Schooling and the Acquisition of Knowledge

Author: Richard C. Anderson
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 135198568X
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Originally published in 1977, this book reports the proceedings of a conference sponsored by the Navy Personnel Research and Development Center. The one common thread running through all of the formal papers and dialogue was that the knowledge a person already possesses is the principal determiner of what that individual can learn from an educational experience. These questions were addressed: How is knowledge organized? How does knowledge develop? How is knowledge retrieved and used? What instructional techniques promise to facilitate the acquisition of new knowledge? The kinds of answers provided are characterized by their as well as by their specificity. Accordingly, the volume should be of interest to both the generalist and the specialist.

How People Learn

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309131979
Format: PDF, Kindle
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First released in the Spring of 1999, How People Learn has been expanded to show how the theories and insights from the original book can translate into actions and practice, now making a real connection between classroom activities and learning behavior. This edition includes far-reaching suggestions for research that could increase the impact that classroom teaching has on actual learning. Like the original edition, this book offers exciting new research about the mind and the brain that provides answers to a number of compelling questions. When do infants begin to learn? How do experts learn and how is this different from non-experts? What can teachers and schools do-with curricula, classroom settings, and teaching methods--to help children learn most effectively? New evidence from many branches of science has significantly added to our understanding of what it means to know, from the neural processes that occur during learning to the influence of culture on what people see and absorb. How People Learn examines these findings and their implications for what we teach, how we teach it, and how we assess what our children learn. The book uses exemplary teaching to illustrate how approaches based on what we now know result in in-depth learning. This new knowledge calls into question concepts and practices firmly entrenched in our current education system. Topics include: How learning actually changes the physical structure of the brain. How existing knowledge affects what people notice and how they learn. What the thought processes of experts tell us about how to teach. The amazing learning potential of infants. The relationship of classroom learning and everyday settings of community and workplace. Learning needs and opportunities for teachers. A realistic look at the role of technology in education.

The Knowledge Society

Author: Gernot Böhme
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400947240
Format: PDF
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The original essays collected here under the general title of The Knowledge Society were first commissioned for a conference held in the late fall of 1984 at the Technische Hochschule Darmstadt, West Germany. The conference in Darmstadt saw a larger number of contribu tions presented than could be accommodated in this edition of the Sociol ogy of the Sciences Yearbook. However, all contributions were important and affected those published in this collection. We are therefore grateful to all participants of the Darmstadt conference for their presentations and for their intense, useful as well as thoughtful discussion of all papers. Those chosen for publication in the Yearbook and those undoubtedly to be published elsewhere have all benefitted considerably from our discussions in Darmstadt which also included a number of the members of the edito rial board of the Yearbook. In addition, we are pleased that the authors were able to read and comment further on each other's papers prior to publication. As is the case in every endeavor of this kind, we have incurred many debts and are only able to acknowledge these at this point publicly while expressing our sincere thanks and appreciation for all the intellectual sup port and the considerable labor invested by a number of persons in the realization of the collection.

Knowledge and Memory the Real Story

Author: Robert S. Wyer, Jr.
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1317781007
Format: PDF, Docs
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Narrative forms of mental representation and their influence on comprehension, communication and judgment, have rapidly become one of the main foci of research and theory in not only psychology but also other disciplines, including linguistics, sociology, and anthropology. No one has been more responsible for the awakening of interest in this area than Roger Schank and Bob Abelson. In their target article, they argue that narrative forms of mental representation, or "stories," are the basic ingredients of social knowledge that play a fundamental role in the comprehension of information conveyed in a social context, the storage of this information in memory, and the later communication of it to others. After explicating the cognitive processes that underlie the construction of narratives and their use in comprehension, memory and communication, the chapter authors consider the influence of stories on a number of more specific phenomena, including political judgment, marital relations and memory distortions that underlie errors in eyewitness testimony. The provocativeness of the target chapter is matched by that of the companion articles, each of which not only provides an important commentary on Schank and Abelson's conceptualization, but also makes an important contribution to knowledge in its own right. The diversity of perspectives reflected in these articles, whose authors include researchers in linguistics, memory and comprehension, social inference, cognitive development, social judgment, close relationships, and social ecology, testifies to the breadth of theoretical and empirical issues to which the target chapter is potentially relevant. This volume is a timely and important contribution to research and theory not only in social cognition but in many other areas as well.

