Rousseau

Author: Joshua Cohen
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 0199581495
Format: PDF
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Joshua Cohen explains how the values of freedom, equality, and community all work together as parts of the democratic ideal expressed in Rousseau's conception of the 'society of the general will'. He also explores Rousseau's anti-Augustinian and anti-Hobbesian ideas that we are naturally good.

Jean Jacques Rousseau Vom Gesellschaftsvertrag

Author: Karlfriedrich Herb
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 3050060182
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Bescheiden im Umfang, revolutionär in der Wirkung, kontrovers in der Deutung: Rousseaus Schrift Vom Gesellschaftsvertrag oder die Prinzipien des Staatsrechts (1762) gehört bis heute zu den unangefochtenen Klassikern der Politischen Philosophie der Moderne. Der Gesellschaftsvertrag, der Umschlagort von Naturzustand und Staat, ist paradox; er soll die völlige Freiheit der Menschen gewährleisten und dennoch aus ihnen ein gemeinsames Ich schaffen, der Mensch soll vorbehaltlos zum Bürger dieses einen Staates werden.. Das moderne Freiheitsideal wird in eine antike Polisgemeinschaft transplantiert. Die Interpretation der Schrift wird dadurch erschwert, dass sie einerseits ein an eine gelehrte Tradition anknüpfender rechtsphilosophischer Traktat ist, andererseits ein politisches Pamphlet mit rhetorischen Überhöhungen. Die Aufsatzsammlung sucht den Ambivalenzen des Buches gerecht zu werden, sie liefert einen kooperativen Kommentar zu den Hauptthemen des Gesellschaftsvertrages.

Secular Powers

Author: Julie E. Cooper
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 022608132X
Format: PDF, ePub
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Secularism is usually thought to contain the project of self-deification, in which humans attack God’s authority in order to take his place, freed from all constraints. Julie E. Cooper overturns this conception through an incisive analysis of the early modern justifications for secular politics. While she agrees that secularism is a means of empowerment, she argues that we have misunderstood the sources of secular empowerment and the kinds of strength to which it aspires. Contemporary understandings of secularism, Cooper contends, have been shaped by a limited understanding of it as a shift from vulnerability to power. But the works of the foundational thinkers of secularism tell a different story. Analyzing the writings of Hobbes, Spinoza, and Rousseau at the moment of secularity’s inception, she shows that all three understood that acknowledging one’s limitations was a condition of successful self-rule. And while all three invited humans to collectively build and sustain a political world, their invitations did not amount to self-deification. Cooper establishes that secular politics as originally conceived does not require a choice between power and vulnerability. Rather, it challenges us—today as then—to reconcile them both as essential components of our humanity.

Economic Justice

Author: Helen M. Stacy
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 940074904X
Format: PDF, ePub
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The economic impact of the U. S. financial market meltdown of 2008 has been devastating both in the U. S. and worldwide. One consequence of this crisis is the widening gap between rich and poor. With little end in sight to global economic woes, it has never been more urgent to examine and re-examine the values and ideals that animate policy about the market, the workplace, and formal and informal economic institutions at the level of the nation state and internationally. Re-entering existing debates and provoking new ones about economic justice, this volume makes a timely contribution to a normative assessment of our economic values and the institutions that active those norms. Topics covered by this volumes essays range from specific or relatively small-scale problems such as payday lending and prisoners’ access to adequate healthcare; to large-scale such as global poverty, the free market and international aid. Economic Justice will stimulate and provoke philosophers, policy makers, the engaged readers who and better outcomes from financial institutions and more effect distribution of economic goods.

