Science and Technology in the Global Cold War

Author: Naomi Oreskes
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 026202795X
Format: PDF, ePub
Download Now
The Cold War period saw a dramatic expansion of state-funded science and technology research. Government and military patronage shaped Cold War technoscientific practices, imposing methods that were project oriented, team based, and subject to national-security restrictions. These changes affected not just the arms race and the space race but also research in agriculture, biomedicine, computer science, ecology, meteorology, and other fields. This volume examines science and technology in the context of the Cold War, considering whether the new institutions and institutional arrangements that emerged globally constrained technoscientific inquiry or offered greater opportunities for it. The contributors find that whatever the particular science, and whatever the political system in which that science was operating, the knowledge that was produced bore some relation to the goals of the nation-state. These goals varied from nation to nation; weapons research was emphasized in the United States and the Soviet Union, for example, but in France and China scientific independence and self-reliance dominated. The contributors also consider to what extent the changes to science and technology practices in this era were produced by the specific politics, anxieties, and aspirations of the Cold War.ContributorsElena Aronova, Erik M. Conway, Angela N. H. Creager, David Kaiser, John Krige, Naomi Oreskes, George Reisch, Sigrid Schmalzer, Sonja D. Schmid, Matthew Shindell, Asif A. Siddiqi, Zuoyue Wang, Benjamin Wilson

Entangled Geographies

Author: Gabrielle Hecht
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262515784
Format: PDF, Docs
Download Now
Investigations into how technologies became peculiar forms of politics in an expanded geography of the Cold War. The Cold War was not simply a duel of superpowers. It took place not just in Washington and Moscow but also in the social and political arenas of geographically far-flung countries emerging from colonial rule. Moreover, Cold War tensions were manifest not only in global political disputes but also in struggles over technology. Technological systems and expertise offered a powerful way to shape countries politically, economically, socially, and culturally. Entangled Geographies explores how Cold War politics, imperialism, and postcolonial nation building became entangled in technologies and considers the legacies of those entanglements for today's globalized world. The essays address such topics as the islands and atolls taken over for military and technological purposes by the supposedly non-imperial United States, apartheid-era South Africa's efforts to achieve international legitimacy as a nuclear nation, international technical assistance and Cold War politics, the Saudi irrigation system that spurred a Shi'i rebellion, and the momentary technopolitics of emergency as practiced by Medecins sans Frontières. The contributors to Entangled Geographies offer insights from the anthropology and history of development, from diplomatic history, and from science and technology studies. The book represents a unique synthesis of these three disciplines, providing new perspectives on the global Cold War.

Science Studies during the Cold War and Beyond

Author: Elena Aronova
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137559438
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Download Now
This book examines the ways in which studies of science intertwined with Cold War politics, in both familiar and less familiar “battlefields” of the Cold War. Taken together, the essays highlight two primary roles for science studies as a new field of expertise institutionalized during the Cold War in different political regimes. Firstly, science studies played a political role in cultural Cold War in sustaining as well as destabilizing political ideologies in different political and national contexts. Secondly, it was an instrument of science policies in the early Cold War: the studies of science were promoted as the underpinning for the national policies framed with regard to both global geopolitics and local national priorities. As this book demonstrates, however, the wider we cast our net, extending our histories beyond the more researched developments in the Anglophone West, the more complex and ambivalent both the “science studies” and “the Cold War” become outside these more familiar spaces. The national stories collected in this book may appear incommensurable with what we know as science studies today, but these stories present a vantage point from which to pluralize some of the visions that were constitutive to the construction of “Cold War” as a juxtaposition of the liberal democracies in the “West” and the communist “East.”

American Hegemony and the Postwar Reconstruction of Science in Europe

Author: Krige
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262263416
Format: PDF
Download Now
In 1945, the United States was not only the strongest economic and military power in the world; it was also the world's leader in science and technology. In American Hegemony and the Postwar Reconstruction of Science in Europe, John Krige describes the efforts of influential figures in the United States to model postwar scientific practices and institutions in Western Europe on those in America. They mobilized political and financial support to promote not just America's scientific and technological agendas in Western Europe but its Cold War political and ideological agendas as well.Drawing on the work of diplomatic and cultural historians, Krige argues that this attempt at scientific dominance by the United States can be seen as a form of "consensual hegemony," involving the collaboration of influential local elites who shared American values. He uses this notion to analyze a series of case studies that describe how the U.S. administration, senior officers in the Rockefeller and Ford Foundations, the NATO Science Committee, and influential members of the scientific establishment -- notably Isidor I. Rabi of Columbia University and Vannevar Bush of MIT -- tried to Americanize scientific practices in such fields as physics, molecular biology, and operations research. He details U.S. support for institutions including CERN, the Niels Bohr Institute, the French CNRS and its laboratories at Gif near Paris, and the never-established "European MIT." Krige's study shows how consensual hegemony in science not only served the interests of postwar European reconstruction but became another way of maintaining American leadership and "making the world safe for democracy."

Local Consequences of the Global Cold War

Author: Jeffrey A. Engel
Publisher: Stanford University Press
ISBN: 9780804759472
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Download Now
Up to now the study of cold war history has been fully engaged in stressing the international character and broad themes of the story. This volume turns such diplomatic history upside down by studying how actions of international relations affected local popular life. Each chapter has its origins in a major international issue, and then unfolds the consequences of that issue for some region or city. Thus the starting points for the various contributions are great unifying questions regarding postwar occupation, militarization, industrialization, and decolonization. But the ending points are small and dispersed, such as movies in Japan, race relations in the American South, forests in East Germany, and industry in Novosibirsk. Collectively, these stories show how the cold war affected every facet of life--East and West, urban and rural, in developed and developing nations, in the superpowers and on the periphery of the international system.

