Roll to Roll Vacuum Deposition of Barrier Coatings

Author: Charles A. Bishop
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118946162
Format: PDF, Docs
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It is intended that the book will be a practical guide to provide any reader with the basic information to help them understand what is necessary in order to produce a good barrier coated web or to improve the quality of any existing barrier product. After providing an introduction, where the terminology is outlined and some of the science is given (keeping the mathematics to a minimum), including barrier testing methods, the vacuum deposition process will be described. In theory a thin layer of metal or glass-like material should be enough to convert any polymer film into a perfect barrier material. The reality is that all barrier coatings have their performance limited by the defects in the coating. This book looks at the whole process from the source materials through to the post deposition handling of the coated material. This holistic view of the vacuum coating process provides a description of the common sources of defects and includes the possible methods of limiting the defects. This enables readers to decide where their development efforts and money can best be used to improve the barrier performance of their own process or materials. The 2nd edition contains at least 20% new material including additional barrier testing techniques that have been developed and testing and cleaning equipment brought to market since the 1st edition was published in 2010. The topic of adhesion is covered in more detail and there is a section on the Hanson Solubility Parameter which is a method of predicting the solubility of gases or liquids in materials.

Introduction to Surface Engineering and Functionally Engineered Materials

Author: Peter Martin
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118171888
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book provides a clear and understandable text for users and developers of advanced engineered materials, particularly in the area of thin films, and addresses fundamentals of modifying the optical, electrical, photo-electric, triboligical, and corrosion resistance of solid surfaces and adding functionality to solids by engineering their surface, structure, and electronic, magnetic and optical structure. Thin film applications are emphasized. Through the inclusion of multiple clear examples of the technologies, how to use them,and the synthesis processes involved, the reader will gain a deep understanding of the purpose, goals, and methodology of surface engineering and engineered materials. Virtually every advance in thin film, energy, medical, tribological materials technologies has resulted from surface engineering and engineered materials. Surface engineering involves structures and compositions not found naturally in solids and is used to modify the surface properties of solids and involves application of thin film coatings, surface functionalization and activation, and plasma treatment. Engineered materials are the future of thin film technology. Engineered structures such as superlattices, nanolaminates, nanotubes, nanocomposites, smart materials, photonic bandgap materials, metamaterials, molecularly doped polymers and structured materials all have the capacity to expand and increase the functionality of thin films and coatings used in a variety of applications and provide new applications. New advanced deposition processes and hybrid processes are being used and developed to deposit advanced thin film materials and structures not possible with conventional techniques a decade ago. Properties can now be engineered into thin films that achieve performance not possible a decade ago.

Polymer Morphology

Author: Qipeng Guo
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118892771
Format: PDF
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With a focus on structure-property relationships, this book describes how polymer morphology affects properties and how scientists can modify them. The book covers structure development, theory, simulation, and processing; and discusses a broad range of techniques and methods. • Provides an up-to-date, comprehensive introduction to the principles and practices of polymer morphology • Illustrates major structure types, such as semicrystalline morphology, surface-induced polymer crystallization, phase separation, self-assembly, deformation, and surface topography • Covers a variety of polymers, such as homopolymers, block copolymers, polymer thin films, polymer blends, and polymer nanocomposites • Discusses a broad range of advanced and novel techniques and methods, like x-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, and electron microscopy and their applications in the morphology of polymer materials

