Scale in Spatial Information and Analysis

Author: Jingxiong Zhang
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439829381
Format: PDF, Docs
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Now ubiquitous in modern life, spatial data present great opportunities to transform many of the processes on which we base our everyday lives. However, not only do these data depend on the scale of measurement, but also handling these data (e.g., to make suitable maps) requires that we account for the scale of measurement explicitly. Scale in Spatial Information and Analysis describes the scales of measurement and scales of spatial variation that exist in the measured data. It provides you with a series of tools for handling spatial data while accounting for scale. The authors detail a systematic strategy for handling scale issues from geographic reality, through measurements, to resultant spatial data and their analyses. They also explore a process-pattern paradigm in approaching scale issues. This is well reflected, for example, in chapters dealing with terrain analysis, in which scale in terrain derivatives is described in relation to the processing involved in the derivation of specific terrain variables from elevation data, and area classes, which are viewed as driven by class-forming covariates. Lastly, this book provides coverage of some of the issues related to scale that are relatively under-represented in the literature, such as the effects of scale on information content in remotely sensed images, and the interaction between scale and uncertainty that is increasingly important for spatial information and analysis. By taking a rigorous, scientific approach to scale and its various meanings in relation to the geographic world, the book alleviates some of the frustration caused by dealing with issues of scale. While past research has led to an increasing number of journal articles and a few books dedicated to scale modeling and change of scale, this book helps you to develop coherent strategies for scale modeling, highlighting applicability for a variety of fields, from geomatic engineering and geoinformatics to environmental modeling.

Spatial Analysis

Author: Paul A. Longley
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780470236154
Format: PDF, ePub
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Spatial Analysis: Modelling in a GIS Environment Edited by PaulLongley and Michael Batty Digital data and information are usedincreasingly by academics, professionals, local authorities, andgovernment departments. Powerful new technologies, such asgeographic information systems (GIS), are being developed toanalyse such data, and GIS technologies are rapidly becoming partof the emergent world digital infrastructure. This book shows howcomputer methods of analysis and modelling, built around GIS, canbe used to identify ways in which our cities and regions might bebetter planned and understood. The contributors to this book areall actively involved in research using geographic informationsystems. This book will be valuable reading for: Geographers, researchers, and regional analysts Population theorists and regional economists with interests inlarge-scale demographic and employment data Planners and policy-makers who wish to use GIS to improve theirdecision making Business analysts who wish to explore markets using the mostrecent advances in digital spatial data technology All those interested in geodemographics Paul Longley is Professor of Geography at the Department ofGeography, University of Bristol, United Kingdom. Michael Batty isProfessor of Spatial Analysis and Planning at the UniversityCollege London. United Kingdom.

Geographic Information Analysis

Author: David O'Sullivan
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780471211761
Format: PDF
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Clear, up-to-date coverage of methods for analyzing geographical information in a GIS context Geographic Information Analysis presents clear and up-to-date coverage of the foundations of spatial analysis in a geographic information systems environment. Focusing on the universal aspects of spatial data and their analysis, this book covers the scientific assumptions and limitations of methods available in many geographic information systems. Throughout, the fundamental idea of a map as a realization of a spatial stochastic process is central to the discussion. Key spatial concepts are covered, including point pattern, line objects and networks, area objects, and continuous fields. Analytical techniques for each of these are addressed, as are methods for combining maps, exploring multivariate data, and performing computationally intensive analysis. Appendixes provide primers on basic statistics and linear algebra using matrices. Complete with chapter objectives, summaries, "thought exercises," a wealth of explanatory diagrams, and an annotated bibliography, Geographic Information Analysis is a practical book for students, as well as a valuable resource for researchers and professionals in the industry.

Environmental Information Management And Analysis

Author: W K Michener
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780748401239
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Most environmental studies are based upon data collected at fine spatial scales plots, sediments, cores, etc.. Furthermore, temporal scales of these studies have been relatively short days, weeks, months and few studies have exceeded three years duration the typical funding cycle.; Despite this history, environmental scientists are now being called upon to extrapolate findings from "plot-level" studies to broader spatial scales and from short-term studies to longer temporal scales, up to decades for questions related to long-term processes such as global warming and the rise in sea level.; The complex questions being addressed internationally require that scientists take advantage of new technologies including remote sensing, geographic information systems GIS, and powerful climatic and environmental simulation models. As more environmental scientists begin to work at these broader spatial and temporal scales, and to utilize many of the newer technologies, they are recognising a whole new class of problems.; This book aims to address the most pertinent issues, and includes a comprehensive review of selected topics, case studies, and theoretical discussions, divided into seven sections each preceded by a brief introduction.

Spatial and Temporal Reasoning in Geographic Information Systems

Author: Departments of Surveying Engineering and Computer Science Max J Egenhofer
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 9780195103427
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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In an effort to further investigation into critical development facets of geographic information systems (GIS), this book explores the reasoning processes that apply to geographic space and time. As a result of an iniative sponsored by the National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis (NCGIA), it treats the computational, cognitive and social science applications aspects of spatial and temporal reasoning in GIS. Essays were contributed by scholars from a broad spectrum of disciplines including: geography, cartography, surveying and engineering, computer science, mathematics and environmental and cognitive psychology.

Modelling Scale in Geographical Information Science

Author: Nicholas Tate
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780471985464
Format: PDF
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This text is concerned with the subject of spatial scale in the context of geographical research using GIS (Geographical Information Systems) and provides an overview of the subject.

Fuzzy Modeling with Spatial Information for Geographic Problems

Author: Frederick E. Petry
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540268864
Format: PDF
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The capabilities of modern technology are rapidly increasing, spurred on to a large extent by the tremendous advances in communications and computing. Automated vehicles and global wireless connections are some examples of these advances. In order to take advantage of such enhanced capabilities, our need to model and manipulate our knowledge of the geophysical world, using compatible representations, is also rapidly increasing. In response to this one fundamental issue of great concern in modern geographical research is how to most effectively capture the physical world around us in systems like geographical information systems (GIS). Making this task even more challenging is the fact that uncertainty plays a pervasive role in the representation, analysis and use of geospatial information. The types of uncertainty that appear in geospatial information systems are not the just simple randomness of observation, as in weather data, but are manifested in many other forms including imprecision, incompleteness and granularization. Describing the uncertainty of the boundaries of deserts and mountains clearly require different tools than those provided by probability theory. The multiplicity of modalities of uncertainty appearing in GIS requires a variety of formalisms to model these uncertainties. In light of this it is natural that fuzzy set theory has become a topic of intensive interest in many areas of geographical research and applications This volume, Fuzzy Modeling with Spatial Information for Geographic Problems, provides many stimulating examples of advances in geographical research based on approaches using fuzzy sets and related technologies.

Multicriteria Decision Analysis in Geographic Information Science

Author: Jacek Malczewski
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3540747575
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book is intended for the GIS Science and Decision Science communities. It is primarily targeted at postgraduate students and practitioners in GIS and urban, regional and environmental planning as well as applied decision analysis. It is also suitable for those studying and working with spatial decision support systems. The main objectives of this book are to effectivley integrate Multicriteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) into Geographic Information Science (GIScience), to provide a comprehensive account of theories, methods, technologies and tools for tackling spatial decision problems and to demonstrate how the GIS-MCDA approaches can be used in a wide range of planning and management situations.