Our Germans

Author: Brian E. Crim
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 1421424398
Format: PDF, ePub
Download Now
As this engaging book demonstrates, whether characterized as an expedient Cold War program born from military necessity or a dishonorable episode, the project ultimately reflects American ambivalence about the military-industrial complex and the viability of an "ends justifies the means" solution to external threats.

Uners ttliche Neugier

Author: Helga Nowotny
Publisher:
ISBN: 9783931659738
Format: PDF, Mobi
Download Now
Die Moderne ist durch den Verlust von Gewißheiten geprägt, was sie nicht hindert, neue zu suchen. Die historisch einmalige Präferenz für das Neue, die mit der modernen Naturwissenschaft institutionalisiert wurde, hat Ungewißheiten mit sich gebracht, die aus dem erweiterten Handlungsraum und technischen Möglichkeiten resultieren. So endlos das Potential menschlicher Kreativität und der sie antreibenden Neugier scheinen mag, stößt sie dort auf Grenzen, wo das, was wissenschaftlich und technisch machbar ist, als gesellschaftlich unerwünscht gilt. Die wissenschaftliche Neugier soll gezähmt werden, doch gleichzeitig hat die Gesellschaft eine kollektive Wette auf die fragile Zukunft abgeschlossen. Sie lautet: Innovation. Im Buch werden die sich daraus ergebenden Spannungen analysiert und die ihnen zugrundeliegende Ambivalenz als kulturelle Ressource identifiziert. Um die Zukunft anders als in utopischen und dystopischen Bildern zu denken, müssen wir, ob wir wollen oder nicht, modern bleiben.

Building the General Relativity and Gravitation Community During the Cold War

Author: Roberto Lalli
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319546546
Format: PDF, ePub
Download Now
This monograph presents a new perspective on the history of general relativity. It outlines the attempts to establish an institutional framework for the promotion of the field during the Cold War. Readers will learn the difficulties that key figures experienced and overcame during this period of global conflict. The author analyzes the subtle interconnections between scientific and political factors. He shows how politics shaped the evolution of general relativity, even though it is a field with no military applications. He also details how different scientists held quite different views about what “political” meant in their efforts to pursue international cooperation. The narrative examines the specific epistemic features of general relativity that helped create the first official, international scientific society. It answers: Why did relativity bring about this unique result? Was it simply the product of specific actions of particular actors having an illuminated view of international relations in the specific context of the Cold War? Or, was there something in the nature of the field that inspired the actors to pioneer new ways of international cooperation? The book will be of interest to historians of modern science, historians of international relations, and historians of institutions. It will also appeal to physicists and interested general readers.

Die Machiavellis der Wissenschaft das Netzwerk des Leugnens

Author: Erik M. Conway
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527412115
Format: PDF
Download Now
Ein ganz realer Thriller: Wie skrupellose Lobbyisten seriöse Forscher diffamierten und gezielt Falschinformationen in lancierten Medienkampagnen global verbreiteten. Der Plot ist hollywoodreif, die Geschichte so skandalträchtig wie bestürzend Eine Handvoll Forscher leugnet, manipuliert und diskreditiert anerkannte wissenschaftliche Tatsachen wie den Klimawandel oder den Zusammenhang zwischen dem Rauchen und gesundheitlichen Risiken. Doch Die Machiavellis der Wissenschaft (im Original Merchants of Doubt) ist kein fiktiver Roman, sondern berichtet von der Realität. In den USA sorgte das Buch von Naomi Oreskes und Erik M. Conway für Furore und wurde zum Bestseller. Kein Wunder, die Geschichte, die sie erzählen, ist schließlich unglaublich – es ist die Geschichte über den Kampf gegen Fakten und über den Handel mit dem Zweifel, über die Manipulation der Medien und die Diffamierung Einzelner. Und sie geht uns alle an. Schließlich lehnten die USA als einzige Industrienation die Ratifizierung des Kyoto–Protokolls ab und verhinderten so wichtige Schritte des Klimaschutzes. Ein Lehrstück über die Macht der Industrielobby und ihre Handlanger aus Politik und Wissenschaft und ein Lehrstück darüber, wie erschreckend einfach es möglich ist, mit unlauteren Absichten selbst seriöse Medien zu beeinflussen und mit nachweislich falschen Informationen zu »füttern«.

Competing with the Soviets

Author: Audra J. Wolfe
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 1421409011
Format: PDF, Mobi
Download Now
For most of the second half of the twentieth century, the United States and its allies competed with a hostile Soviet Union in almost every way imaginable except open military engagement. The Cold War placed two opposite conceptions of the good society before the uncommitted world and history itself, and science figured prominently in the picture. Competing with the Soviets offers a short, accessible introduction to the special role that science and technology played in maintaining state power during the Cold War, from the atomic bomb to the Human Genome Project. The high-tech machinery of nuclear physics and the space race are at the center of this story, but Audra J. Wolfe also examines the surrogate battlefield of scientific achievement in such diverse fields as urban planning, biology, and economics; explains how defense-driven federal investments created vast laboratories and research programs; and shows how unfamiliar worries about national security and corrosive questions of loyalty crept into the supposedly objective scholarly enterprise. Based on the assumption that scientists are participants in the culture in which they live, Competing with the Soviets looks beyond the debate about whether military influence distorted science in the Cold War. Scientists’ choices and opportunities have always been shaped by the ideological assumptions, political mandates, and social mores of their times. The idea that American science ever operated in a free zone outside of politics is, Wolfe argues, itself a legacy of the ideological Cold War that held up American science, and scientists, as beacons of freedom in contrast to their peers in the Soviet Union. Arranged chronologically and thematically, the book highlights how ideas about the appropriate relationships among science, scientists, and the state changed over time. -- Michael D. Gordin, Princeton University