Ruling Passions

Author: Simon Blackburn
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 9780199241392
Format: PDF, Docs
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Simon Blackburn puts forward a compelling original philosophy of human motivation and morality. He maintains that we cannot get clear about ethics until we get clear about human nature. So these are the sorts of questions he addresses: Why do we behave as we do? Can we improve? Is our ethics at war with our passions, or is it an upshot of those passions? Blackburn seeks the answers in an exploration of guilt, shame, disgust, and other moral emotions; he draws also on game theory and cognitive science in his account of the structures of human motivation. Many philosophers have wanted a naturalistic ethics a theory that integrates our understanding of human morality with the rest of our understanding of the world we live in. What is special about Blackburn's naturalistic ethics is that it does not debunk the ethical by reducing it to the non-ethical. At the same time he banishes the spectres of scepticism and relativism that have haunted recent moral philosophy. Ruling Passions sets ethics in the context of human nature: it offers a solution to the puzzle of how ethics can maintain its authority even though it is rooted in the very emotions and motivations that it exists to control.

Der ethische Relativismus als Herausforderung f r die ethischen Theorien

Author: Florian Braun
Publisher: Tectum Wissenschaftsverlag
ISBN: 3828866158
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Das Phänomen konfligierender Moralvorstellungen tritt dann zutage, wenn hinsichtlich der auf eine bestimmte moralische Fragestellung hervorgebrachten und voneinander abweichenden Antworten keine Einigung erzielt werden kann. Gelingt es nicht, eine dieser Ansichten auf fehlerhafte Annahmen zurückzuführen, wäre es schlicht vermessen, diese als "falsch" zu bewerten. Vielmehr scheint es vernünftig, anzunehmen, dass in einem solchen Fall auch unterschiedliche Meinungen gleichwertige Gültigkeit beanspruchen können und dass der Lösung moralischer Probleme durchaus verschiedene Wege offenstehen. Zwei Hauptanliegen werden in diesem Buch verfolgt. Zum einen soll gezeigt werden, dass eine konsistente Version eines ethischen Relativismus entwickelt werden kann, die auf der Möglichkeit des Bestehens grundlegender und unauflösbarer moralischer Meinungsunterschiede beruht. Zum anderen stellt ein so verstandener Relativismus eine nachgeordnete Theorie dar, die sich direkt aus den metaethischen Festlegungen der gewählten ethischen Theorie ergeben, sodass ein Großteil prominenter ethischer Theorien potenziell mit einem ethischen Relativismus vereinbar scheint, diese zumindest aber vor erhebliche Schwierigkeiten gestellt werden, wollen sie die Möglichkeit unauflösbarer moralischer Meinungsunterschiede bestreiten.

Grundkurs Metaethik

Author: Markus Rüther
Publisher: mentis Verlag GmbH
ISBN: 3957438764
Format: PDF, ePub
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Die Metaethik als Disziplin kann auf eine vergleichsweise kurze Vergangenheit zurückblicken. Datiert wird ihre Geburtsstunde zumeist auf das Erscheinen der Principia Ethica (1903) von G. E. Moore. Seitdem hat sie jedoch einen rasanten Aufstieg erlebt. So müssen sich ihre Publikationszahlen, auch im deutschsprachigen Raum, nicht vor denen der angewandten Ethik oder politischen Philosophie verstecken. Diesem Interesse steht ein auffälliges "Schweigen" gegenüber, das Forschungsfeld entsprechend zu strukturieren und überblicksartig darzustellen. Insbesondere im deutschsprachigen Raum finden wir aktuell nur wenig einführende Literatur, die dieser Zielsetzung folgt. Diesem Desiderat möchte der "Grundkurs Metaethik" abhelfen. Konzeptionell ist er als ein Einführungswerk zu verstehen, das versucht, einen Überblick über die Grundlagen, Positionen und Schlüsselkontroversen der Metaethik anzubieten. Es richtet sich an Studierende der Philosophie, an Lehrende in der Schule und Universität, sowie an alle, die an Fragen interessiert sind, die mit den Grundlagen der Moral zusammenhängen. Die einzelnen Kapitel können unabhängig voneinander studiert werden, am Ende jedes Kapitels werden Literaturhinweise zur vertiefenden Beschäftigung mit dem Thema gegeben.

Enzyklop die Philosophie und Wissenschaftstheorie

Author: Jürgen Mittelstraß
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3476001369
Format: PDF, Docs
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Das ganze Wissen der Philosophie und Wissenschaftstheorie. Lückenlos belegt das größte allgemeine Lexikon zur Philosophie in deutscher Sprache den heutigen Kenntnisstand. Erweitert auf acht Bände dokumentiert die 2. Auflage insbesondere die jüngsten Entwicklungen in Logik, Erkenntnis- und Wissenschaftstheorie sowie Sprachphilosophie. Jetzt liegt der vierte Band in Neuauflage vor mit über 100 zusätzlichen Einträgen, u. a. zu Intelligenz, Interdisziplinarität, Isotropie, Kognitionswissenschaft, Komplexitätstheorie, Konvention, Lebenswissenschaften und einer Vielzahl neuer Personenartikel.

