Scare Tactics

Author: Douglas Walton
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401729409
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Scare Tactics, the first book on the subject, provides a theory of the structure of reasoning used in fear and threat appeal argumentation. Such arguments come under the heading of the argumentum ad baculum, the `argument to the stick/club', traditionally treated as a fallacy in the logic textbooks. The new dialectical theory is based on case studies of many interesting examples of the use of these arguments in advertising, public relations, politics, international negotiations, and everyday argumentation on all kinds of subjects. Many of these arguments are amusing, once you see the clever tactic used; others are scary. Some of the arguments appear to be quite reasonable, while others are highly suspicious, or even outrageously fraudulent. In addition to the examples taken from logic textbooks, other cases treated come from a variety of sources, including political debates, legal arguments, and arguments from media sources, like magazine articles and television ads. The purpose of this book is to explain how such arguments work as devices of persuasion, and to develop a method for analyzing and evaluating their reasonable and fallacious uses in particular cases. The book shows how such arguments share a common structure, revealing several distinctive forms of argument nested within each other. Based on its account of this cognitive structure, the new dialectical theory presents methods for identifying, analyzing, and evaluating these arguments, as they are used in specific cases. The book is a scholarly contribution to argumentation theory. It is written in an accessible style, and uses many colorful and provocative examples of fear and threat appeal arguments that are suitable for classroom discussions. The matters treated will be of interest to professionals and students in law, critical thinking, advertising, speech communication, informal logic, cognitive science, rhetoric, and media studies.

Scrutinizing Argumentation in Practice

Author: Frans H. van Eemeren
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing Company
ISBN: 9027268088
Format: PDF, Docs
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Scrutinizing Argumentation in Practice contains a selection of papers reflecting upon the use of argumentation in real life contexts. The first five sections are devoted to argumentation in a specific institutional context: scientific controversies, argumentation in politics, argumentation in a legal context, argumentation in education, argumentation in an interpersonal context. The last section deals with strategic maneuvering as a vital concept in studying argumentation in practice. The contributors are: Francesco Arcidiacono, Michael J. Baker, Sarah Bigi, Marina Bletsas, Stephanie Breux, William O. Dailey, Marianne Doury, Claudio Duran, Frans H. van Eemeren, Lindsay M. Ellis, Jeanne Fahnestock, Eveline T. Feteris, Bart Garssen, Anca Gâţă, Salma I. Ghanem, Sara Greco, Edward A. Hinck, Robert S. Hinck, Shelly S. Hinck, Henrike Jansen, Takayuki Kato, Susan L. Kline, Pascale Mansier, Bert Meuffels, Celine Miserez-Caperos, D’Arcy Oaks, Sachinidou Paraskevi, Anne-Nelly Perret-Clermont, H. José Plug, Takeshi Suzuki, and David Zarefsky.

The Oxford Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning

Author: Keith J. Holyoak
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199313792
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The Oxford Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning brings together the contributions of many of the leading researchers in thinking and reasoning to create the most comprehensive overview of research on thinking and reasoning that has ever been available.

An Illustrated Book of Bad Arguments

Author: Ali Almossawi
Publisher: The Experiment
ISBN: 1615192263
Format: PDF, Docs
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“A flawless compendium of flaws.” —Alice Roberts, PhD, anatomist, writer, and presenter of The Incredible Human Journey The antidote to fuzzy thinking, with furry animals! Have you read (or stumbled into) one too many irrational online debates? Ali Almossawi certainly had, so he wrote An Illustrated Book of Bad Arguments! This handy guide is here to bring the internet age a much-needed dose of old-school logic (really old-school, a la Aristotle). Here are cogent explanations of the straw man fallacy, the slippery slope argument, the ad hominem attack, and other common attempts at reasoning that actually fall short—plus a beautifully drawn menagerie of animals who (adorably) commit every logical faux pas. Rabbit thinks a strange light in the sky must be a UFO because no one can prove otherwise (the appeal to ignorance). And Lion doesn’t believe that gas emissions harm the planet because, if that were true, he wouldn’t like the result (the argument from consequences). Once you learn to recognize these abuses of reason, they start to crop up everywhere from congressional debate to YouTube comments—which makes this geek-chic book a must for anyone in the habit of holding opinions.

