Rudiments of Calculus

Author: A. Arnold
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080516455
Format: PDF, Docs
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This book presents what in our opinion constitutes the basis of the theory of the mu-calculus, considered as an algebraic system rather than a logic. We have wished to present the subject in a unified way, and in a form as general as possible. Therefore, our emphasis is on the generality of the fixed-point notation, and on the connections between mu-calculus, games, and automata, which we also explain in an algebraic way. This book should be accessible for graduate or advanced undergraduate students both in mathematics and computer science. We have designed this book especially for researchers and students interested in logic in computer science, comuter aided verification, and general aspects of automata theory. We have aimed at gathering in a single place the fundamental results of the theory, that are currently very scattered in the literature, and often hardly accessible for interested readers. The presentation is self-contained, except for the proof of the Mc-Naughton's Determinization Theorem (see, e.g., [97]. However, we suppose that the reader is already familiar with some basic automata theory and universal algebra. The references, credits, and suggestions for further reading are given at the end of each chapter.

Handbook of Mathematical Logic

Author: J. Barwise
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080933641
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The handbook is divided into four parts: model theory, set theory, recursion theory and proof theory. Each of the four parts begins with a short guide to the chapters that follow. Each chapter is written for non-specialists in the field in question. Mathematicians will find that this book provides them with a unique opportunity to apprise themselves of developments in areas other than their own.

The Foundations of Mathematics

Author: Kenneth Kunen
ISBN: 9781904987147
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Mathematical logic grew out of philosophical questions regarding the foundations of mathematics, but logic has now outgrown its philosophical roots, and has become an integral part of mathematics in general. This book is designed for students who plan to specialize in logic, as well as for those who are interested in the applications of logic to other areas of mathematics. Used as a text, it could form the basis of a beginning graduate-level course. There are three main chapters: Set Theory, Model Theory, and Recursion Theory. The Set Theory chapter describes the set-theoretic foundations of all of mathematics, based on the ZFC axioms. It also covers technical results about the Axiom of Choice, well-orderings, and the theory of uncountable cardinals. The Model Theory chapter discusses predicate logic and formal proofs, and covers the Completeness, Compactness, and Lowenheim-Skolem Theorems, elementary submodels, model completeness, and applications to algebra. This chapter also continues the foundational issues begun in the set theory chapter. Mathematics can now be viewed as formal proofs from ZFC. Also, model theory leads to models of set theory. This includes a discussion of absoluteness, and an analysis of models such as H( ) and R( ). The Recursion Theory chapter develops some basic facts about computable functions, and uses them to prove a number of results of foundational importance; in particular, Church's theorem on the undecidability of logical consequence, the incompleteness theorems of Godel, and Tarski's theorem on the non-definability of truth.

Practical Foundations of Mathematics

Author: Paul Taylor
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521631075
Format: PDF, ePub
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Practical Foundations collects the methods of construction of the objects of twentieth-century mathematics. Although it is mainly concerned with a framework essentially equivalent to intuitionistic Zermelo-Fraenkel logic, the book looks forward to more subtle bases in categorical type theory and the machine representation of mathematics. Each idea is illustrated by wide-ranging examples, and followed critically along its natural path, transcending disciplinary boundaries between universal algebra, type theory, category theory, set theory, sheaf theory, topology and programming. Students and teachers of computing, mathematics and philosophy will find this book both readable and of lasting value as a reference work.

Principles of Mathematics

Author: Vladimir Lepetic
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119131650
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Presents a uniquely balanced approach that bridges introductory and advanced topics in modern mathematics An accessible treatment of the fundamentals of modern mathematics, Principles of Mathematics: A Primer provides a unique approach to introductory andadvanced mathematical topics. The book features six main subjects, whichcan be studied independently or in conjunction with each other including: settheory; mathematical logic; proof theory; group theory; theory of functions; andlinear algebra. The author begins with comprehensive coverage of the necessary building blocks in mathematics and emphasizes the need to think abstractly and develop an appreciation for mathematical thinking. Maintaining a useful balance of introductory coverage and mathematical rigor, Principles of Mathematics: A Primer features: Detailed explanations of important theorems and their applications Hundreds of completely solved problems throughout each chapter Numerous exercises at the end of each chapter to encourage further exploration Discussions of interesting and provocative issues that spark readers’ curiosity and facilitate a better understanding and appreciation of the field of mathematics Principles of Mathematics: A Primer is an ideal textbook for upper-undergraduate courses in the foundations of mathematics and mathematical logic as well as for graduate-level courses related to physics, engineering, and computer science. The book is also a useful reference for readers interested in pursuing careers in mathematics and the sciences. Vladimir Lepetic, PhD, is Professor in the Department of Mathematical Sciences at DePaul University. His research interests include mathematical physics, set theory, foundations of mathematics, and the philosophy of mathematics.

Logical Foundations of Mathematics and Computational Complexity

Author: Pavel Pudlák
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3319001191
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The two main themes of this book, logic and complexity, are both essential for understanding the main problems about the foundations of mathematics. Logical Foundations of Mathematics and Computational Complexity covers a broad spectrum of results in logic and set theory that are relevant to the foundations, as well as the results in computational complexity and the interdisciplinary area of proof complexity. The author presents his ideas on how these areas are connected, what are the most fundamental problems and how they should be approached. In particular, he argues that complexity is as important for foundations as are the more traditional concepts of computability and provability. Emphasis is on explaining the essence of concepts and the ideas of proofs, rather than presenting precise formal statements and full proofs. Each section starts with concepts and results easily explained, and gradually proceeds to more difficult ones. The notes after each section present some formal definitions, theorems and proofs. Logical Foundations of Mathematics and Computational Complexity is aimed at graduate students of all fields of mathematics who are interested in logic, complexity and foundations. It will also be of interest for both physicists and philosophers who are curious to learn the basics of logic and complexity theory.

Basic Simple Type Theory

Author: J. Roger Hindley
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521465182
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Type theory is one of the most important tools in the design of higher-level programming languages, such as ML. This book introduces and teaches its techniques by focusing on one particularly neat system and studying it in detail. By concentrating on the principles that make the theory work in practice, the author covers all the key ideas without getting involved in the complications of more advanced systems. This book takes a type-assignment approach to type theory, and the system considered is the simplest polymorphic one. The author covers all the basic ideas, including the system's relation to propositional logic, and gives a careful treatment of the type-checking algorithm that lies at the heart of every such system. Also featured are two other interesting algorithms that until now have been buried in inaccessible technical literature. The mathematical presentation is rigorous but clear, making it the first book at this level that can be used as an introduction to type theory for computer scientists.

Foundations of Constructive Analysis

Author: Errett Bishop
Publisher: Ishi Press
ISBN: 9784871877145
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book, Foundations of Constructive Analysis, founded the field of constructive analysis because it proved most of the important theorems in real analysis by constructive methods. The author, Errett Albert Bishop, born July 10, 1928, was an American mathematician known for his work on analysis. In the later part of his life Bishop was seen as the leading mathematician in the area of Constructive mathematics. From 1965 until his death, he was professor at the University of California at San Diego.