Science and Technology Advice for Congress

Author: M. Granger Morgan
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136526765
Format: PDF, ePub
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The elimination of the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) in 1995 came during a storm of budget cutting and partisan conflict. Operationally, it left Congress without an institutional arrangement to bring expert scientific and technological advice into the process of legislative decisionmaking. This deficiency has become increasingly critical, as more and more of the decisions faced by Congress and society require judgments based on highly specialized technical information. Offering perspectives from scholars and scientists with diverse academic backgrounds and extensive experience within the policy process, Science and Technology Advice for Congress breaks from the politics of the OTA and its contentious aftermath. Granger Morgan and Jon Peha begin with an overview of the use of technical information in framing policy issues, crafting legislation, and the overall process of governing. They note how, as nonexperts, legislators must make decisions in the face of scientific uncertainty and competing scientific claims from stakeholders. The contributors continue with a discussion of why OTA was created. They draw lessons from OTA's demise, and compare the use of science and technological information in Europe with the United States. The second part of the book responds to requests from congressional leaders for practical solutions. Among the options discussed are expanded functions within existing agencies such as the General Accounting or Congressional Budget Offices; an independent, NGO- administrated analysis group; and a dedicated successor to OTA within Congress. The models emphasize flexibility--and the need to make political feasibility a core component of design.

Science and Technology Advice

Author: William T. Golden
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351491911
Format: PDF, Docs
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This volume aims to attract attention to the necessity for quality advice on science and technology issues to the president of the United States, to the Congress, and to the judiciary. It emphasizes reconsideration and improvement of existing organizations and mechanisms, mindful of the need to adapt to changing circumstances. Golden has gathered facts and opinions useful to a wide range of people: government officials and staffs in all three branches; journalists; scholars and students of political science, science policy, and the history of science policy; members of the industrial and financial communities; and the concerned citizenry. The eighty-five prominent experts include both of President Reagan's science advisors, President Gerald R. Ford, congressional leaders, and distinguished members of the judiciary.

Science and Technology Advice

Author: G. S. Ghurye
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781138532281
Format: PDF
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This volume aims to attract attention to the necessity for quality advice on science and technology issues to the president of the United States, to the Congress, and to the judiciary. It emphasizes reconsideration and improvement of existing organizations and mechanisms, mindful of the need to adapt to changing circumstances. Golden has gathered facts and opinions useful to a wide range of people: government officials and staffs in all three branches; journalists; scholars and students of political science, science policy, and the history of science policy; members of the industrial and financial communities; and the concerned citizenry. The eighty-five prominent experts include both of President Reagan's science advisors, President Gerald R. Ford, congressional leaders, and distinguished members of the judiciary.

Current Controversies in the Biological Sciences

Author: Karen F. Greif
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262262940
Format: PDF, ePub
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In recent years, advances in biological science and technology have outpaced policymakers' attempts to deal with them. Current Controversies in the Biological Sciences examines the ways in which the federal government uses scientific information in reaching policy decisions, providing case studies of the interactions between science and government on different biomedical, biological, and environmental issues. These case studies document a broad range of complex issues in science policy--from the Human Genome Project to tobacco regulation--and provide an accessible overview of both the science behind the issues and the policy-making process.The cases illustrate the different ways in which science and politics intersect in policy decisions, as well as the different forms policy itself may take--including not only regulatory action but the lack of regulation. Among the topics examined are public and private research funding, as seen in gene patenting; reluctance to regulate even when a product has been proven unhealthy, as in the case of tobacco; a comparison of U.S. and international policy responses to genetically modified organisms; and the competing interests at play in air pollution policy. Each chapter includes shorter side essays on related topics (for example, essays on issues raised by the SARS epidemic accompany the detailed case study of the public health response to the anthrax-laced mail received in the weeks after 9/11).This clear and readable introduction to controversial issues in the biological sciences will be a valuable resource for students of science policy and bioethics and for professionals in industry, government, and nongovernmental organizations who need background on emerging issues in the biological sciences.

Helping America compete the role of federal scientific technical information

Author:
Publisher: DIANE Publishing
ISBN: 1428921915
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The United States must make better use of its scientific and technical information (STI) resources, if it wishes to be competitive in world markets and maintain its leadership. STI is an essential ingredient of the innovation process from education and research to product development and manufacturing. It is a major product of the $65 billion per year the U.S. Government spends on research and development (R & D); researchers need ready access to STI if they are to stay at the cutting edge. Many issues of our time-health, energy, transportation, and climate change-require STI to understand the nature and complexities of the problem and to identify and assess possible solutions. STI is important not only to scientists and engineers but to political, business, and other leaders who must make decisions related to science and technology, and to the citizens who must live with the consequences of these decisions.

Science and Technology Policymaking

Author: Deborah D. Stine
Publisher: DIANE Publishing
ISBN: 1437920020
Format: PDF, Docs
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Contents: Overview of U.S. Science and Technology Policy; What are Some Perspectives on Science and Technology Policy?; Who Makes Decisions Regarding Science and Technology Policy in Congress?; Who Makes Decisions Regarding Science and Technology Policy in the Executive Branch?; Who Makes Decisions in the Judicial Branch Regarding Science and Technology Policy?; What Organizations Provide Science and Technology Advice to Policymakers?; What Are the Opportunities and Challenges of the Current Science and Technology Policy Decisionmaking Process?. Charts and tables.

Congress s Own Think Tank

Author: Peter Blair
Publisher: Palgrave Pivot
ISBN: 9781137360892
Format: PDF, Mobi
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In 1972 the United States Congress established the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) as a small analytical agency to become better informed about implications of new and emerging technologies. OTA's principal products - technology assessments - were designed to inform Congressional deliberations and debates about issues that involved science and technology dimensions but without recommending specific policy actions. OTA's unique governance by a bicameral and bipartisan board of House and Senate Members helped ensure that issues the agency addressed were tightly aligned with the Congressional agenda and that assessments were undertaken with partisan and other stakeholder bias minimized. Over a span of 23 years OTA completed 755 reports on a wide range of topics including health, energy, defense, space, information technology, environment, and many others until Congress terminated the agency's annual appropriation of funds to operate in 1995 as one of a series of budget austerity measures. A number of organizations have sought to fill the gap left in the wake of OTA's closure, but with mixed results to date. Congress' Own Think Tank recaps the OTA experience - it's creation, operation, and circumstances of its closure - and that of organizations attempting to fill the gap since OTA's closure as well as a number of new forces shaping the current context for science and technology issues facing the Congress. All these factors are important to consider in fashioning new or adapting existing sources of science and technology advice for the Congress.