Perspectives on Transitions in Schooling and Instructional Practice

Author: Susan E. Elliott-Johns
Publisher: University of Toronto Press
ISBN: 1442667117
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Perspectives on Transitions in Schooling and Instructional Practice examines student transitions between major levels of schooling, teacher transitions in instructional practice, and the intersection of these two significant themes in education research. Twenty-six leading international experts offer meaningful insights on current pedagogical practices, obstacles to effective transitions, and proven strategies for stakeholders involved in supporting students in transition. The book is divided into four sections, representing the four main transitions in formal schooling: Early Years (Home, Pre-school, and Kindergarten) to Early Elementary (Grades 1–3); Early Elementary to Late Elementary (Grades 4–8); Late Elementary to Secondary (Grades 9–12); and Secondary to Post-Secondary (College and University). A coda draws together over-arching themes from throughout the text to provide recommendations and a visual model that captures their interactions. Combining theoretical approaches with practical examples of school-based initiatives, this book will appeal to those involved in supporting either the student experience (both academically and emotionally) or teacher professional learning and growth.

Teacher Thinking Professional Action

Author: Dr Pam Denicolo
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134232292
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Over the past twenty years the International Study Association on Teachers and Teaching (ISATT) has become world-renowned as an organisation dedicated to the discussion of current thinking in educational policy and practice. As such, the ideas aired at ISATT conferences are of the greatest significance to today's educational practitioners. This book satisfies the demand for a lasting record of ISATT's illuminating discussions on the theme. It is based on a selection of papers presented at their third bi-annual conference and has been updated by each contributor to include their current thoughts and opinions. Containing nineteen articles, each an in-depth examination of the topic, it is divided into four sections: conceptual frames for teacher thought and action methods and approaches to the study of teacher though and action teacher judgment and evaluation of students teacher thinking and teacher education. Broad in theme, international in scope and detailed this book is essential and enlightening reading for anyone with a serious interest in the ongoing development of educational thought.

Artificial Intelligence and Tutoring Systems

Author: Etienne Wenger
Publisher: Morgan Kaufmann
ISBN: 1483221113
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Artificial Intelligence and Tutoring Systems: Computational and Cognitive Approaches to the Communication of Knowledge focuses on the cognitive approaches, methodologies, principles, and concepts involved in the communication of knowledge. The publication first elaborates on knowledge communication systems, basic issues, and tutorial dialogues. Concerns cover natural reasoning and tutorial dialogues, shift from local strategies to multiple mental models, domain knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, implicit versus explicit encoding of knowledge, knowledge communication, and practical and theoretical implications. The text then examines interactive simulations, existing CAI traditions, and learning environments. The manuscript elaborates on knowledge communication, didactics, and diagnosis. Topics include knowledge presentation and communication, pedagogical contexts, target levels of didactic operations, behavioral and epistemic diagnosis, and aspects of diagnostic experience. The publication is a dependable reference for researchers interested in the computational and cognitive approaches to the communication of knowledge.

Developing Student Criticality in Higher Education

Author: Brenda Johnston
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1441153519
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Critical thinking is a major and enduring aspect of higher education and the development of criticality in students has long been a core aim. However, understandings of criticality are conceptually and empirically unclear. The book combines a well developed conceptual discussion of the nature of criticality appropriate for the twenty-first century, the extent to which it is attainable by arts and social science undergraduates, and the paths by which it is developed during students' higher education experiences. Drawing upon empirical accounts and case studies of teaching and learning in different disciplines, this book critically analyses higher education curriculum and policy documentation to explore higher educational processes, encouraging a re-evaluation of practice and educational values, and enabling the development of curricula which incorporate systematic attention to the development of student criticality. This book proposes a rounded conceptual vision of criticality in higher education for the twenty-first century.

Everyone Can Write

Author: Peter Elbow
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0195355873
Format: PDF
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With Writing without Teachers (OUP 1975) and Writing with Power (OUP 1995) Peter Elbow revolutionized the teaching of writing. His process method--and its now commonplace "free writing" techniques--liberated generations of students and teachers from the emphasis on formal principles of grammar that had dominated composition pedagogy. This new collection of essays brings together the best of Elbow's writing since the publication of Embracing Contraries in 1987. The volume includes sections on voice, the experience of writing, teaching, and evaluation. Implicit throughout is Elbow's commitment to humanizing the profession, and his continued emphasis on the importance of binary thinking and nonadversarial argument. The result is a compendium of a master teacher's thought on the relation between good pedagogy and good writing; it is sure to be of interest to all professional teachers of writing, and will be a valuable book for use in composition courses at all levels.