Civil Passions

Author: Sharon R. Krause
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400837281
Format: PDF, ePub
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Must we put passions aside when we deliberate about justice? Can we do so? The dominant views of deliberation rightly emphasize the importance of impartiality as a cornerstone of fair decision making, but they wrongly assume that impartiality means being disengaged and passionless. In Civil Passions, Sharon Krause argues that moral and political deliberation must incorporate passions, even as she insists on the value of impartiality. Drawing on resources ranging from Hume's theory of moral sentiment to recent findings in neuroscience, Civil Passions breaks new ground by providing a systematic account of how passions can generate an impartial standpoint that yields binding and compelling conclusions in politics. Krause shows that the path to genuinely impartial justice in the public sphere--and ultimately to social change and political reform--runs through moral sentiment properly construed. This new account of affective but impartial judgment calls for a politics of liberal rights and democratic contestation, and it requires us to reconceive the meaning of public reason, the nature of sound deliberation, and the authority of law. By illuminating how impartiality feels, Civil Passions offers not only a truer account of how we deliberate about justice, but one that promises to engage citizens more effectively in acting for justice.

Humans in Nature

Author: Gregory E. Kaebnick
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199347239
Format: PDF, ePub
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Contemporary debates over issues as wide-ranging as the protection of wildernesses and endangered species, the spread of genetically modified organisms, the emergence of synthetic biology, and the advance of human enhancement, all of which seem to spin into deeper and more baffling questions with every change in the news cycle, often circle back to the same fundamental question: should there be limits to the human alteration of the natural world? A growing number of people view the human capacity to alter natural states of affairs -- from formerly wild spaces and things around us to crops and livestock to our own human nature -- as cause for moral alarm. That reaction raises a number of perplexing philosophical questions, however: Can we identify "natural" states of affairs at all? Does the idea of being morally concerned about the human relationship to nature make any sense? Should such a concern influence public policy and politics, or should government stay strenuously neutral on such matters? Through a study of moral debates about the environment, agricultural biotechnology, synthetic biology, and human enhancement, Gregory E. Kaebnick, a research scholar at The Hastings Center and editor of the Hastings Center Report, argues that concerns about the human alteration of nature can be legitimate and serious, but also that they are complex, contestable, and of limited political force. Kaebnick defends attempts to identify "natural" states of affairs by disentangling the nature/artifact distinction from metaphysical hoariness. Drawing on David Hume, he also defends moral standards for the human relationship to nature, arguing that they, and moral standards generally, should be understood as grounded in what Hume called the "passions." Yet what counts as "natural" can be delineated only roughly, he concludes, and moral standards for interaction with nature are less a matter of obligation than of ideals. Kaebnick also concludes, drawing on an interpretation of the liberal principle of neutrality, that government may support those standards but must be careful not to enforce them. Thus Kaebnick looks for a middle way on debates that have tended toward polarization. "As differences between nature and artifact become steadily less substantial, problems about preservation run to the core of how people can make sense of themselves, of each other, and of our shared world. Kaebnick's solutions are creative and compelling, theoretically elegant and politically practical. Providing distinctive ways forward, when much academic and policy discussion seems exhausted, his book demands wide attention. In return, it inspires hope." - James Nelson, Michigan State University

Naturalism and Normativity

Author: Mario De Caro
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231508875
Format: PDF, Docs
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Normativity concerns what we ought to think or do and the evaluations we make. For example, we say that we ought to think consistently, we ought to keep our promises, or that Mozart is a better composer than Salieri. Yet what philosophical moral can we draw from the apparent absence of normativity in the scientific image of the world? For scientific naturalists, the moral is that the normative must be reduced to the nonnormative, while for nonnaturalists, the moral is that there must be a transcendent realm of norms. Naturalism and Normativity engages with both sides of this debate. Essays explore philosophical options for understanding normativity in the space between scientific naturalism and Platonic supernaturalism. They articulate a liberal conception of philosophy that is neither reducible to the sciences nor completely independent of them yet one that maintains the right to call itself naturalism. Contributors think in new ways about the relations among the scientific worldview, our experience of norms and values, and our movements in the space of reason. Detailed discussions include the relationship between philosophy and science, physicalism and ontological pluralism, the realm of the ordinary, objectivity and subjectivity, truth and justification, and the liberal naturalisms of Donald Davidson, John Dewey, John McDowell, and Ludwig Wittgenstein.

Truth Ideas in Profile

Author: Simon Blackburn
Publisher: Profile Books
ISBN: 1782832920
Format: PDF, Docs
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Truth has always been a thorny topic. How does it work? Who decides what it is? And why is it seen as so important? In this lucid introduction to the topic, leading scholar Simon Blackburn describes the main approaches to the notion of truth and considers how these relate to different perspectives on belief, interpretation, facts, knowledge and action. He then looks at how these ideas can be applied to: - aesthetics, taste and the judgement of art; - ethics and how people decide how they should (or should not) live; - reason and rational truth and whether these may be found or learnt in conversation, agreement and disagreement; - religious belief and the ultimate cause of the cosmos. Understanding what constitutes truth has practical value in every aspect of life, and whether you are voting in an election or finding an excuse for being late, Professor Blackburn's clear and incisive account will illuminate your choice, and stimulate, inform and entertain you along the way.

Autonomy and Trust in Bioethics

Author: Onora O'Neill
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521894531
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Onora O'Neill suggests that the conceptions of individual autonomy (so widely relied on in bioethics) are philosophically and ethically inadequate; they undermine rather than support relationships based on trust. Her arguments are illustrated with issues raised by such practices as the use of genetic information by the police, research using human tissues, new reproductive technologies, and media practices for reporting on medicine, science and technology. The study appeals to a wide range of readers in ethics, bioethics and related disciplines.