Rousseau and Hobbes

Author: Robin Douglass
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191038032
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Robin Douglass presents the first comprehensive study of Jean-Jacques Rousseau's engagement with Thomas Hobbes. He reconstructs the intellectual context of this engagement to reveal the deeply polemical character of Rousseau's critique of Hobbes and to show how Rousseau sought to expose that much modern natural law and doux commerce theory was, despite its protestations to the contrary, indebted to a Hobbesian account of human nature and the origins of society. Throughout the book Douglass explores the reasons why Rousseau both followed and departed from Hobbes in different places, while resisting the temptation to present him as either a straightforwardly Hobbesian or anti-Hobbesian thinker. On the one hand, Douglass reveals the extent to which Rousseau was occupied with problems of a fundamentally Hobbesian nature and the importance, to both thinkers, of appealing to the citizens' passions in order to secure political unity. On the other hand, Douglass argues that certain ideas at the heart of Rousseau's philosophy—free will and the natural goodness of man—were set out to distance him from positions associated with Hobbes. Douglass advances an original interpretation of Rousseau's political philosophy, emerging from this encounter with Hobbesian ideas, which focuses on the interrelated themes of nature, free will, and the passions. Douglass distances his interpretation from those who have read Rousseau as a proto-Kantian and instead argues that his vision of a well-ordered republic was based on cultivating man's naturally good passions to render the life of the virtuous citizen in accordance with nature.

Das unbeschriebene Blatt

Author: Steven Pinker
Publisher: S. Fischer Verlag
ISBN: 3104903905
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Mit einem aktuellen Vorwort zur Neuausgabe! Auf John Locke geht die Vorstellung zurück, der Mensch sei ein leeres Blatt, auf dem im Verlauf des Lebens die persönlichen Erfahrungen eingetragen werden. In seinem mittlerweile klassischen Buch »Das unbeschriebene Blatt. Die moderne Leugnung der menschlichen Natur« bezieht Bestseller-Autor Steven Pinker ganz die Gegenposition: Mit Witz, Brillanz und Gelehrsamkeit analysiert er die Geschichte dieser Idee und zeigt, wie falsch sie ist – mit allen kruden Auswirkungen auf Vorstellungen von Sexualität, Rasse, Kindererziehung, Intelligenz usw. Die Rolle der Gene wird systematisch unterschätzt; aber das bedeutet nicht, dass wir ihnen völlig ausgeliefert sind. Pinker zeigt nämlich auch, wie befreiend diese Sichtweise sein kann. Ein unterhaltsames und anschauliches Buch zur Natur des Menschen, ein echter Lesegenuss.

Democratic Decision Making

Author: David Lewis Schaefer
Publisher: Lexington Books
ISBN: 0739142089
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Democratic Decision-Making: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives contains eight essays by political scientists, all but one of them previously unpublished, addressing various aspects of the democratic decision-making process. The book consists of four parts, each consisting of two essays devoted to a common theme: democratic statesmanship, the extent to which limitations of the democratic principle of majority rule are desirable, the contemporary academic theory of “deliberative democracy,” and informal modes of democratic decision-making.

Encyclopedia of Democratic Thought

Author: Paul Barry Clarke
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136908633
Format: PDF
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Containing almost 200 entries from 'accountability' to the 'Westminster model' the Encyclopedia of Democratic Thought explores all the ideas that matter to democracy past, present and future. It is destined to become the first port-of-call for all students, teachers and researchers of political science interested in democratic ideas, democratic practice, and the quality of democratic governance. The Encyclopedia provides extensive coverage of all the key concepts of democratic thought written by a stellar team of distinguished international contributors. The Encyclopedia draws on every tradition of democratic thought, as well as developing new thinking, in order to provide full coverage of the key democratic concepts and engage with their practical implications for the conduct of democratic politics in the world today. In this way, it brings every kind of democratic thinking to bear on the challenges facing contemporary democracies and on the possibilities of the democratic future. The Encyclopedia is global in scope and responds in detail to the democratic revolution of recent decades. Referring both to the established democratic states of Western Europe, North America and Australasia, and to the recent democracies of Latin America, Eastern and Central Europe, Africa and Asia, classical democratic concerns are related to new democracies, and to important changes in the older democracies. Supplemented by full bibliographical information, extensive cross-referencing and suggestions for further reading, the Encyclopedia of Democratic Thought is a unique work of reference combining the expertise of many of the world's leading political scientists, political sociologists and political philosophers. It will be welcomed as an essential resource for both teaching and for independent study, and as a solid starting point both for further research and wider exploration.