1988. The sup port of the NATO Science Committee is gratefully acknowledged.