Roll to Roll Manufacturing

Author: Jehuda Greener
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119162203
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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A single-volume resource featuring state-of-the art reviews of key elements of the roll-to-roll manufacturing processing methodology Roll-to-roll (R2R) manufacturing is an important manufacturing technology platform used extensively for mass-producing a host of film-type products in several traditional industries such as printing, silver-halide photography, and paper. Over the last two decades, some of the methodologies and know-how of R2R manufacturing have been extended and adapted in many new technology areas, including microelectronics, display, photovoltaics, and microfluidics. This comprehensive book presents the state-of-the-art unit operations of the R2R manufacturing technology, providing a practical resource for scientists, engineers, and practitioners not familiar with the fundamentals of R2R technology. Roll-to-Roll Manufacturing: Process Elements and Recent Advances reviews new developments in areas such as flexible glass, display, and photovoltaics and covers a number of process innovations implemented recently to extend and improve the capabilities of traditional R2R lines. It covers such topics as: coating and solidification processes, in-line vacuum deposition, drying, web handling and winding, polymer film substrates, novel hybrid composite films, flexible solar cells and more. Additionally, this book: Examines key elements (unit operations) of the R2R technology, and discusses how these elements are utilized and integrated to achieve desired process efficiencies in a host of applications. Illustrates several established and novel application areas where R2R processing is utilized in current or future products. Discusses process design methodology and key advantages of R2R manufacturing technology over batch or sheet-to-sheet operations. Roll-to-Roll Manufacturing: Process Elements and Recent Advances is an ideal book for undergraduate and graduate students in various science and engineering disciplines, as well as for scientists, engineers, and technical and business leaders associated in any way with the development, commercialization, and manufacture of a variety of film products.

Concise Encyclopedia of High Performance Silicones

Author: Atul Tiwari
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118938445
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The encyclopedia will be an invaluable source of information for researchers and students from diverse backgrounds including physics, chemistry, materials science and surface engineering, biotechnology, pharmacy, medical science, and biomedical engineering.

Hydraulic Fracturing Operations

Author: Nicholas P. Cheremisinoff
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119099994
Format: PDF
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Hydraulic fracturing, commonly referred to as “fracking,” is a technique used by the oil and gas industry to mine hydrocarbons trapped deep beneath the Earth’s surface. The principles underlying the technology are not new. Fracking was first applied at the commercial level in the United States as early as 1947, and over the decades it has been applied in various countries including Canada, the UK, and Russia. The author worked with engineering teams as early as the mid-1970s in evaluating ways to improve oil recovery from this practice. By and large fracking was not an economically competitive process and had limited applications until the early 2000s. Several factors altered the importance of this technology, among them being significant technological innovations in drilling practices with impressive high tech tools for exploration, well construction and integrity, and recovery along with discoveries of massive natural gas reserves in the United States and other parts of the world. These factors have catapulted the application of the technology to what is best described as the gold rush of the 21st century, with exploration and natural gas plays proceeding at a pace that seemingly is unrivaled by any historical industrial endeavor. But this level of activity has invoked widespread criticism from concerned citizens and environmental groups in almost every nation across the Globe. This outstanding new volume offers the industry a handbook of environmental management practices that can mitigate risks to the environment and, through best practices and current technologies, to conform to the current standards and regulations that are in place to provide the world with the energy it needs while avoiding environmental damage. For the new hire, veteran engineer, and student alike, this is a one-of-a-kind volume, a must-have for anyone working in hydraulic fracturing.

Biosensors Nanotechnology

Author: Ashutosh Tiwari
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118773810
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book provides detailed reviews of a range of nanostructures used in the construction of biosensors as well as the applications of these biosensor nanotechnologies in the biological, chemical, and environmental monitoring fields Biological sensing is a fundamental tool for understanding living systems, but also finds practical application in medicine, drug discovery, process control, food safety, environmental monitoring, defense, and personal security. Moreover, a deeper understanding of the bio/electronic interface leads us towards new horizons in areas such as bionics, power generation, and computing. Advances in telecommunications, expert systems, and distributed diagnostics prompt us to question the current ways we deliver healthcare, while robust industrial sensors enable new paradigms in R&D and production. Despite these advances, there is a glaring absence of suitably robust and convenient sensors for body chemistries. This book examines some of the emerging technologies that are fueling scientific discovery and underpinning new products to enhance the length and quality of our lives. The 14 chapters written by leading experts cover such topics as: ZnO and graphene microelectrode applications in biosensing Assembly of polymers/metal nanoparticles Gold nanoparticle-based electrochemical biosensors Impedimetric DNA sensing employing nanomaterials Graphene and carbon nanotube-based biosensors Computational nanochemistry study of the BFPF green fluorescent protein chromophore Biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles Bioconjugated-nanoporous gold films in electrochemical biosensors The combination of molecular imprinting and nanotechnology Principles and properties of multiferroics and ceramics