Argumentationsanalyse textlinguistisch

Author: Marcel Eggler
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 3110936070
Format: PDF
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Wie wird in Ausnahmesituationen argumentiert? Auf welche argumentativen Muster greift man zurück, wenn es gilt, Entscheide mit moralischer Sprengkraft zu rechtfertigen? Was für Texte entstehen unter solchen Umständen? Als Beitrag zur Beantwortung dieser Fragen wird im ersten Teil des Buches ein Instrumentarium entwickelt, das einerseits auf der philosophisch-soziologisch, aber auch rhetorisch ausgerichteten Argumentationstheorie aufbaut, andererseits auf der Textlinguistik und den Konzepten der Inferenzanalyse. Im Hauptteil wird anhand der Analyse zweier prototypischer Leitartikel zum Golfkrieg von 1991 aufgezeigt, wie Notstandsdiskurse konkret funktionieren, wie man sie analysieren und auf ihre Kohärenz hin überprüfen kann. Die Topoi, deren logische und rhetorische Entfaltung im Zentrum des Interesses steht, sind: die historische Analogie ("Konzept Hitler"), die Berücksichtigung der pazifistischen Position in der Pro-Kriegs-Argumentation ("Konzessivrelation"), der "Sieg der Fakten" über die Emotionen, das Argumentum ad personam sowohl gegen politische Akteure ("Saddam-Argument") als auch gegen die Wahrhaftigkeit anderer Diskursteilnehmer ("A-Argument gegen den Diskurs der Friedensbewegung"). Bei der Untersuchung all dieser Topoi gerät die Regelbeachtung im Argumentieren ebenso in den Blick wie das haarscharfe Vorbeischrammen an diesen Regeln und der totale Fehlschluss.

Logically Fallacious

Author: Bo Bennett
ISBN: 1456607375
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book is a crash course in effective reasoning, meant to catapult you into a world where you start to see things how they really are, not how you think they are. The focus of this book is on logical fallacies, which loosely defined, are simply errors in reasoning. With the reading of each page, you can make significant improvements in the way you reason and make decisions. Logically Fallacious is one of the most comprehensive collections of logical fallacies with all original examples and easy to understand descriptions, perfect for educators, debaters, or anyone who wants to improve his or her reasoning skills. "Expose an irrational belief, keep a person rational for a day. Expose irrational thinking, keep a person rational for a lifetime." - Bo Bennett This 2017 Edition includes dozens of more logical fallacies, over a hundred cognitive biases, practice lessons, and some common questions and answers.

Everything s an Argument with Readings with 2016 MLA Update

Author: Andrea A. Lunsford
Publisher: Macmillan Higher Education
ISBN: 1319098444
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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THIS TITLE HAS BEEN UPDATED TO REFLECT THE 2016 MLA UPDATES! Our editorial team has updated this text based on content from The MLA Handbook, 8th Edition. Browse our catalog or contact your representative for a full listing of updated titles and packages, or to request a custom ISBN.Pairing a best-selling argument text with a thematic reader, Everything’s an Argument with Readings teaches students to analyze the arguments that surround them every day and to create their own. The book starts with proven instructional content by composition luminaries Andrea Lunsford and John Ruszkiewicz, covering five core types of arguments. Revised based on feedback from its large and devoted community of users, the seventh edition offers a new chapter on multimedia argument and more than 35 readings across perspectives and genres, from academic essays and newspaper editorials to tweets and infographics.

Fallacies and Argument Appraisal

Author: Christopher W. Tindale
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139461842
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Fallacies and Argument Appraisal presents an introduction to the nature, identification, and causes of fallacious reasoning, along with key questions for evaluation. Drawing from the latest work on fallacies as well as some of the standard ideas that have remained relevant since Aristotle, Christopher Tindale investigates central cases of major fallacies in order to understand what has gone wrong and how this has occurred. Dispensing with the approach that simply assigns labels and brief descriptions of fallacies, Tindale provides fuller treatments that recognize the dialectical and rhetorical contexts in which fallacies arise. This volume analyzes major fallacies through accessible, everyday examples. Critical questions are developed for each fallacy to help the student identify them and provide considered evaluations.