Chemistry in Microelectronics

Author: Yannick Le Tiec
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118578120
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Microelectronics is a complex world where many sciences need to collaborate to create nano-objects: we need expertise in electronics, microelectronics, physics, optics and mechanics also crossing into chemistry, electrochemistry, as well as biology, biochemistry and medicine. Chemistry is involved in many fields from materials, chemicals, gases, liquids or salts, the basics of reactions and equilibrium, to the optimized cleaning of surfaces and selective etching of specific layers. In addition, over recent decades, the size of the transistors has been drastically reduced while the functionality of circuits has increased. This book consists of five chapters covering the chemicals and sequences used in processing, from cleaning to etching, the role and impact of their purity, along with the materials used in “Front End Of the Line” which corresponds to the heart and performance of individual transistors, then moving on to the “Back End Of the Line” which is related to the interconnection of all the transistors. Finally, the need for specific functionalization also requires key knowledge on surface treatments and chemical management to allow new applications. Contents 1. Chemistry in the “Front End of the Line” (FEOL): Deposits, Gate Stacks, Epitaxy and Contacts, François Martin, Jean-Michel Hartmann, Véronique Carron and Yannick Le Tiec. 2. Chemistry in Interconnects, Vincent Jousseaume, Paul-Henri Haumesser, Carole Pernel, Jeffery Butterbaugh, Sylvain Maîtrejean and Didier Louis. 3. The Chemistry of Wet Surface Preparation: Cleaning, Etching and Drying, Yannick Le Tiec and Martin Knotter. 4. The Use and Management of Chemical Fluids in Microelectronics, Christiane Gottschalk, Kevin Mclaughlin, Julie Cren, Catherine Peyne and Patrick Valenti. 5. Surface Functionalization for Micro- and Nanosystems: Application to Biosensors, Antoine Hoang, Gilles Marchand, Guillaume Nonglaton, Isabelle Texier-Nogues and Francoise Vinet. About the Authors Yannick Le Tiec is a technical expert at CEA-Leti, Minatec since 2002. He is a CEA-Leti assignee at IBM, Albany (NY) to develop the advanced 14 nm CMOS node and the FDSOI technology. He held different technical positions from the advanced 300 mm SOI CMOS pilot line to different assignments within SOITEC for advanced wafer development and later within INES to optimize solar cell ramp-up and yield. He has been part of the ITRS Front End technical working group at ITRS since 2008.

Vacuum Deposition onto Webs Films and Foils

Author: Charles Bishop
Publisher: William Andrew
ISBN: 0323296904
Format: PDF, Docs
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Vacuum Deposition onto Webs: Films and Foils, Third Edition, provides the latest information on vacuum deposition, the technology that applies an even coating to a flexible material that can be held on a roll, thereby offering a much faster and cheaper method of bulk coating than deposition onto single pieces or non-flexible surfaces such as glass. This technology has been used in industrial-scale applications for some time, including a wide range of metalized packaging. Its potential as a high-speed, scalable process has seen an increasing range of new products emerging that employ this cost-effective technology, including solar energy products that are moving from rigid panels onto cheaper and more versatile flexible substrates, flexible electronic circuit ‘boards’, and flexible displays. In this third edition, all chapters are thoroughly revised with a significant amount of new information added, including newly developed barrier measurement techniques, improved in-vacuum monitoring technologies, and the latest developments in Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD). Provides the know-how to maximize productivity of vacuum coating systems Thoroughly revised with a significant amount of new information added, including newly developed barrier measurement techniques, improved in-vacuum monitoring technologies, and the latest on Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) Presents the latest information on vacuum deposition, the technology that applies an even coating to a flexible material that can be held on a roll, thereby offering a much faster and cheaper method of bulk coating Enables engineers to specify systems more effectively and enhances dialogue between non-specialists and suppliers/engineers Empowers those in rapidly expanding fields such as solar energy, display panels, and flexible electronics to unlock the potential of vacuum coating to transform their processes and products

Biodegradable Green Composites

Author: Susheel Kalia
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118911091
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book comprehensively addresses surface modification of natural fibers to make them more effective, cost-efficient, and environmentally friendly. Topics include the elucidation of important aspects surrounding chemical and green approaches for the surface modification of natural fibers, the use of recycled waste, properties of biodegradable polyesters, methods such as electrospinning, and applications of hybrid composite materials.